Publications by authors named "Silvia Loureiro"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Aberrant glycosylation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG is a prothrombotic stimulus for platelets.

Blood 2021 10;138(16):1481-1489

Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, and.

A subset of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) become critically ill, suffering from severe respiratory problems and also increased rates of thrombosis. The causes of thrombosis in severely ill patients with COVID-19 are still emerging, but the coincidence of critical illness with the timing of the onset of adaptive immunity could implicate an excessive immune response. We hypothesized that platelets might be susceptible to activation by anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (anti-SARS-CoV-2) antibodies and might contribute to thrombosis. We found that immune complexes containing recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and anti-spike immunoglobulin G enhanced platelet-mediated thrombosis on von Willebrand factor in vitro, but only when the glycosylation state of the Fc domain was modified to correspond with the aberrant glycosylation previously identified in patients with severe COVID-19. Furthermore, we found that activation was dependent on FcγRIIA, and we provide in vitro evidence that this pathogenic platelet activation can be counteracted by the therapeutic small molecules R406 (fostamatinib) and ibrutinib, which inhibit tyrosine kinases Syk and Btk, respectively, or by the P2Y12 antagonist cangrelor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8321687PMC
October 2021

Structure-based energetics of protein interfaces guides foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine design.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2015 Oct 21;22(10):788-94. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Division of Structural Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Virus capsids are primed for disassembly, yet capsid integrity is key to generating a protective immune response. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids comprise identical pentameric protein subunits held together by tenuous noncovalent interactions and are often unstable. Chemically inactivated or recombinant empty capsids, which could form the basis of future vaccines, are even less stable than live virus. Here we devised a computational method to assess the relative stability of protein-protein interfaces and used it to design improved candidate vaccines for two poorly stable, but globally important, serotypes of FMDV: O and SAT2. We used a restrained molecular dynamics strategy to rank mutations predicted to strengthen the pentamer interfaces and applied the results to produce stabilized capsids. Structural analyses and stability assays confirmed the predictions, and vaccinated animals generated improved neutralizing-antibody responses to stabilized particles compared to parental viruses and wild-type capsids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.3096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5985953PMC
October 2015

Rational engineering of recombinant picornavirus capsids to produce safe, protective vaccine antigen.

PLoS Pathog 2013 Mar 27;9(3):e1003255. Epub 2013 Mar 27.

The Pirbright Insitute, Pirbright, Woking, United Kingdom.

Foot-and-mouth disease remains a major plague of livestock and outbreaks are often economically catastrophic. Current inactivated virus vaccines require expensive high containment facilities for their production and maintenance of a cold-chain for their activity. We have addressed both of these major drawbacks. Firstly we have developed methods to efficiently express recombinant empty capsids. Expression constructs aimed at lowering the levels and activity of the viral protease required for the cleavage of the capsid protein precursor were used; this enabled the synthesis of empty A-serotype capsids in eukaryotic cells at levels potentially attractive to industry using both vaccinia virus and baculovirus driven expression. Secondly we have enhanced capsid stability by incorporating a rationally designed mutation, and shown by X-ray crystallography that stabilised and wild-type empty capsids have essentially the same structure as intact virus. Cattle vaccinated with recombinant capsids showed sustained virus neutralisation titres and protection from challenge 34 weeks after immunization. This approach to vaccine antigen production has several potential advantages over current technologies by reducing production costs, eliminating the risk of infectivity and enhancing the temperature stability of the product. Similar strategies that will optimize host cell viability during expression of a foreign toxic gene and/or improve capsid stability could allow the production of safe vaccines for other pathogenic picornaviruses of humans and animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3609824PMC
March 2013

Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity.

J Virol Methods 2013 Feb 19;187(2):406-12. Epub 2012 Nov 19.

Institute for Animal Health, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking GU24 0NF, UK.

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from the processed virus structural proteins, VP0, VP3 and VP1, which are released from the structural protein precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown to be efficient but linkage of the cognate 3C protease to the C-terminus reduces expression significantly. Inactivation of the 3C enzyme in a P1-2A-3C cassette allows expression and intermediate levels of 3C activity resulted in efficient processing of the P1-2A precursor into the structural proteins which assembled into empty capsids. Expression was independent of the insect host cell background and leads to capsids that are recognised as authentic by a range of anti-FMDV bovine sera suggesting their feasibility as an alternate vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2012.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3558679PMC
February 2013

Adjuvant-free immunization with hemagglutinin-Fc fusion proteins as an approach to influenza vaccines.

J Virol 2011 Mar 29;85(6):3010-4. Epub 2010 Dec 29.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AJ, United Kingdom.

The hemagglutinins (HAs) of human H1 and H3 influenza viruses and avian H5 influenza virus were produced as recombinant fusion proteins with the human immunoglobulin Fc domain. Recombinant HA-human immunoglobulin Fc domain (HA-HuFc) proteins were secreted from baculovirus-infected insect cells as glycosylated oligomer HAs of the anticipated molecular mass, agglutinated red blood cells, were purified on protein A, and were used to immunize mice in the absence of adjuvant. Immunogenicity was demonstrated for all subtypes, with the serum samples demonstrating subtype-specific hemagglutination inhibition, epitope specificity similar to that seen with virus infection, and neutralization. HuFc-tagged HAs are potential candidates for gene-to-vaccine approaches to influenza vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01241-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3067967PMC
March 2011

Receptor binding profiles of avian influenza virus hemagglutinin subtypes on human cells as a predictor of pandemic potential.

J Virol 2011 Feb 24;85(4):1875-80. Epub 2010 Nov 24.

Section of Virology, St Mary’s Campus, Imperial College, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.

The host adaptation of influenza virus is partly dependent on the sialic acid (SA) isoform bound by the viral hemagglutinin (HA). Avian influenza viruses preferentially bind the α-2,3 SA and human influenza viruses the α-2,6 isoform. Each isoform is predominantly associated with different surface epithelial cell types of the human upper airway. Using recombinant HAs and human tracheal airway epithelial cells in vitro and ex vivo, we show that many avian HA subtypes do not adhere to this canonical view of SA specificity. The propensity of avian viruses to adapt to human receptors may thus be more widespread than previously supposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01822-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3028872PMC
February 2011

The postfusion structure of baculovirus gp64 supports a unified view of viral fusion machines.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2008 Oct 7;15(10):1024-30. Epub 2008 Sep 7.

Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK.

Viral fusion proteins mediate the merger of host and viral membranes during cell entry for all enveloped viruses. Baculovirus glycoprotein gp64 (gp64) is unusual in promoting entry into both insect and mammalian cells and is distinct from established class I and class II fusion proteins. We report the crystal structure of its postfusion form, which explains a number of gp64's biological properties including its cellular promiscuity, identifies the fusion peptides and shows it to be the third representative of a new class (III) of fusion proteins with unexpected structural homology with vesicular stomatitis virus G and herpes simplex virus type 1 gB proteins. We show that domains of class III proteins have counterparts in both class I and II proteins, suggesting that all these viral fusion machines are structurally more related than previously thought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.1484DOI Listing
October 2008

Contribution of redox status to hepatitis C virus E2 envelope protein function and antigenicity.

J Biol Chem 2008 Sep 30;283(39):26340-8. Epub 2008 Jul 30.

UMR 6184, CNRS, Université Aix-Marseille II, F-13015, France.

Disulfide bonding contributes to the function and antigenicity of many viral envelope glycoproteins. We assessed here its significance for the hepatitis C virus E2 envelope protein and a counterpart deleted for hypervariable region-1 (HVR1). All 18 cysteine residues of the antigens were involved in disulfides. Chemical reduction of up to half of these disulfides was compatible with anti-E2 monoclonal antibody reaction, CD81 receptor binding, and viral entry, whereas complete reduction abrogated these properties. The addition of 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid had no effect on viral entry. Thus, E2 function is only weakly dependent on its redox status, and cell entry does not require redox catalysts, in contrast to a number of enveloped viruses. Because E2 is a major neutralizing antibody target, we examined the effect of disulfide bonding on E2 antigenicity. We show that reduction of three disulfides, as well as deletion of HVR1, improved antibody binding for half of the patient sera tested, whereas it had no effect on the remainder. Small scale immunization of mice with reduced E2 antigens greatly improved serum reactivity with reduced forms of E2 when compared with immunization using native E2, whereas deletion of HVR1 only marginally affected the ability of the serum to bind the redox intermediates. Immunization with reduced E2 also showed an improved neutralizing antibody response, suggesting that potential epitopes are masked on the disulfide-bonded antigen and that mild reduction may increase the breadth of the antibody response. Although E2 function is surprisingly independent of its redox status, its disulfide bonds mask antigenic domains. E2 redox manipulation may contribute to improved vaccine design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M805221200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3258924PMC
September 2008
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