Publications by authors named "Silvia Damaso"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Incidence of dengue illness in Mexican people aged 6 months to 50 years old: A prospective cohort study conducted in Jalisco.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0250253. Epub 2021 May 5.

Vaccines, GSK, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America.

Background And Objectives: The burden of dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne pathogen, remains difficult to assess due to misdiagnosis and underreporting. Moreover, the large proportion of asymptomatic dengue cases impairs comprehensive assessment of its epidemiology even where effective surveillance systems are in place. We conducted a prospective community-based study to assess the incidence of symptomatic dengue cases in Zapopan and neighboring municipalities in the state of Jalisco, Mexico.

Methods: Healthy subjects aged 6 months to 50 years living in households located in the Zapopan and neighboring municipalities were enrolled for a 24-month follow-up study (NCT02766088). Serostatus was determined at enrolment and weekly contacts were conducted via phone calls and home visits. Participants had to report any febrile episode lasting for at least two days. Suspected dengue cases were tested by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), detection of non-structural protein 1 (NS1), anti-DENV immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM) assays.

Results: A total of 350 individuals from 87 households were enrolled. The overall seroprevalence of anti-DENV IgG at enrolment was 19.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.5-25.6) with the highest seroprevalence rate observed in the adult group. Over the 27-month study period from July 2016 to September 2018, a total of 18 suspected dengue cases were reported. Four cases were confirmed by RT-qPCR and serotyped as DENV-1. A fifth case was confirmed by the NS1 assay. The 13 remaining suspected cases were tested negative by these assays. Based on the 5 virologically confirmed cases, symptomatic dengue incidence proportion of 1.4% (95%CI 0.5-3.8) was estimated. No severe cases or hospitalizations occurred during the study.

Conclusion: Community-based active surveillance was shown as efficient to detect symptomatic dengue cases.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02766088.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250253PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099064PMC
May 2021

Adherence to Public Health Measures Mitigates the Risk of COVID-19 Infection in Older Adults: A Community-Based Study.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 04 28;96(4):912-920. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases during the reopening period in older adults, given that little is known about the prevalence of COVID-19 after the stay-at-home order was lifted in the United States, nor the actual effects of adherence to recommended public health measures (RPHM) on the risk of COVID-19.

Patients And Methods: This was a cross-sectional study nested in a parent prospective cohort study, which followed a population-based sample of 2325 adults 50 years and older residing in southeast Minnesota to assess the incidence of viral infections. Participants were instructed to self-collect both nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, which were tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) assay between May 8, 2020, and June, 30, 2020. We assessed the prevalence of COVID-19 cases and characteristics of study subjects.

Results: A total of 1505 eligible subjects participated in the study whose mean age was 68 years, with 885 (59%) women, 32 (2%) racial/ethnic minorities, and 906 (60%) with high-risk conditions for influenza. The prevalence of other Coronaviridae (human coronavirus [HCoV]-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43) during the 2019 to 2020 flu season was 109 (7%), and none tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Almost all participants reported adhering to the RPHM (1,488 [99%] for social distancing, 1,438 [96%] for wearing mask in a public space, 1,476 [98%] for hand hygiene, and 1,441 (96%) for staying home mostly). Eighty-six percent of participants resided in a single-family home.

Conclusion: We did not identify SARS-COV-2 infection in our study cohort. The combination of participants' behavior in following the RPHM and their living environment may considerably mitigate the risk of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.12.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768210PMC
April 2021

Brand-specific enhanced safety surveillance of GSK's Fluarix Tetra seasonal influenza vaccine in England: 2017/2018 season.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 08 2;16(8):1762-1771. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

GSK , Wavre, Belgium.

In compliance with the European Medicine Agency guidance to detect any potential safety concerns associated with influenza vaccination, an enhanced safety surveillance study was conducted in England during the 2017/18 influenza season. The primary objective was to estimate the incidence rates of adverse events occurring within seven days of vaccination with Fluarix Tetra. In nine General Practices, seasonal influenza vaccine was administered to patients according to local guidelines. Events following immunization were collected using customized cards (enhanced component) combined with electronic health records [EHRs] (EHR component) to estimate incidence rates of adverse events experienced post vaccination. The study ran from 01-Sep-2017 to 30-Nov-2017. A total of 23,939 subjects were vaccinated of whom 16,433 received Fluarix Tetra. The cumulative incidence rates of adverse events of interest for Fluarix Tetra were 7.25% [95% CI, 5.95-8.73] for events reported by card alone, and 9.21% [95% CI, 7.37-11.34] when combined with EHR data. The type and frequency of events reported were consistent with the Fluarix Tetra Summary of Product Characteristics. The study supports and confirms the safety profile of Fluarix Tetra. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT03278067.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1705112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482908PMC
August 2020

Brand-Specific Enhanced Safety Surveillance of GSK's Quadrivalent Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Belgium, Germany and Spain for the 2018/2019 Season.

Drug Saf 2020 03;43(3):265-279

GSK, Rockville, MD, USA.

Introduction: Seasonal influenza causes numerous deaths worldwide each year. Annual vaccination for disease prevention is crucial. Seasonal vaccines are updated each year to closely match circulating strains.

Objective: To comply with European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidance, an enhanced safety study was conducted to rapidly collect and assess adverse events (AEs) within 7 days following vaccination with GSK's inactivated quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (IIV4) in 2018/2019.

Methods: A customised AE reporting card (AERC) and standardised electronic data reporting application were used in Belgium, Germany and Spain in adult and paediatric subjects in this study.

Results: In 2018, 1060 subjects vaccinated with one dose of GSK's IIV4 were enrolled (all subjects in Belgium and Germany were adults, and 75% and 25% of subjects in Spain were children and adults, respectively). In Spain, 139 eligible children later received a second dose. Overall 1035 subjects completed the study. After dose 1 and dose 2, 98.3% and 100% of subjects, respectively, returned the completed AERC. Over the study period, 43.0% (456/1060 post dose 1) and 23.7% (33/139 post dose 2) of subjects reported at least one AE within 7 days after immunisation. The most frequently reported categories of AEs were General and Administration Site (e.g. injection site pain, swelling, erythema) and Respiratory Disorders (e.g. rhinorrhoea, cough, nasal congestion). There were no deaths and no serious AEs deemed related to GSK's IIV4.

Conclusion: In compliance with EMA guidance, this study design allowed for near real-time assessment of AEs. No safety signals were detected at any point during the study period. The study supports and confirms the acceptable safety profile of GSK's IIV4. CLINICALTRIALS.

Gov Identifier: NCT03688620.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40264-019-00893-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048703PMC
March 2020

Safety of the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine in adolescents aged 12-15 years: end-of-study results from a community-randomized study up to 6.5 years.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 06 12;16(6):1392-1403. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

GSK , Wavre, Belgium.

This manuscript discloses end-of-study safety data of a community-randomized controlled trial in Finland (NCT00534638), assessing the effectiveness of two vaccination strategies (gender-neutral versus females only) using the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18) vaccine. The total vaccination cohort included 32,175 adolescents aged 12-15 y at vaccination of whom 14,837 received the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine and 17,338 received the hepatitis-B virus vaccine (control). Spontaneous reporting of serious adverse events (SAEs) combined with surveillance using nation-wide health registries showed an acceptable safety profile of the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine. During the study period (up to 6.5 y), the incidences (per 100,000 person-years) of reported SAEs considered as possibly related to vaccination were 39.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 25.3-57.7) and 39.8 (95%CI: 26.8-56.8) in the HPV and control groups, respectively. The most frequently reported new-onset autoimmune diseases (NOADs) were ulcerative colitis (incidence rates of 28.2 and 33.1 per 100,000 person-years in the HPV and control groups, respectively), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (21.9 and 37.1), Crohn's disease (15.6 and 22.5), celiac disease (15.6 and 21.2), and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (14.1 and 15.9). Of 1,344 pregnancies reported (777 and 567 in the HPV and control groups, respectively), most resulted in elective termination (58.4% and 58.6%), birth of a live infant (32.7% and 32.3%), or in spontaneous abortion (8.0% and 7.9%). No major, registered congenital anomalies were identified. The incidence rates of NOADs and pregnancy outcomes were generally balanced between groups. No specific safety signals were identified in the population-based health registry surveillance. Plain Language Summary What is the context? ● Since first licensure in 2007 of the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine (, GSK), large quantity of safety data has been collected and confirmed its safety profile. This study provides further unique, population-based safety data from vaccinated Finnish adolescents monitored via health registries up to 6.5 y of follow-up. What is new? ● The vaccine has shown an acceptable safety profile in girls and boys. The risk of new-onset autoimmune diseases (NOADs) was similar between the HPV vaccine group and the control group and in line with the expectations for the studied population. ● The study supports that safety surveillance via national health registries is in general more sensitive than the conventional safety reporting, notably for monitoring specific chronic diseases, e.g. autoimmune disorders. What is the impact? ● This study highlights the importance of health registries in long-term vaccination safety surveillance. The population-based safety data reported in this study further support the routine administration of the HPV vaccine to girls and boys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1692557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482795PMC
June 2020

Effectiveness of the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing oropharyngeal HPV infections in young females-Results from a community-randomized trial.

Int J Cancer 2020 07 14;147(1):170-174. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

GSK, Wavre, Belgium.

We studied effectiveness of the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) oropharyngeal infections associated with the increase of head/neck cancers in western countries. All 38,631 resident adolescents from 1994 to 1995 birth cohorts of 33 Finnish communities were invited in this community-randomized trial (NCT00534638). During 2008-2009, 11,275 girls and 6,129 boys were enrolled in three arms of 11 communities each. In Arm A, 90% of vaccinated girls/boys, and in Arm B, 90% of vaccinated girls received AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine. Other Arm A/B and all Arm C vaccinated participants received control vaccine. All Arm A participants and Arm B female participants were blinded to vaccine allocation. Oropharyngeal samples were analyzed from 4,871 18.5-year-old females who attended follow-up visit 3-6 years postvaccination. HPV DNA prevalence was determined by SPF-10 LiPA and Multiplex type-specific PCR. Total vaccine effectiveness (VE) was defined as relative reduction of oropharyngeal HPV prevalence in pooled Arms A/B HPV-vaccinated females vs. all Arm C females. VE against oropharyngeal HPV-16/18, HPV-31/45 and HPV-31/33/45 infections were 82.4% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 47.3-94.1), 75.3% (95%CI: 12.7-93.0) and 69.9% (95% CI: 29.6-87.1), respectively. In conclusion, the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine showed effectiveness against vaccine and nonvaccine HPV-types oropharyngeal infections in adolescent females up to 6 years postvaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318585PMC
July 2020

Enhanced Safety Surveillance of GSK's Quadrivalent Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Belgium, Germany, and Spain for the 2018/19 Season: Interim Analysis.

Adv Ther 2019 12 8;36(12):3340-3355. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

GSK, Rockville, MD, USA.

Introduction: Influenza is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Europe. Prevention by annual vaccination is most effective but with yearly vaccine reformulation to match circulating virus strains, vaccine safety must be continuously monitored. The European Medicines Agency published guidance on safety monitoring of influenza vaccines.

Methods: An enhanced safety surveillance study of GSK's inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) was conducted in Belgium, Germany, and Spain in influenza season 2018/19. The objective was to collect adverse event (AE) reports from subjects within 7 days of vaccination. A customized AE reporting card (AERC) with predefined AEs of interest was used to rapidly detect and evaluate potential new safety concerns. Interim results are presented here.

Results: Between week 40 and 52, 1060 vaccinated subjects were enrolled (31.0% Belgium, 26.2% Germany, and 42.7% Spain) covering all ages for which IIV4 is indicated (32.0% aged 6 months-17 years, 33.8% 18-65 years, and 34.2% over 65 years). Pediatric subjects  less than 9 years old (n = 139) received two doses. Following dose 1 and dose 2, 98.2% and 100%, respectively, returned the completed AERC recording any AEs. Following dose 1 and dose 2, 454 and 34 subjects, respectively, reported at least one AE (most frequently expected general and injection site symptoms and respiratory symptoms).

Conclusion: All reported AEs were expected as per summary product characteristics (smPC). No safety signals that impact public health or alter the benefit-risk profile of GSK's IIV4 were identified. Subjects from all vaccinated age groups were enrolled and the use of AERCs allowed rapid monitoring and analysis of reported AEs.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT03688620.

Funding: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-019-01105-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6860958PMC
December 2019

Passive enhanced safety surveillance of GSK's quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in Belgium, Germany and Spain, an observational study: protocol for the 2018/2019 influenza season.

BMJ Open 2019 08 18;9(8):e028043. Epub 2019 Aug 18.

Clinical R&D, GSK, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Introduction: The European Medicines Agency requires Marketing Authorisation Holders providing seasonal influenza vaccines in Europe to conduct enhanced safety surveillance accounting for the different age groups based on the vaccine indication, in order to detect any potential increase of local and systemic adverse reactions early in an influenza season. To comply with this requirement, a multicountry European passive enhanced safety surveillance study has been set up to capture and assess adverse events occurring within 7 days following seasonal influenza vaccination. Here we share our surveillance protocol for the 2018/2019 influenza season.

Methods: Nine healthcare professionals (HCPs) in Belgium, Germany and Spain have been recruited for this study. Cumulatively, approximately 1000 vaccinees will be provided with customised adverse event recording cards to report adverse events experienced within 7 days following vaccination with GSK's split-virion inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine. The cards are to be returned to the HCPs and the events encoded using an electronic case report form. Adverse event reporting rates will be analysed weekly and cumulatively, throughout the study period. Event rates will be described by country, age group and by influenza morbidity/mortality risk status of vaccinees (based on HCP assessment).

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethics committee approval was obtained for all participating sites prior to enrolment of the study participants. At the end of the study, each participating site will receive their data, and the outputs from the research will be made available to regulatory authorities. We intend to seek publication in peer-reviewed journals. GSK has posted a summary of the study protocol before the start of the study and results will be posted within 12 months of statistical analysis completion, in line with the National Institutes of Health recommendations.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03688620.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6701642PMC
August 2019

Enhanced passive surveillance of influenza vaccination in England, 2016-2017- an observational study using an adverse events reporting card.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 20;15(5):1048-1059. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

e Clinical R&D , GSK , Wavre , Belgium.

Influenza is a major public health burden, mainly prevented by vaccination. Recommendations on influenza vaccine composition are updated annually and constant benefit-risk monitoring is therefore needed. We conducted near-real-time enhanced passive surveillance (EPS) for the influenza vaccine, Fluarix Tetra, according to European Medicines Agency guidance, in 10 volunteer general practices in England using Fluarix Tetra as their principal influenza vaccine brand, from 1-Sep to 30-Nov-2016. The EPS method used a combination of routinely collected data from electronic health records (EHR) and a customized adverse events reporting card (AERC) distributed to participants vaccinated with Fluarix Tetra. For participants vaccinated with a different influenza vaccine, data were derived exclusively from the EHR. We reported weekly and cumulative incidence of pre-defined adverse events of interest (AEI) occurring within 7 days post-vaccination, adjusted for clustering effect. Of the 97,754 eligible participants, 19,334 (19.8%) received influenza vaccination, of whom 13,861 (71.7%) received Fluarix Tetra. A total of 1,049 participants receiving Fluarix Tetra reported AEIs; 703 (67%) used the AERC (adjusted cumulative incidence rate 4.96% [95% CI: 3.92-6.25]). Analysis by individual pre-specified AEI categories identified no safety signal for Fluarix Tetra. A total of 62 individuals reported an AEI with a known brand of non-GSK influenza vaccine and 54 with an unknown brand (adjusted cumulative incidence rate 2.59% [1.93-3.47] and 1.77% [1.42-2.20], respectively). In conclusion, the study identified no safety signal for Fluarix Tetra and showed that the AERC was a useful tool that complemented routine pharmacovigilance by allowing more comprehensive capture of AEIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1565258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6605873PMC
February 2020

Enhanced Safety Surveillance of Seasonal Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccines in English Primary Care: Interim Analysis.

Adv Ther 2018 Aug 11;35(8):1199-1214. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Surrey, Surrey, UK.

Introduction: The European Medicines Agency (EMA) requires vaccine manufacturers to conduct enhanced safety surveillance (ESS) of seasonal influenza vaccines including a near real-time evaluation of collected data. The objective was to identify whether the use of passive surveillance or active surveillance provides different results of reported adverse events of interest (AEIs) by specified age strata and AEI type. We report the weekly incidence rates of AEIs within 7 days following seasonal influenza vaccination using passive and active surveillance.

Methods: AEIs were collected within 7 days of vaccination from ten general practices predominantly administering inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4, Fluarix Tetra, GSK). Vaccinees completed an adverse drug reaction (ADR) card. ADR card and medically attended AEIs data were recorded in practice electronic health records. We report the outcome of the first 5 weeks of safety surveillance (September 12, 2016-October 16, 2016); in an exploratory analysis, rates of AEI for IIV4 are compared to those passively reported through a sentinel network.

Results: Practices vaccinated 13.1% (12,864/98,091) of their registered population; 5.6% (95% CI 5.20-6.00) of them reported AEIs, none serious. The most frequent were respiratory 2.60% (95% CI 2.33-2.88), musculoskeletal 1.82% (95% CI 1.59-2.05) and neurological 1.05% (95% CI 0.88-1.23). AEIs were more frequently reported for adults than for children; 5.91% (95% CI 5.49-6.34) compared to 1.49% (95% CI 0.69-2.29); 47.18% of the adults reported AEI using the ADR card, none were returned for subjects < 18 years old. The frequency of AEIs reporting was higher, 6.88% (95% CI 6.35-7.42) vs. 3.30% (95% CI 2.68-3.96, 100/3028, p < 0.000), through ESS than passive surveillance.

Conclusion: The ESS did not reveal any safety signal and we demonstrated the feasibility of conducting ESS following EMA recommendations. The use of a customised ADR card led to a doubling of AEIs reports over passive surveillance in adults.

Funding: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA, Wavre, Belgium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-018-0747-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096981PMC
August 2018

Safety and Immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted Vaccine in 4-6-year-old Girls: Results to Month 12 From a Randomized Trial.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 04;37(4):e93-e102

Background: The burden of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is high in Latin America. The suboptimal HPV vaccination coverage in adolescents could be improved by pediatric immunization. HPV vaccination has not yet been reported in girls <9 years of age.

Methods: This ongoing phase III, controlled, randomized, single-blind, multicenter study conducted in Colombia, Mexico and Panama (NCT01627561) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine in 4-6-year-old girls. Healthy girls (randomized 1:1) received either 2 doses of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine (HPV group, N=74) or 1 dose of each measles-mumps-rubella and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccines (control group, N=74) 6 months apart. We report the safety and serum anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) up to 6 months postvaccination, that is, month (M) 12.

Results: Injection site pain was the most frequently reported solicited local symptom in HPV vaccinees. The incidence of other solicited and unsolicited symptoms after each vaccination was similar between the HPV and control group. Until M12, 1 girl in the HPV group and 2 in the control group reported serious adverse events; all serious adverse events were assessed as unrelated to study vaccines. No potential immune-mediated diseases were identified. All girls seroconverted for both antigens after 2 doses of AS04-HPV-16/18. In initially seronegative girls, anti-HPV-16 geometric mean concentrations were 20080.0 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU)/mL at M7 and 3246.5 EU/mL at M12; anti-HPV-18 geometric mean concentrations were 10621.8 EU/mL at M7 and 1216.6 EU/mL at M12.

Conclusions: Two-dose vaccination with AS04-HPV-16/18 was well tolerated and induced adequate antibody responses in 4-6-year-old girls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000001871DOI Listing
April 2018

Safety and immunogenicity of an investigational 4-component Staphylococcus aureus vaccine with or without AS03B adjuvant: Results of a randomized phase I trial.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2015 ;11(3):620-31

a Saint-Pierre University Hospital ; Brussels , Belgium.

We assessed the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a staphylococcal vaccine combining capsular polysaccharides types 5 and 8 (CPS5/8), conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT), with mutated detoxified α-toxin (AT) and clumping factor A (ClfA). In this phase I, randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blind trial (NCT01160172), 88 healthy 18- to 40-year-olds received CPS5-TT/CPS8-TT/AT/ClfA vaccine (5/5/10/10 μg or 10/10/30/30 μg dose, each with or without AS03B adjuvant) or saline, at months 0, 1, 6. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded for 7 and 30 d post-vaccination, respectively; potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) and serious AEs (SAEs) were recorded throughout the study. Humoral and antigen-specific CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell immunity were assessed from Day (D) 0 to D540 post-vaccination. The most frequently reported solicited local and general AEs were pain (78.6%-100% of subjects), fatigue (36.4%-93.3% of subjects post-dose 1-2) and headache (20%-44.4% of subjects post-dose 3). Overall, 4 SAEs and 2 potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) (none fatal or vaccine-related) were reported. For each antigen, pre-vaccination seropositivity rates were high (85.7%-100%) and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) in vaccine recipients sharply increased from D0 to D14, then plateaued to study end. Exploratory group comparisons suggested higher GMCs with higher dosage, without AS03B effect. Vaccine-induced antibodies were functional (CPS5 opsonophagocytic assays, and AT/ClfA inhibition assays). AT- and ClfA-specific CD4(+) T-cells with Th0/Th1 cytokine profile were induced at low levels (median <0.05%) by each formulation (intracellular cytokine staining). In conclusion, no safety concerns were identified and each vaccine formulation induced robust humoral immune responses after the first vaccine dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2015.1011021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4514337PMC
December 2015

Efficacy profile of a bivalent Staphylococcus aureus glycoconjugated vaccine in adults on hemodialysis: Phase III randomized study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2015 ;11(3):632-41

a Nabi Biopharmaceuticals ; Rockville , MD USA.

In a previous study in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) hemodialysis patients, a single dose of Staphylococcus aureus type 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides (T5/T8) conjugated to nontoxic recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A investigational vaccine showed no efficacy against S. aureus bacteremia 1 year post-vaccination, but a trend for efficacy was observed over the first 40 weeks post-vaccination. Vaccine efficacy (VE) of 2 vaccine doses was therefore evaluated. In a double-blind trial 3359 ESRD patients were randomized (1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo at week 0 and 35. VE in preventing S. aureus bacteremia was assessed between 3-35 weeks and 3-60 weeks post-dose-1. Anti-T5 and anti-T8 antibodies were measured. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded for 42 days post-vaccination and deaths until study end. No significant difference in the incidence of S. aureus bacteremia was observed between vaccine and placebo groups between weeks 3-35 weeks post-dose 1 (VE -23%, 95%CI: -98;23, p = 0.39) or at 3-60 weeks post-dose-1 (VE -8%, 95%CI: -57;26, p = 0.70). Day 42 geometric mean antibody concentrations were 272.4 μg/ml and 242.0 μg/ml (T5 and T8, respectively) in vaccinees. SAEs were reported by 24%/25.3% of vaccinees/placebo recipients. These data do not show a protective effect of either 1 or 2 vaccine doses against S. aureus bacteremia in ESRD patients. The vaccine induced a robust immune response and had an acceptable safety profile. Further investigation suggested possible suboptimal vaccine quality (manufacturing) and a need to expand the antigen composition of the vaccine. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00071214.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.34414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4514248PMC
December 2015

Efficacy and immunogenicity of live-attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in breast-fed and formula-fed European infants.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2012 May;31(5):509-13

Vaccine Research Center, Medical School, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Rotavirus is the main cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhea in infants and young children less than 5 years of age. Potential impact of breast-feeding on the efficacy and immunogenicity of human rotavirus G1P[8] vaccine was examined in this exploratory analysis.

Methods: Healthy infants (N = 3994) aged 6-14 weeks who received 2 doses of human rotavirus vaccine/placebo according to a 0-1 or 0-2 month schedule were followed for rotavirus gastroenteritis during 2 epidemic seasons. Rotavirus IgA seroconversion rate (anti-IgA antibody concentration ≥ 20 mIU/mL) and geometric mean concentrations were measured prevaccination and 1-2 months post-dose 2. Vaccine efficacy against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was analyzed according to the infants being breast-fed or exclusively formula-fed at the time of vaccination.

Results: Antirotavirus IgA seroconversion rate was 85.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.4-88.3) in breast-fed and 89.2% (95% CI: 84.2-93) in exclusively formula-fed infants; geometric mean concentrations in the respective groups were 185.8 U/mL (95% CI: 161.4-213.9) and 231.5 U/mL (95% CI: 185.9-288.2). Vaccine efficacy was equally high in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed children in the first season but fell in breast-fed infants in the second rotavirus season. During the combined 2-year efficacy follow-up period, vaccine efficacy against any rotavirus gastroenteritis was 76.2% (95% CI: 68.7-82.1) and 89.8% (95% CI: 77.6-95.9) and against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis 88.4% (95% CI: 81.6-93) and 98.1% (95% CI: 88.2-100) in the breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed infants, respectively.

Conclusions: The difference in immunogenicity of human rotavirus vaccine in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed infants was small. Vaccine efficacy was equally high in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed children in the first season. Breast-feeding seemed to reduce slightly the efficacy in the second season.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3182489cacDOI Listing
May 2012

Immunogenicity of a human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) after storage at 37 °C for seven days.

Hum Vaccin 2011 Jan 1;7(1):74-80. Epub 2011 Jan 1.

Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Aim: The lyophilized formulation of the human rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414 (RotarixTM), is recommended to be stored at 2°C-8°C for optimal immunogenicity. In some settings with inadequate infrastructure for vaccine storage, unforeseen circumstances may cause cold chain breakage, resulting in the vaccine to be left at ambient temperatures. This study evaluated the heat stability of lyophilized RIX4414 vaccine in terms of immunogenicity when stored at tropical room temperature (37 °C) for 7 days before reconstitution.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference detected between RIX4414 vaccine stored at 2 °C-8 °C (Group RIX4414_control, n = 171) and that stored at 37 °C for 7 days (Group RIX4414_37 °C, n = 47) in terms of seroconversion rate and vaccine take. The anti-rotavirus IgA seroconversion rate 2 months post-Dose 2 was 84.7% (95% CI: 78.1%-90%) and 87.8% (95% CI: 73.8%-95.9%) in Groups RIX4414_control and RIX4414_37 °C, respectively. None of the 25 infants in placebo group seroconverted. The vaccine take in the respective vaccine groups were 88% (95% CI: 82.1%-92.5%) and 93.5% (95% CI: 82.1%-98.6%) and Geometric Mean Concentrations (GMCs) were 134.4 U/mL (95% CI: 104.5-172.9) and 163.7 U/mL (95% CI: 98.9-271.1).

Methods: Healthy infants aged 6-12 weeks, received two oral doses of either the RIX4414 vaccine stored at 2 °C-8 °C, RIX4414 vaccine stored at 37 °C for 7 days or placebo, according to a 0, 2 month schedule. Seroconversion rates in terms of anti-rotavirus IgA antibody levels (cut off: ≥ 20 U/mL by ELISA), anti-rotavirus IgA antibody GMCs and vaccine take were calculated 2 months post-Dose 2.

Conclusion: Lyophilized RIX4414 vaccine stored at 37°C for 7 days before reconstitution has similar immunogenicity as the vaccine stored at 2 °C-8 °C. These results supported the use of RIX4414 in settings where the vaccine might be exposed to higher than the recommended storage temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.7.1.13412DOI Listing
January 2011

Immunogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix co-administered with routine infant vaccines following the vaccination schedules in Europe.

Vaccine 2010 Jul 9;28(32):5272-9. Epub 2010 Jun 9.

University of Tampere, Medical School, FIN-33014 Tampere, Finland.

This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a human rotavirus vaccine RIX4414; the effect of co-administration of childhood vaccines on the immune responses was also assessed. Healthy infants aged 6-14 weeks received two doses of RIX4414/placebo concomitantly with the primary childhood vaccination (Infanrix hexa, Infanrix quinta,Meningitec and/or Prevnar), respecting the vaccination schedule of each country. Anti-rotavirus IgA seroconversion rate (ELISA cut-off 20 U/ml) was measured pre-vaccination and 1-2 months post-Dose 2. Immune response against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b, inactivated polio virus, pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate (France and Germany) and meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines (Spain) were measured approximately 1-month post-Dose 3. An overall anti-rotavirus IgA seroconversion rate of 86.5%(95% CI: 83.9-88.8) was observed in the RIX4414 group 1-month post-Dose 2. The seroconversion rate in Finland and Italy (3 and 5-month schedule) was 94.6%(95% CI: 90.0-97.5) and 92.3%(95% CI: 64.0-99.8), respectively. Immune response to the childhood vaccines was unaffected following co-administration with RIX4414. Reactogenicity profile was similar for RIX4414 and placebo groups. RIX4414 was immunogenic and well tolerated in European infants and the co-administration of routine childhood vaccines with RIX4414 did not negatively impact the immune responses to these vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.057DOI Listing
July 2010

Immunogenicity of a live-attenuated human rotavirus RIX4414 vaccine with or without buffering agent.

Hum Vaccin 2010 Mar 26;6(3). Epub 2010 Mar 26.

Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Aim: The lyophilized form of the human rotavirus RIX4414 vaccine (Rotarix()) is usually reconstituted with a liquid calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) buffer and administered orally. However, errors in the reconstitution could occur (e.g. reconstituted with water instead of CaCO(3) buffer) or the buffer might be temporarily unavailable in few instances. This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity of the RIX4414 vaccine if the vaccine was reconstituted with other agents (e.g., water) instead of CaCO(3) buffer.

Results: There was no statistical difference detected between RIX4414 vaccine reconstituted with buffer or water in vaccine take or in seroconversion rate. The anti-rotavirus Immunoglobulin A (IgA) seroconversion rate 2 months post-Dose 2 was 84.7% (95% CI: 78.1-90.0) for the group with buffer and 78.6% (95% CI: 71.2-84.8) for the group with water. Solicited and unsolicited symptoms reported were similar across groups. No vaccine related serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported.

Methods: Healthy infants aged 6-12 weeks, received two oral doses of the RIX4414 vaccine/placebo, reconstituted either with injectable water or CaCO(3) buffer according to a 0, 2 month schedule. Seroconversion rates in terms of anti-RV IgA antibody levels (cut off: >/=20 U/ml by ELISA) and vaccine take were calculated 2 months post-Dose 2. Solicited and unsolicited symptoms reported during the 15- and 31-day follow-up period after each dose and SAE s reported during the entire study period were recorded.

Conclusion: Administration of RIX4414 vaccine in the absence of CaCO(3) buffer was shown to be well tolerated and immunogenic in Thai infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/hv.6.3.10428DOI Listing
March 2010

Coadministration of RIX4414 oral human rotavirus vaccine does not impact the immune response to antigens contained in routine infant vaccines in the United States.

Pediatrics 2008 Nov;122(5):e1062-6

Department of Pediatrics, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA.

Objective: This study was conducted to confirm the absence of immune interference of 2 doses of RIX4414 (Rotarix) on routine infant vaccinations in the United States.

Study Design: A total of 484 healthy infants aged 6 to 12 weeks were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups to receive 3 doses of Pediarix (combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-poliovirus vaccine [DTaP-HBV-IPV]), Prevnar (7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV7]), and ActHIB (Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine [Hib]) at 2, 4, and 6 months of age with RIX4414 either coadministered at 2 and 4 months (Co-ad) or administered separately at 3 and 5 months (Sep-ad). Serum antibodies were measured 1 month after dose 3 of the DTaP-HBV-IPV, PCV7, and Hib vaccines.

Results: Antibody responses to all antigens were similar in infants in both the Co-ad and Sep-ad groups. Seroprotective antibody concentrations against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B, and poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were achieved by >or=97.9% of the infants in both groups. Antipolyribosyl ribitol phosphate antibody levels of >or=1.0 microg/mL were achieved by 88.3% to 89.4% of infants in both groups. In both groups, >or=97.8% of the infants were seropositive for antipertussis antibodies and the 7 pneumococcal serotypes. Predefined criteria for noninferiority between groups were reached for all antigens.

Conclusions: Two doses of RIX4414 coadministered with routine infant vaccines as recommended in the United States (DTaP-HBV-IPV, PCV7, and Hib) did not impair the immune response to any of the coadministered antigens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-1059DOI Listing
November 2008

Efficacy and safety of an oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 2 years of life in Latin American infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study.

Lancet 2008 Apr;371(9619):1181-9

Instituto Evandro Chagas, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministry of Health, Belém, Pará, Brazil.

Background: Peak incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis is seen in infants between 6 and 24 months of age. We therefore aimed to assess the 2-year efficacy and safety of an oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe gastroenteritis in infants.

Methods: 15 183 healthy infants aged 6-13 weeks from ten Latin American countries randomly assigned in a 1 to 1 ratio to receive two oral doses of RIX4414 or placebo at about 2 and 4 months of age in a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study were followed up until about 2 years of age. Primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy from 2 weeks after dose two until 1 year of age. Treatment allocation was concealed from investigators and parents of participating infants. Efficacy follow-up for gastroenteritis episodes was undertaken from 2 weeks after dose two until about 2 years of age. Analysis was according to protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00140673 (eTrack444563-023).

Findings: 897 infants were excluded from the according-to-protocol analysis. Fewer cases (p<0.0001) of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were recorded for the combined 2-year period in the RIX4414 group (32 [0.4%] of 7205; 95% CI 0.3-0.6) than in the placebo group (161 [2.3%] of 7081; 1.9-2.6), resulting in a vaccine efficacy of 80.5% (71.3-87.1) to 82.1% (64.6-91.9) against wild-type G1, 77.5% (64.7-86.2) against pooled non-G1 strains, and 80.5% (67.9-88.8) against pooled non-G1 P[8] strains. Vaccine efficacy for hospital admission for rotavirus gastroenteritis was 83.0% (73.1-89.7) and for admission for diarrhoea of any cause was 39.3% (29.1-48.1). No cases of intussusception were reported during the second year of follow-up.

Interpretation: Two doses of RIX4414 were effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis during the first 2 years of life in a Latin American setting. Inclusion of RIX4414 in routine paediatric immunisations should reduce the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60524-3DOI Listing
April 2008

Safety and efficacy of an attenuated vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis.

N Engl J Med 2006 Jan;354(1):11-22

Instituto Nacional de Ciencas Medicas y Nutricion, México Distrito Federal, Mexico.

Background: The safety and efficacy of an attenuated G1P[8] human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine were tested in a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial.

Methods: We studied 63,225 healthy infants from 11 Latin American countries and Finland who received two oral doses of either the HRV vaccine (31,673 infants) or placebo (31,552 infants) at approximately two months and four months of age. Severe gastroenteritis episodes were identified by active surveillance. The severity of disease was graded with the use of the 20-point Vesikari scale. Vaccine efficacy was evaluated in a subgroup of 20,169 infants (10,159 vaccinees and 10,010 placebo recipients).

Results: The efficacy of the vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and against rotavirus-associated hospitalization was 85 percent (P<0.001 for the comparison with placebo) and reached 100 percent against more severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Hospitalization for diarrhea of any cause was reduced by 42 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 29 to 53 percent; P<0.001). During the 31-day window after each dose, six vaccine recipients and seven placebo recipients had definite intussusception (difference in risk, -0.32 per 10,000 infants; 95 percent confidence interval, -2.91 to 2.18; P=0.78).

Conclusions: Two oral doses of the live attenuated G1P[8] HRV vaccine were highly efficacious in protecting infants against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, significantly reduced the rate of severe gastroenteritis from any cause, and were not associated with an increased risk of intussusception. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00139347 and NCT00263666.)
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa052434DOI Listing
January 2006

Evaluation of safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of an attenuated rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Latin American infants.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005 Sep;24(9):807-16

Instituto de Biomédicina, Caracas, Venezuela.

Background: A live attenuated monovalent rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 was developed with a human strain of G1P1A P[8] specificity to reduce the rotavirus burden in children.

Methods: A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy, immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of 2 oral doses of RIX4414 (10(4.7), 10(5.2) or 10(5.8) focus-forming units) at 2 and 4 months coadministered with routine vaccinations and oral poliovirus vaccine given for study purposes at least 14 days apart. The 2155 infants (1618 vaccine/537 placebo) enrolled in Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela were followed until 1 year of age.

Results: Antirotavirus IgA seroconversion rates 2 months after dose 2 ranged between 61% (10(4.7) ffu group) and 65% (10(5.8) ffu group), and most of the infants had seroprotective levels of antibodies to coadministered routine vaccinations. The reactogenicity profile of RIX4414 was similar to that of the placebo, and no vaccination-related serious adverse events were reported. Protective efficacy against severe and any rotavirus gastroenteritis from 15 days post-dose 2 was highest in the 10(5.8) ffu group [86%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 63-96% and 70% (95% CI 46-84%), P < 0.001, 2-sided Fisher's exact test]. The efficacy against hospitalization was 79% (95% CI 48-92%) for pooled vaccine groups. Multiple rotavirus serotypes [G1 (50%), G9 (40%), G2, G3 and G4] were identified from gastroenteritis stools (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) during the study period. For severe gastroenteritis caused by G9 serotypes, the protection reached 77% (95% CI 18-96%) in the 10(5.8) ffu group, providing proof of concept that the monovalent G1P1A P[8] human rotavirus vaccine elicits cross-protection against the G9 strain. A reduction in any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was already observed at post-dose 1 (period: day of dose 1 to 14 days post-dose 2) in vaccinees compared with placebo recipients.

Conclusions: Two doses of RIX4414 are highly efficacious, providing cross-protection (G1 and G9 strains, prevalent during this study) and early protection against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and hospitalization to infants in Latin America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000178294.13954.a1DOI Listing
September 2005