Publications by authors named "Silvia Giuliodori"

3 Publications

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Immune tolerance induction by nonmyeloablative haploidentical HSCT combining T-cell depletion and posttransplant cyclophosphamide.

Blood Adv 2017 Nov 30;1(24):2166-2175. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

The establishment of safe approaches to attain durable donor-type chimerism and immune tolerance toward donor antigens represents a major challenge in transplantation biology. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently used for cancer therapy either as a T-cell-depleted megadose HSCT following myeloablative conditioning or with T-cell-replete HSCT following nonmyeloablative conditioning (NMAC) and high-dose posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY). The latter approach suffers from a significant rate of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), despite prolonged immunosuppression. The use of T-depleted grafts, although free of GVHD risk, is not effective after NMAC because of graft rejection. We now demonstrate in mice conditioned with NMAC that combining the power of high-dose PTCY with T-cell-depleted megadose HSCT can overcome this barrier. This approach was evaluated in 2 patients with multiple myeloma and 1 patient with Hodgkin lymphoma. The first myeloma patient now followed for 25 months, exhibited full donor-type chimerism in the myeloid and B-cell lineages and mixed chimerism in the T-cell compartment. The second myeloma patient failed to attain chimerism. Notably, the low toxicity of this protocol enabled a subsequent successful fully myeloablative haploidentical HSCT in this patient. The third patients was conditioned with slightly higher total body irradiation and engrafted promptly. All patients remain in remission without GVHD. Both engrafted patients were able to control cytomegalovirus reactivation. Enzyme-linked immunospot analysis revealed immune tolerance toward donor cells. Our results demonstrate a novel and safer nonmyeloablative haplo-HSCT offering a platform for immune tolerance induction as a prelude to cell therapy and organ transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2017009423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5737124PMC
November 2017

A composite upstream sequence motif potentiates tRNA gene transcription in yeast.

J Mol Biol 2003 Oct;333(1):1-20

Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 23/A, 43100 Parma, Italy.

Transcription of eukaryotic tRNA genes relies on the TFIIIC-dependent recruitment of TFIIIB on a approximately 50 bp region upstream of the transcription start site (TSS). TFIIIC specifically interacts with highly conserved, intragenic promoter elements, while the contacts between TFIIIB and the upstream DNA have long been considered as largely non-specific. Through a computer search procedure designed to detect shared, yet degenerate sequence features, we have identified a conserved sequence pattern upstream of Saccharomyces cerevisiae tDNAs. This pattern consists of four regions in which particular sequences are over-represented. The most downstream of these regions surrounds the TSS, while the other three districts of sequence conservation (appearing as a centrally located TATA-like sequence flanked by T-rich elements on both sides) are located across the DNA region known to interact with TFIIIB. Upstream regions whose sequence conforms to this pattern were found to potentiate tRNA gene transcription, both in vitro and in vivo, by enhancing TFIIIB binding. A conserved pattern of DNA bendability was also revealed, with peaks of bending propensity centered on the TATA-like and the TSS regions. Sequence analysis of other eukaryotic genomes further revealed the widespread occurrence of conserved sequence patterns upstream of tDNAs, with striking lineage-specific differences in the number and sequence of conserved motifs. Our data strongly support the notion that tRNA gene transcription in eukaryotes is modulated by composite TFIIIB binding sites that may confer responsiveness to variation in TFIIIB activity and/or concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2003.08.016DOI Listing
October 2003

Intragenic promoter adaptation and facilitated RNA polymerase III recycling in the transcription of SCR1, the 7SL RNA gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

J Biol Chem 2002 Mar 11;277(9):6903-14. Epub 2001 Dec 11.

Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, Università di Parma, I-43100 Parma, Italy.

The SCR1 gene, coding for the 7SL RNA of the signal recognition particle, is the last known class III gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that remains to be characterized with respect to its mode of transcription and promoter organization. We show here that SCR1 represents a unique case of a non-tRNA class III gene in which intragenic promoter elements (the TFIIIC-binding A- and B-blocks), corresponding to the D and TpsiC arms of mature tRNAs, have been adapted to a structurally different small RNA without losing their transcriptional function. In fact, despite the presence of an upstream canonical TATA box, SCR1 transcription strictly depends on the presence of functional, albeit quite unusual, A- and B-blocks and requires all the basal components of the RNA polymerase III transcription apparatus, including TFIIIC. Accordingly, TFIIIC was found to protect from DNase I digestion an 80-bp region comprising the A- and B-blocks. B-block inactivation completely compromised TFIIIC binding and transcription capacity in vitro and in vivo. An inactivating mutation in the A-block selectively affected TFIIIC binding to this promoter element but resulted in much more dramatic impairment of in vivo than in vitro transcription. Transcriptional competition and nucleosome disruption experiments showed that this stronger in vivo defect is due to a reduced ability of A-block-mutated SCR1 to compete with other genes for TFIIIC binding and to counteract the assembly of repressive chromatin structures through TFIIIC recruitment. A kinetic analysis further revealed that facilitated RNA polymerase III recycling, far from being restricted to typical small sized class III templates, also takes place on the 522-bp-long SCR1 gene, the longest known class III transcriptional unit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M105036200DOI Listing
March 2002