Publications by authors named "Silvânia Leal"

7 Publications

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Born to move: a review on the impact of physical exercise on brain health and the evidence from human controlled trials.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2021 06;79(6):536-550

Universidade Tiradentes, Departamento de Medicina, Laboratório de Biociências da Cinética Humana, Aracaju SE, Brazil.

Background: Physical exercise has been found to impact neurophysiological and structural aspects of the human brain. However, most research has used animal models, which yields much confusion regarding the real effects of exercise on the human brain, as well as the underlying mechanisms.

Objective: To present an update on the impact of physical exercise on brain health; and to review and analyze the evidence exclusively from human randomized controlled studies from the last six years.

Methods: A search of the literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases for all randomized controlled trials published between January 2014 and January 2020.

Results: Twenty-four human controlled trials that observed the relationship between exercise and structural or neurochemical changes were reviewed.

Conclusions: Even though this review found that physical exercise improves brain plasticity in humans, particularly through changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), functional connectivity, basal ganglia and the hippocampus, many unanswered questions remain. Given the recent advances on this subject and its therapeutic potential for the general population, it is hoped that this review and future research correlating molecular, psychological and image data may help elucidate the mechanisms through which physical exercise improves brain health.
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June 2021

Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19: A cross-sectional study in the resident cape-verdean population.

Soc Sci Humanit Open 2021 10;4(1):100184. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Research, Science and Training of the National Institute of Public Health, Largo do Desastre da Assistência, Chã de Areia, P.O BOX 719, Praia, Cape Verde.

Context: The first case of COVID-19 in Cabo Verde was confirmed on March 19, 2020. Since the beginning of the pandemic in the country, the government and health authorities have adopted restrictive measures to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV- 2 and well as defined risk communication and community involvement strategies. The present study aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the Cape Verdean resident population towards COVID-19, to support the government and the national health system in the definition of public health policies related to COVID-19.

Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1996 participants aged 16 years old and above. Data collected from April 5 to April 12, 2020, via an online self-reporting questionnaire adapted from a Chinese study. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19.

Results: The overall correct answer rate related to the knowledge about COVID-19 was 82% (9/11 * 100), 1970 (98.70%) of the participants declared they had stayed at home in recent days, 1926 (96.49%) had not attended parties, funerals or crowded places and 1860 (93.19%) confirmed changes in daily routines due to COVID-19. The majority of the participants, 1797 (90.26%), preferred receiving information about COVID-19 in Portuguese and trusted information transmitted by health professionals. Furthermore, television, radio, and newspapers were the preferred means of transmitting information about COVID-19. Participants' knowledge influenced COVID-19 prevention and control practices (rho = 0.119; p = 0.000).

Conclusions: These findings showed that the resident population had a good level of knowledge about COVID-19; however, there is a need to use more effective strategies to improve attitudes and practices towards COVID-19 to attain better results in controlling the pandemic in Cabo Verde.
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July 2021

The V410L knockdown resistance mutation occurs in island and continental populations of Aedes aegypti in West and Central Africa.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 05 8;14(5):e0008216. Epub 2020 May 8.

Global Health and Tropical Medicine, GHTM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, IHMT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNL, Lisbon, Portugal.

The extensive use of insecticides for vector control has led to the development of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti populations on a global scale, which has significantly compromised control actions. Insecticide resistance, and its underlying mechanisms, has been investigated in several countries, mostly in South American and Asian countries. In Africa, however, studies reporting insecticide resistance are rare and data on resistance mechanisms, notably knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations, is scarce. In this study, the recently described V410L kdr mutation is reported for the first time in old world Ae. aegypti populations, namely from Angola and Madeira island. Two additional kdr mutations, V1016I and F1534C, are also reported for the first time in populations from Angola and Cape Verde. Significant associations with the resistance phenotype were found for both V410L and V1016I individually as well as for tri-locus genotypes in the Angolan population. However, no association was found in Madeira island, probably due to the presence of a complex pattern of multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in the local Ae. aegypti population. These results suggest that populations carrying the same kdr mutations may respond differently to the same insecticide, stressing the need for complementary studies when assessing the impact of kdr resistance mechanisms in the outcome of insecticide-based control strategies.
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May 2020

Abundance and Updated Distribution of (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cabo Verde Archipelago: A Neglected Threat to Public Health.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 02 17;17(4). Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Centro de Estudos de Vectores e Doenças Infecciosas, Avenida da Liberdade 5, 2965-575 Águas de Moura, Portugal.

Background: Mosquito-borne viruses, such as Zika, dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya, are important causes of human diseases nearly worldwide. The greatest health risk for arboviral disease outbreaks is the presence of the most competent and highly invasive domestic mosquito, . In Cabo Verde, two recent arbovirus outbreaks were reported, a dengue outbreak in 2009, followed by a Zika outbreak in 2015. This study is the first entomological survey for that includes all islands of Cabo Verde archipelago, in which we aim to evaluate the actual risk of vector-borne arboviruses as a continuous update of the geographical distribution of this species.

Methods: In order to assess its current distribution and abundance, we undertook a mosquito larval survey in the nine inhabited islands of Cabo Verde from November 2018 to May 2019. Entomological larval survey indices were calculated, and the abundance analyzed. We collected and identified 4045 mosquitoes from 264 positive breeding sites in 22 municipalities and confirmed the presence of in every inhabited island. : Water drums were found to be the most prevalent containers ( = 3843; 62.9%), but puddles ( = 27; 0.4%) were the most productive habitats found. The overall average of the House, Container, and Breteau larval indices were 8.4%, 4.4%, and 10.9, respectively. However, 15 out of the 22 municipalities showed that the Breteau Index was above the epidemic risk threshold.

Conclusion: These results suggest that if no vector control measures are considered to be in place, the risk of new arboviral outbreaks in Cabo Verde is high. The vector control strategy adopted must include measures of public health directed to domestic water storage and management.
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February 2020

Knowledge, attitudes and practices about malaria in Cabo Verde: a country in the pre-elimination context.

BMC Public Health 2019 Jul 1;19(1):850. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Laboratoire d'Ecologie Vectorielle et Parasitaire, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD) de Dakar, Dakar, Sénégal.

Background: Malaria in Cape Verde is unstable, with a sporadic and seasonal transmission of low endemicity. In this sense, the community perceptions regarding malaria transmission, their attitudes and practices against the disease are very important to understand and to better develop the best strategical policies to achieve malaria elimination goal. This study aim to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Cape Verdean population about malaria, a country in the elimination step of disease.

Methods: A cross-sectional malaria KAP Survey was performed at the household level. A structured open questionnaire was developed and applied to residents of randomly selected households from 5 islands and 15 municipalities in Cape Verde. Correlation analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to determine the factors that are associated with the complete knowledge of the population about malaria.

Results: A total of 1953 fully completed questionnaires were analysed, with majority of questionnaires administered in Santiago island (68.3%), mainly in the capital city of Praia, 38.43%. About 88% of the population knew the correct form of transmission, 96% had knowledge that the entire population is at risk of malaria and identified the main symptoms. Regarding the attitudes, 58% seek treatment atthe nearest health structure upon the apparition of the symptoms, 64% in the first 24 h and 88% within the first 48 h. More than 97% have heard about mosquito nets but only 19% used it. In practice, 53% use coils, 45% rely on household sprays and 43% have benefited from IRS. About 90% received information about malaria from media, mainly the TV and the radio (83 and 43%, respectively). In summary, 54% of the population has complete knowledge of the disease.

Conclusion: The population of Cape Verde has a high level of knowledge about malaria, including its transmission, main symptoms and preventive and control measures. However, some gaps and misunderstandings have been noticed and contribute to the insufficient community involvement in actions against malaria. Therefore, is necessary to increase the knowledge of the population, leading to their full ownership and participation in community actions to contribute to the malaria elimination in the country.
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July 2019

Postural balance and falls in elderly nursing home residents enrolled in a ballroom dancing program.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2014 Sep-Oct;59(2):312-6. Epub 2014 Apr 5.

Laboratory of Human Motricity Biosciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro State (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Nursing and Biosciences, Doctorate from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro State (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a ballroom dancing program on the postural balance of institutionalized elderly residents. The sample consisted of 59 sedentary elderly residents of long-stay institutions who were randomly assigned to a ballroom dancing experimental group (EG, n=30) or a control group (CG, n=29). The ballroom dancing program consisted of three 50-min sessions each week on alternate days over a 12-week period. The dances included the foxtrot, waltz, rumba, swing, samba and bolero. The medical records of the subjects were reviewed to determine the number of falls they experienced in the three months prior to the intervention. Postural static balance was assessed using a Lizard (Med. EU., Italy, 2010) stabilometric and posturometric platform. Only patients in the EG lost a significant amount of weight (Δ=-2.85 kg) when comparing the pre- and post-test postural balance assessments. The intergroup comparison revealed a reduced lower limb weight distribution difference in the EG post-test compared to the CG post-test (p=0.012). In the intragroup comparison, the EG patients experienced significantly fewer falls post-test relative to pre-test (p<0.0001). This improvement was not observed for patients in the CG. In the intergroup analysis, we observed fewer falls in the EG post-test compared to the CG post-test (p<0.0001). Therefore it was conclude that sedentary elderly people living in long-term institutions can improve their balance via a ballroom dancing program. This activity improved balance and reduced the number of falls in this elderly population.
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December 2014

[Respiratory muscle training programs: impact on the functional autonomy of the elderly].

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2010 Nov-Dec;56(6):642-8

Universidade Castelo Branco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ.

Objective: To compare two respiratory muscle training programs for improving the functional autonomy of institutionalized elderly.

Methods: Clinical randomized trial conducted at a long stay institution with 42 elderly volunteers that were divided into three groups: Group ® Threshold (GT) with mean age (70.93 ± 8.41), Group Voldyne ® (GV) (70.54 ± 7.73) and Control Group (CG) (73.92 ± 7.28). Groups GT and GV were treated with breathing exercises and muscle training by Threshold and Voldyne, respectively while the CG did just breathing exercises. Training of groups took 10 weeks. To assess the functional autonomy, the elderly were evaluated before and after training, according to the GDLAM protocol.

Results: All intra-group comparison (pre x post-test) showed a significant difference in GT for all tests (C10M: Δ% = -20.57, p = 0.0001; LPS: Δ% = -13.53, p = 0.020; VTC: Δ% = -27.96, p = 0.0001; LCLC: Δ% = -18.71, p = 0.0001 and IG:% Δ = -18.43, p = 0.0001), except in LPDV. In GV there was a significant difference only (p <0.05) for the C10M (% Δ = -17.11, p = 0.004). In the comparison between (post x post), there was a statistical significance (p <0.05) for VTC test between the GT and GV (Δ = -3.62%, p = 0.017), with favorable results for the GT. Similarly, there was a statistical difference (p <0.05) in GT C10M (% Δ = -3.83, p = 0.023), LCLC (Δ = -34.02%, p = 0.012) and IG (Δ% = -13.63, p = 0.004) compared to GC.

Conclusion: The trained groups improved functional autonomy, reaching 27.42; considered to be a weak level in both pre-and post-training.
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November 2011