Publications by authors named "Silvia Montoto"

139 Publications

Primary refractory follicular lymphoma: a poor outcome entity with high risk of transformation to aggressive B cell lymphoma.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 8;157:132-139. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

CHIMOMODepartment, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Background: Primary refractory (PREF) follicular lymphoma (FL) has a completely different clinical course from that of FL that responds to front-line treatments. In addition to having poor responses to salvage therapies, it seems that patients with PREF are at increased risk of histological transformation (HT). The Aristotle consortium presented the opportunity of investigating the risk of HT in a very large series of cases. Thus, we investigated the risk of HT in patients with PREF FL compared with that of responding patients or in stable disease and ultimately their outcome.

Methods: Six thousand three hundred thirty-nine patients from the Aristotle database were included in the analysis. These patients had a histologically confirmed grade 1, 2 or 3a FL diagnosed between 1997 and 2013. The primary end-points were the cumulative incidence (CI) of HT at the first progression or relapse and the survival after transformation.

Findings: The 5-year CI of HT among patients with PREF was 34% (95% confidence interval (CI): 27-43), whilst it was 7.1% (95% CI: 6.0-8.5) in the group of patients with partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) (PR + SD) and 3.5% (95% CI: 3.0-4.2) in the group of patients achieving complete response (CR). The 5-year survival after relapse (SAR) was 33% (95% CI: 28-39) for the PREF group, 57% (95% CI 54-61) in patients with PR, 51% (95% CI 43-58) in the SD group after first-line therapy and 63% (95% CI: 66-72) in patients with CR after initial treatment (p-value <0.001). The 5-year SAR for those patients with PREF who developed HT was 21% (95% CI: 12-31), clearly diminished when compared with those patients with PREF who did not experience HT (38% [95% CI: 31-44]) (p-value = 0.001).

Interpretation: Patients with PREF FL have a dismal outcome and an associated very high rate of HT that further worsens their poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.08.005DOI Listing
September 2021

Outcomes and prognostic factors in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: final report from the international T-cell Project.

Blood 2021 07;138(3):213-220

Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences with Transplant Surgery, Oncology and Regenerative Medicine Relevance (CHIMOMO), University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a unique subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) with distinct clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. We performed a subset analysis of 282 patients with AITL enrolled between 2006 and 2018 in the international prospective T-cell Project (NCT01142674). The primary and secondary end points were 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), respectively. We analyzed the prognostic impact of clinical covariates and progression of disease within 24 months (POD24) and developed a novel prognostic score. The median age was 64 years, and 90% of patients had advanced-stage disease. Eighty-one percent received anthracycline-based regimens, and 13% underwent consolidative autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in first complete remission (CR1). Five-year OS and PFS estimates were 44% and 32%, respectively, with improved outcomes for patients who underwent ASCT in CR1. In multivariate analysis, age ≥60 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status >2, elevated C-reactive protein, and elevated β2 microglobulin were associated with inferior outcomes. A novel prognostic score (AITL score) combining these factors defined low-, intermediate-, and high-risk subgroups with 5-year OS estimates of 63%, 54%, and 21%, respectively, with greater discriminant power than established prognostic indices. Finally, POD24 was a powerful prognostic factor with 5-year OS of 63% for patients without POD24 compared with only 6% for patients with POD24 (P < .0001). These data will require validation in a prospective cohort of homogeneously treated patients. Optimal treatment of AITL continues to be an unmet need, and novel therapeutic approaches are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020010387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493974PMC
July 2021

HIV-associated Burkitt lymphoma: outcomes from a US-UK collaborative analysis.

Blood Adv 2021 07;5(14):2852-2862

Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.

Data addressing prognostication in patients with HIV related Burkitt lymphoma (HIV-BL) currently treated remain scarce. We present an international analysis of 249 (United States: 140; United Kingdom: 109) patients with HIV-BL treated from 2008 to 2019 aiming to identify prognostic factors and outcomes. With a median follow up of 4.5 years, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 61% (95% confidence interval [CI] 55% to 67%) and 66% (95%CI 59% to 71%), respectively, with similar results in both countries. Patients with baseline central nervous system (CNS) involvement had shorter 3-year PFS (36%) compared to patients without CNS involvement (69%; P < .001) independent of frontline treatment. The incidence of CNS recurrence at 3 years across all treatments was 11% with a higher incidence observed after dose-adjusted infusional etoposide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, cyclophosphamide (DA-EPOCH) (subdistribution hazard ratio: 2.52; P = .03 vs other regimens) without difference by CD4 count 100/mm3. In multivariate models, factors independently associated with inferior PFS were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 2-4 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.87; P = .007), baseline CNS involvement (HR 1.70; P = .023), lactate dehydrogenase >5 upper limit of normal (HR 2.09; P < .001); and >1 extranodal sites (HR 1.58; P = .043). The same variables were significant in multivariate models for OS. Adjusting for these prognostic factors, treatment with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate, ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine (CODOX-M/IVAC) was associated with longer PFS (adjusted HR [aHR] 0.45; P = .005) and OS (aHR 0.44; P = .007). Remarkably, HIV features no longer influence prognosis in contemporaneously treated HIV-BL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341354PMC
July 2021

Improved outcome of patients with graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies over time: an EBMT mega-file study.

Haematologica 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) remains a major threat to successful outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Advances in prophylaxis and supportive care have taken place over the years. The aim of this study is to test whether incidence and mortality of aGvHD have been reduced over time. 102 557 patients with a median age of 47.6 years with malignancies after first allogeneic sibling or unrelated donor (URD) transplant were studied in the following periods: 1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015. Findings: 100-day-incidences of aGvHD grades II-IV decreased from 40%, to 38%, 32%, 29% and 28% over calendar time (p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.265769DOI Listing
June 2021

Autologous stem cell transplantation for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders after solid organ transplantation: a retrospective analysis from the Lymphoma Working Party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 09 16;56(9):2118-2124. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Lymphoma Working Party EBMT, Paris, France.

Published data describing the efficacy and safety of autologous stem-cell transplantation (autoSCT) in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) is limited to case reports. This is a retrospective analysis of 21 patients reported to the EBMT registry who received an autoSCT for PTLD post solid organ transplant (SOT). Median age at autoSCT was 47 (range: 22-71) years. The commonest SOTs were kidney (48%) and liver (24%). Commonest histologies included DLBCL-type PTLD (14/21) and plasmacytoma-like PTLD (3/21). Patients received a median of two lines of therapy (range: 1-4) pre-autoSCT. ECOG performance status pre-autoSCT was 0 in 14% and 1 in 86%. Remission status pre-autoSCT was CR 47% and PR 38%. BEAM conditioning was used in 57% and high-dose melphalan in 10%. The median follow-up post-autoSCT was 64 months for alive patients. 3-year PFS was 62% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44-87%] and 3-year OS was 61% [95% CI:43-86]. There were 12 deaths, including four related to autoSCT. 100-day non-relapse-mortality (NRM) was 14% and 1-year NRM was 24%. This study suggests that autoSCT, although feasible and with potential therapeutic activity, is associated with a high NRM, primarily driven by infectious toxicity. A multi-disciplinary approach, expert microbiological input and stringent patient selection are required to optimise outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01270-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8410594PMC
September 2021

Development and validation of a disease risk stratification system for patients with haematological malignancies: a retrospective cohort study of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Mar;8(3):e205-e215

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Background: Diagnosis and remission status at the time of allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) are the principal determinants of overall survival following transplantation. We sought to develop a contemporary disease-risk stratification system (DRSS) that accounts for heterogeneous transplantation indications.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we included 55 histology and remission status combinations across haematological malignancies, including acute leukaemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorders. A total of 47 265 adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who received an allogeneic HSCT between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2016, and were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry were included. We divided EBMT patients into derivation (n=25 534), tuning (n=18 365), and geographical validation (n=3366) cohorts. Disease combinations were ranked in a multivariable Cox regression for overall survival in the derivation cohort, cutoff for risk groups were evaluated for the tuning cohort, and the selected system was tested on the geographical validation cohort. An independent single-centre US cohort of 660 patients transplanted between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2015 was used to externally validate the results.

Findings: The DRSS model stratified patients in the derivation cohort (median follow-up was 2·1 years [IQR 1·0-3·2]) into five risk groups with increasing mortality risk: low risk (reference group), intermediate-1 (hazard ratio for overall survival 1·26 [95% CI 1·17-1·36], p<0·0001), intermediate-2 (1·53 [1·42-1·66], p<0·0001), high (2·03 [1·86-2·22], p<0·0001), and very high (2·87 [2·63-3·13], p<0·0001). DRSS levels were also associated with a stepwise increase in risk across the tuning and geographical validation cohort. In the external validation cohort (median follow-up was 5·7 years [IQR 4·5-7·1]), the DRSS scheme separated patients into 4 risk groups associated with increasing risk of mortality: intermediate-2 risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1·34 [95% CI 1·04-1·74], p=0·025), high risk (HR 2·03 [95% CI 1·39-2·95], p=0·00023) and very-high risk (HR 2·26 [95% CI 1·62-3·15], p<0·0001) patients compared with the low risk and intermediate-1 risk group (reference group). Across all cohorts, between 64% and 65% of patients were categorised as having intermediate-risk disease by a previous prognostic system (ie, the disease-risk index [DRI]). The DRSS reclassified these intermediate-risk DRI patients, with 855 (6%) low risk, 7111 (51%) intermediate-1 risk, 5700 (41%) intermediate-2 risk, and 375 (3%) high risk or very high risk of 14 041 patients in a subanalysis combining the tuning and internal geographic validation cohorts. The DRI projected 2-year overall survival was 62·1% (95% CI 61·2-62·9) for these 14 041 patients, while the DRSS reclassified them into finer prognostic groups with overall survival ranging from 45·7% (37·4-54·0; very high risk patients) to 73·1% (70·1-76·2; low risk patients).

Interpretation: The DRSS is a novel risk stratification tool including disease features related to histology, genetic profile, and treatment response. The model should serve as a benchmark for future studies. This system facilitates the interpretation and analysis of studies with heterogeneous cohorts, promoting trial-design with more inclusive populations.

Funding: The Varda and Boaz Dotan Research Center for Hemato-Oncology Research, Tel Aviv University.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30394-XDOI Listing
March 2021

Burkitt Lymphoma International Prognostic Index.

J Clin Oncol 2021 04 27;39(10):1129-1138. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Haemato-oncology, St Bartholomew's Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) has unique biology and clinical course but lacks a standardized prognostic model. We developed and validated a novel prognostic index specific for BL to aid risk stratification, interpretation of clinical trials, and targeted development of novel treatment approaches.

Methods: We derived the BL International Prognostic Index (BL-IPI) from a real-world data set of adult patients with BL treated with immunochemotherapy in the United States between 2009 and 2018, identifying candidate variables that showed the strongest prognostic association with progression-free survival (PFS). The index was validated in an external data set of patients treated in Europe, Canada, and Australia between 2004 and 2019.

Results: In the derivation cohort of 633 patients with BL, age ≥ 40 years, performance status ≥ 2, serum lactate dehydrogenase > 3× upper limit of normal, and CNS involvement were selected as equally weighted factors with an independent prognostic value. The resulting BL-IPI identified groups with low (zero risk factors, 18% of patients), intermediate (one factor, 36% of patients), and high risk (≥ 2 factors, 46% of patients) with 3-year PFS estimates of 92%, 72%, and 53%, respectively, and 3-year overall survival estimates of 96%, 76%, and 59%, respectively. The index discriminated outcomes regardless of HIV status, stage, or first-line chemotherapy regimen. Patient characteristics, relative size of the BL-IPI groupings, and outcome discrimination were consistent in the validation cohort of 457 patients, with 3-year PFS estimates of 96%, 82%, and 63% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk BL-IPI, respectively.

Conclusion: The BL-IPI provides robust discrimination of survival in adult BL, suitable for use as prognostication and stratification in trials. The high-risk group has suboptimal outcomes with standard therapy and should be considered for innovative treatment approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03288DOI Listing
April 2021

How much has allogeneic stem cell transplant-related mortality improved since the 1980s? A retrospective analysis from the EBMT.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(24):6283-6290

European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Transplant Complications Working Party, Paris, France.

We performed a study to find out how advances in modern medicine have improved the mortality risk of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We analyzed major transplantation outcome parameters in adult patients on the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry who had hematologic malignancies and had received transplants from matched sibling donors. We performed multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional-hazards model including known risk factors for nonrelapse mortality and a matched-pairs analysis. We identified 38 800 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Considerable changes in patient characteristics have occurred in the past decades, such as older age, different underlying diseases, and a higher proportion of patients with advanced disease. Major reasons for transplantation-related death in the 1980s were infectious complications and graft-versus-host disease. Nonrelapse mortality, measured at 1 year after transplantation, has decreased over time: 29.7% from 1980 through 1989, 24.4% from 1990 through 1999, 14.8% from 2000 through 2009, and 12.2% from 2010 through 2016. On multivariate analysis, the year of transplantation was associated with reduced nonrelapse mortality (P < .0001; hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)], 0.8 [0.79-0.82], for 5-year intervals) and decreased overall mortality (P < .0001; HR [95% CI], 0.87 [0.86-0.88]. In the matched-pairs analysis of 3718 patients in each group, nonrelapse mortality at 1 year was 24.4% in the 1990s and 9.5% from 2013 through 2016 (P < .0001; HR [95% CI], 0.39 [0.34-0.43]). Transplantation-related mortality has decreased significantly in the past 40 years. These favorable data facilitate evidence-based treatment decisions on transplantation indications in the context of the availability of novel immunotherapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756984PMC
December 2020

'CARMEN': is less, more? Lessons from trials in human immunodeficiency virus-Burkitt lymphoma (HIV-BL).

Br J Haematol 2021 01 22;192(1):13-14. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Haematology, St Bartholomew's and The Royal London NHS Trust, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17187DOI Listing
January 2021

Tandem autologous-reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation in high-risk relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma: a retrospective study of the Lymphoma Working Party-EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 03 12;56(3):655-663. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Institut Català d'Oncologia (ICO)-Hospitalet, IDIBELL, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is curative for a proportion of patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, there is a small group of patients with high-risk of relapse after ASCT that might benefit from other approaches. We conducted a retrospective analysis on 126 patients treated with tandem ASCT-reduced intensity conditioning (RIC)-allogeneic-SCT and reported to the EBMT registry to analyze the efficacy and safety of this approach. Patients were included if they had received an ASCT followed by a planned RIC-SCT in <6 months without relapse between the procedures. The median time between diagnosis and ASCT was 16 months (2-174). The median number of lines prior to ASCT was two (33% of the patients received >3 lines). Forty-one percent were transplanted with active disease. The median follow-up was 44 months (6-130). Three-year-progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), incidence of relapse (IR), and non-relapse mortality (NRM) after the tandem were 53% (45-64), 73% (65-81), 34% (24-42), and 13% (8-21), respectively. This is the largest series analyzing the efficacy and safety of a tandem approach in R/R HL. The low NRM and IR with promising PFS and OS suggest that this might be an effective procedure for a high-risk population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01075-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Treatment management of haematological malignancies in people living with HIV.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Sep 10;7(9):e679-e689. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Haemato-Oncology, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK.

Although the incidence of HIV-associated lymphomas decreased after the introduction of effective combination antiretroviral therapy, they became the most common AIDS-related cancer in high-income countries. Moreover, as people living with HIV live longer, a wide range of non-AIDS-related cancer has emerged, including other haematological malignancies. Nonetheless, combination antiretroviral therapy has offered people with HIV the opportunity to receive the same therapies as those provided to the general population, and intensive curative therapies have become the standard. However, several population-based studies highlight a major health-care disparity between people with HIV and those without, with people who are HIV positive often excluded from using innovative therapies and participating in prospective trials. In addition, patients from low-income countries frequently receive inappropriate treatment. The hope is that with increased awareness of effective curative options these disparities will decrease, and people with HIV will be given the same therapeutic opportunities and enrolled in clinical trials alongside patients who are HIV negative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30115-0DOI Listing
September 2020

Second autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma after a previous autograft: a study of the lymphoma working party of the EBMT.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 12 11;61(12):2915-2922. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Haematology, Institut Catala d'Oncologia, Hospital Duran I Reynals, Barcelona, Spain.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of second autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT2) for patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) after a first transplantation (ASCT1). Outcomes for 56 patients receiving an ASCT2 registered in the EBMT database were analyzed. The 4-year cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality and disease relapse/progression were 5% and 67%, respectively. The 4-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 62% and 28%. In univariate analysis, relapse of HL within 12 months of ASCT1 was associated with a worse OS (35% versus 76%,  = 0.01) and PFS (19% versus 29%,  = 0.059). Chemosensitivity at ASCT2 predicted better outcomes (4-year OS 72% versus 29%,  = 0.002; PFS 31% versus 12%,  = 0.015). This series shows that ASCT2 is a safe procedure and a relatively effective option for patients with late relapses after ASCT1 and with chemosensitive disease who are not eligible for an allogeneic transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1789624DOI Listing
December 2020

Cellular Therapy in Follicular Lymphoma: Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation, Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, and Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Therapy.

Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2020 08 16;34(4):701-714. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Haemato-Oncology, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK. Electronic address:

A subset of follicular lymphoma patients with high-risk clinical features continues to pose a therapeutic challenge. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a suitable consolidative treatment option for these patients. Data on chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy are promising in relapsed/refractory and transformed patients. The increasing armamentarium of nontransplant options coupled with the associated potential long-term sequelae of transplantation raises questions about the placement of transplant strategies in the follicular lymphoma treatment hierarchy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hoc.2020.02.006DOI Listing
August 2020

The investigation and management of follicular lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2020 11 24;191(3):363-381. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Haematology, Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16872DOI Listing
November 2020

Changes in patients population and characteristics of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: an analysis of the Lymphoma Working Party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 11 15;55(11):2170-2179. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Haemato-Oncology, St Bartholomew's Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK.

Indications for autologous (auto-HCT) and allogeneic transplantation (allo-HCT) in relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (rrHL) have been long established. The expectation is that long-term outcomes have significantly improved over time with increased experience in these procedures. The objective of this study was to assess whether this is the case and to identify further areas of improvement. A total of 13,639 adult patients receiving an auto-HCT or allo-HCT for rrHL were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) over a 25-year period. Regarding auto-HCT, recipients are younger, interval between diagnosis and transplant shorter, peripheral blood has become the universal stem cell source and the use of total body irradiation is almost non-existent in recent years. Allo-HCT is currently mostly used as a second transplant; recipients are younger, fitter and less frequently, chemorefractory. Reduced intensity conditioning protocols have vastly replaced myeloablative protocols. Increasing numbers of haplo-HCT have been reported. Both in auto-HCT and allo-HCT, NRM, PFS and OS have significantly improved but relapse remains the main cause of treatment failure. A better selection of patients and improvements in the supportive care has resulted in a reduction in the NRM. Relapse after HCT remains unchanged and further research is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0929-yDOI Listing
November 2020

The challenge of COVID-19 and hematopoietic cell transplantation; EBMT recommendations for management of hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, their donors, and patients undergoing CAR T-cell therapy.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 11 13;55(11):2071-2076. Epub 2020 May 13.

Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread over the world causing the disease by WHO called COVID-19. This pandemic poses unprecedented stress on the health care system including programs performing allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and cellular therapy such as with CAR T cells. Risk factors for severe disease include age and predisposing conditions such as cancer. The true impact on stem cell transplant and CAR T-cell recipients in unknown. The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) has therefore developed recommendations for transplant programs and physicians caring for these patients. These guidelines were developed by experts from the Infectious Diseases Working Party and have been endorsed by EBMT's scientific council and board. This work intends to provide guidelines for transplant centers, management of transplant candidates and recipients, and donor issues until the COVID-19 pandemic has passed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0919-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220575PMC
November 2020

Survival outcomes of patients with extranodal natural-killer T-cell lymphoma: a prospective cohort study from the international T-cell Project.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Apr 24;7(4):e284-e294. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Extranodal natural killer (NK) T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is a unique clinicopathological entity, typically associated with poor survival outcomes. Most published data have come from east Asian study groups, with little information available from international cohorts. The effects of treatment advances on routine clinical practice across continental territories has not been clear. We aimed to improve understanding of the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with ENKTL.

Methods: We did a substudy of patients with ENKTL from the T-cell Project, a global prospective cohort study. The T-cell Project registered consecutively diagnosed adults (>18 years) with newly diagnosed, untreated mature T-cell or NK lymphomas (WHO 2001 or 2008 classifications) from 74 centres in 13 countries (in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America). In total, 1695 patients with mature T-cell or NK lymphomas were enrolled between Oct 12, 2006 and Feb 28, 2018 in the T-cell Project. The first patient with ENKTL was enrolled on Feb 15, 2007, and the last on May 26, 2017. Data on baseline characteristics, first-line treatment, treatment response, and survival outcomes were recorded in a central database (locked March 30, 2019). The primary outcome was 5-year overall survival. The T-cell Project is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01142674.

Findings: 166 patients were diagnosed with ENKTL, comprising 11% of 1553 eligible registered cases and distributed across 40 participating centres in four continents. At a median follow-up of 44 months (IQR 20-61), overall survival at 5 years was 54% (95% CI 44-63) in patients with nasal disease (n=98) and 34% (27-46) in patients with extranasal disease (n=68).

Interpretation: To our knowledge, this study presents the largest international cohort of patients with ENKTL. We describe a clinically significant improvement in the survival of patients with ENKTL treated in routine clinical practice over the past decade, likely to be attributable to the increasing use of treatment protocols specific for ENKTL.

Funding: The Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Modena, the Associazione Angela Serra per la Ricerca sul Cancro, the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi, Allos Therapeutics, Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro, and the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30283-2DOI Listing
April 2020

The EBMT activity survey on hematopoietic-cell transplantation and cellular therapy 2018: CAR-T's come into focus.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 08 17;55(8):1604-1613. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Hematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) is widely used for acquired and congenital disorders of the hematopoietic system. Number of transplants performed in Europe and associated countries continues to rise with 47,468 HCT in 42,901 patients [19,630 allogeneic (41%) and 27,838 autologous (59%)] reported by 701 centers in 50 countries in 2018. Main indications were myeloid malignancies 10,679 (25%; 97% allogeneic), lymphoid malignancies 27,318 (64%; 20% allogeneic), solid tumors 1625 (4%; 2.9% allogeneic), and nonmalignant disorders 3063 (7%; 81% allogeneic). This year's analysis focuses on cellular therapies with the marked growth in CAR T-cell therapies from 151 in 2017 to 301 patients reported in 2018. Other cellular therapy numbers show less significant changes. Important trends in HCT include a 49% increase in allogeneic HCT for chronic phase CML (although transplant numbers remain low) and a 24% increase in aplastic anemia. In autologous HCT, there is an ongoing increase in autoimmune diseases (by 19%), predominantly due to activity in multiple sclerosis. This annual report reflects current activity and highlights important trends, useful for health care planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0826-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391287PMC
August 2020

Nonmyeloablative Alternative Donor Transplantation for Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: From the LWP-EBMT, Eurocord, and CIBMTR.

J Clin Oncol 2020 05 7;38(14):1518-1526. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of patients with Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma undergoing nonmyeloablative haploidentical or unrelated cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively studied 740 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 283, 38%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 457, 62%) age 18-75 years who received transplantations from 2009 to 2016. Data were reported to the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Eurocord, or Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. Of the 526 patients who received haploidentical transplantation, 68% received bone marrow and 32% received peripheral blood. All patients received a uniform transplantation conditioning regimen (2 Gy of total-body irradiation, cyclophosphamide, and fludarabine) and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis (calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate). In addition, patients who received a haploidentical transplantation received posttransplantation cyclophosphamide.

Results: Compared with haploidentical bone marrow and peripheral-blood transplantations and adjusted for age, lymphoma subtype, and disease status, survival was lower after UCB transplantation (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; = .001; and HR, 1.59; = .005, respectively). Similarly, progression-free survival was lower after UCB transplantations compared with haploidentical bone marrow and peripheral-blood transplantations (HR, 1.44; = .002; and HR, 1.86; < .0001), respectively. The 4-year overall and progression-free survival rates after UCB transplantation were 49% and 36%, respectively, compared with 58% and 46% after haploidentical bone marrow transplantation and 59% and 52% after peripheral-blood transplantation, respectively. Lower survival was attributed to higher transplantation-related mortality after UCB transplantation compared with haploidentical bone marrow and peripheral-blood transplantation (HR, 1.91; = .0001; and HR, 2.27; = .0002, respectively).

Conclusion: When considering HLA-mismatched transplantation for Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the data support haploidentical related donor transplantation over UCB transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.02408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7213591PMC
May 2020

Cellular Immunotherapy for Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma in the Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered T Cell Era: Still a Role for Allogeneic Transplantation?

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 04 7;26(4):e77-e85. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

CIBMTR, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T (CART) cells are a promising new treatment option for patients with multiply relapsed and refractory (R/R) diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Because of the favorable outcome data reported for CART cells, uncertainty is emerging if there is still a role for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in the treatment of R/R DLBCL. This article provides an overview of available evidence and theoretical considerations to put these 2 types of cellular immunotherapy (CI) into perspective. Altogether, current data suggest that CART cells are preferred now over transplantation as first-choice CI in many clinical situations. However, the majority of patients will fail CART therapy, resulting in an unmet medical need where allo-HCT could be beneficial. In contrast, employing allo-HCT instead of CART cells as first CI should be presently restricted to situations where CART cell therapy is deemed not feasible or useful, such as patients with refractory cytopenia or incipient myelodysplastic syndrome. However, allo-HCT remains a standard treatment option as first CI for patients with chemosensitive R/R DLBCL when CARTs are not available or transplantation is preferred by the patient. Continuous collection and analysis of CI outcome data by professional registries appear to be of key importance for developing rational strategies of CI allocation and sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.12.771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7207150PMC
April 2020

Incidence and outcomes of rare T cell lymphomas from the T Cell Project: hepatosplenic, enteropathy associated and peripheral gamma delta T cell lymphomas.

Am J Hematol 2020 02 25;95(2):151-155. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

CHIMOMO Department University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

The T Cell Project was the largest prospective trial to explore the incidence, treatment patterns, and outcomes for T cell lymphomas. The rare subtypes of T cell lymphomas, including hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma (HSTCL), enteropathy associated T cell lymphoma (EATL), and peripheral gamma delta T cell lymphomas (PGDTCLs) are poorly represented in most studies and there is little data regarding treatment patterns. We report results from 115 patients with hepatosplenic (n = 31), enteropathy associated (n = 65), and PGDTCLs (n = 19). While anthracycline regimens were most commonly used as first line therapy, response rates ranged from 20%-40% and were suboptimal for all groups. Autologous stem cell transplantation was performed as a consolidation in first remission in a small number of patients (33% of HSTCL, 7% of EATL, and 12% of PGDTCL), and four patients with HSTCL underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation in first remission. The progression free survival at 3 years ranged from 28%-40% for these rare subtypes, and the overall survival at 3 years was most favorable for PGDTCL (70%). These data highlight the need for novel treatment approaches for rare subtypes of T cell lymphomas and for their inclusion in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025136PMC
February 2020

Ibrutinib as a salvage therapy after allogeneic HCT for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 05 7;55(5):884-890. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Hematology, University Hospital Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

The purpose of our study is to provide information on safety and efficacy of ibrutinib as salvage treatment after allo-HSCT for CLL. A total of 56 patients were included, 36 (64%) males; median age at transplantation was 48 years (range: 35-64) and the median number of treatment lines prior to transplantation was 3 (1-10). The median time between allo-HSCT and Ibrutinib was 30 months (range: 1-140). Overall, 40 (71%) patients responded to Ibrutinib; 23 (41%) PR, and 17 (30%) CR. At time of ibrutinib initiation, ten patients had active chronic GVHD that resolved under Ibrutinib, whilst a single patient developed limited de novo chronic GVHD on Ibrutinib. Fourteen patients discontinued ibrutinib, four because of toxicity and ten because of disease progression. Overall, 14 patients progressed (median PFS = 24 months) among them 10 died. Two-year OS and PFS probabilities were 72% (95% CI: 52-84) and 50% (95% CI: 32-66), respectively. Patients with late relapse after allo-HSCT (≥24 months) had a better PFS after ibrutinib. Our study shows that ibrutinib can be safely administered for CLL relapse after allo-HSCT, with comparable efficacy to non-transplanted patients with high-risk disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0742-7DOI Listing
May 2020

Analysis of data collected in the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Registry on a cohort of lymphoma patients receiving plerixafor.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 03 30;55(3):613-622. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Plerixafor + granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is administered to patients with lymphoma who are poor mobilizers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in Europe. This international, multicenter, non-interventional registry study (NCT01362972) evaluated long-term follow-up of patients with lymphoma who received plerixafor for HSC mobilization versus other mobilization methods. Propensity score matching was conducted to balance baseline characteristics between comparison groups. The following mobilization regimens were compared: G-CSF + plerixafor (G + P) versus G-CSF alone; G + P versus G-CSF + chemotherapy (G + C); and G-CSF + plerixafor + chemotherapy (G + P + C) versus G + C. The primary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR). Overall, 313/3749 (8.3%) eligible patients were mobilized with plerixafor-containing regimens. After propensity score matching, 70 versus 36 patients were matched in the G + P versus G-CSF alone cohort, 124 versus 124 in the G + P versus G + C cohort, and 130 versus 130 in the G + P + C versus G + C cohort. For both PFS and OS, the upper bound of confidence interval for the hazard ratio was >1.3 for all comparisons, implying that non-inferiority was not demonstrated. No major differences in PFS, OS, and CIR were observed between the plerixafor and comparison groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0693-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7051902PMC
March 2020

Influence of donor type, stem cell source and conditioning on outcomes after haploidentical transplant for lymphoma - a LWP-EBMT study.

Br J Haematol 2020 03 9;188(5):745-756. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

ICO - Hospital Duran i Reynals, Barcelona, Spain.

Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haploSCT) is becoming a major transplant modality for lymphoma. To assess the effects of donor characteristics, stem cell source and conditioning on outcomes, we identified 474 adults with Hodgkin (HL; 240), peripheral T-cell (PTCL; 88), diffuse large B-cell (77), mantle cell (40) or follicular lymphoma (FL; 29), who received haploSCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide. Median follow-up of alive patients was 32 months. On multivariate analysis, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade 2-4 was lower with offspring donors or bone marrow cells, whereas extensive chronic GVHD was higher in partial response at haploSCT or when using sisters, haploidentical donors beyond first degree, or female donors in male patients. Progression-free survival (PFS) was better for FL, HL and PTCL, whereas overall survival (OS) was better for HL and PTCL. Complete remission at haploSCT improved PFS and OS whereas these were negatively affected by cytomegalovirus donor positive/recipient positive status. No other donor characteristics (age, gender, human leucocyte antigen mismatch, ABO incompatibility) affected PFS or OS except use of haploidentical donors beyond first degree, which negatively affected OS. PFS and OS are mostly influenced by disease status and lymphoma subtype, supporting the use of any first degree haploidentical family member as a donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16182DOI Listing
March 2020

Outcomes of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA-matched and alternative donors: a European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry retrospective analysis.

Lancet Haematol 2019 Nov 30;6(11):e573-e584. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: The introduction of donors other than HLA-matched siblings has been a pivotal change in stem cell transplantation. We aimed to assess the evolution of outcomes within donor groups over time and explore whether donor-recipient HLA disparity might be advantageous in patients with aggressive disease.

Methods: In this retrospective, multicentre study, we assessed the outcomes for adult patients (≥18 years) with haematological malignancies who underwent their first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between Jan 3, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, and were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The donor types studied were matched sibling, matched unrelated, mismatched unrelated, haploidentical, and cord blood donors. Unrelated non-cord-blood donors and recipients were typed at the allelic level for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1. We evaluated trends in overall survival, non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, progression-free survival, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and GVHD-free and relapse-free survival following transplantation from various donor types (matched sibling, matched unrelated, mismatched unrelated, haploidentical, and umbilical cord blood), and compared transplantation outcomes across three epochs (epoch 1: 2001-05; epoch 2: 2006-10; and epoch 3: 2011-15). We used Kaplan-Meier estimators for survival probabilities and cumulative incidence functions accounting for competing risks for probabilities of GHVD, relapse, and non-relapse mortality, using multiple imputations by chained equations to deal with missing data. In epoch 3, we directly compared outcomes by donor group, stratified by a novel three-level disease-risk scheme.

Findings: We included 106 188 patients in our analysis. The median follow-up was 4·1 years (IQR 1·7-7·7). Overall survival at 3 years increased with all donor groups between epochs 2 and 3 (matched sibling: 54·0% [95% CI 53·1-54·8] to 54·6% [53·6-55·6]; matched unrelated: 49·1% [48·0-50·2] to 51·6% [50·7-52·6]; mismatched unrelated: 37·4% [35·7-39·2] to 41·3% [39·5-43·1]; haploidentical: 34·5% [31·4-37·9] to 44·2% [42·1-46·3]; and cord blood 36·3% [33·9-39] to 43·7% [40·8-46·8]). Improvement in overall survival seems to be driven by a reduction in non-relapse mortality, except in cord blood HSCT recipients, who had a lower relapse incidence. Comparing donor groups across disease-risk strata using the novel disease-risk scheme, overall survival among recipients of matched sibling transplantations remained better than other donor groups except in high-risk disease, where overall survival with matched unrelated transplantations was not different.

Interpretation: Overall survival following allogeneic stem cell transplantation is improving with substantial progress among recipients of haploidentical and cord blood HSCT. Nonetheless, the traditional donor hierarchy of matched sibling donors followed by matched unrelated donors and then other donors holds. Our findings warrant further investigation and could inform decision making and the development of donor-selection algorithms.

Funding: The Varda and Boaz Dotan Research Center in Haemato-Oncology, Tel Aviv University, and the Shalvi Foundation for Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30158-9DOI Listing
November 2019
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