Publications by authors named "Silivia Matanitobua"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Assessment of Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Typhoid Diagnosis and Assessment of Febrile Illness Outbreaks in Fiji.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan.

Typhoid is an endemic in Fiji with increases observed since the early 2000s and frequent outbreaks reported. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of currently available typhoid rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) (TUBEX, Typhidot Rapid, and Test-It assay) to establish their performance against blood culture in Fiji and to examine their suitability for rapid typhoid outbreak identification. The performance of RDTs was assessed in the public health reference laboratory in Suva, Fiji, according to the manufacturers' instructions. A simulation was used to examine the potential use of RDTs for attribution of a febrile illness outbreak to typhoid. For the diagnostic evaluation, 179 patients were included; 49 had blood culture-confirmed typhoid, 76 had fever as a result of non-typhoid etiologies, and 54 were age-matched community controls. The median (interquartile range) age was 29 (20-46) years. Of the participants, 92 (51.4%) were male and 131 (73.2%) were indigenous Fijians. The sensitivities of the tests were 77.6% for TUBEX, 75.5% for Typhidot Rapid, and 57.1% for Test-It assay. The Test-It assay had the highest specificity of 93.4%, followed by Typhidot Rapid 85.5% and TUBEX 60.5%. Typhidot Rapid had the best performance in the simulation for attribution of a febrile illness outbreak to typhoid. Typhoid RDTs performed suboptimally for individual patient diagnosis due to low sensitivity and variable specificity. We demonstrate that RDTs could be useful in the field for rapid attribution of febrile illness outbreaks to typhoid. Typhidot Rapid had the best combination of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, cost, and ease of use for this purpose.
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November 2021

Selective Persistence of HPV Cross-Neutralising Antibodies following Reduced-Dose HPV Vaccine Schedules.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Nov 28;7(4). Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Infection and Immunity, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia.

The duration of cross-neutralising antibody responses (cross-NAb) following HPV immunisation is unknown. We compared cross-NAb responses in cohort of girls who were either unimmunised or had received immunisation with one, two or three doses of 4vHPV (Gardasil,Merck Inc.) six years earlier, before and one month after a booster dose of 2vHPV (Cervarix, GSK). NAb to potentially cross-reactive HPV genotypes 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 were measured using a HPV pseudovirion-based neutralisation assay. Girls who had previously received at least one dose of 4vHPV had significantly higher NAb titres for HPV31 when compared with unimmunised girls, whereas no difference in NAb titre was observed for four other genotypes (33, 45, 52 and 58). Following a single further immunisation with 2vHPV, NAb titres to each of the five tested HPV genotypes were comparable for girls who previously received one, two or three doses of 4vHPV, and were significantly higher than for previously unimmunised girls. Immunisation with one, two or three doses of 4vHPV induced NAb to HPV31 that persisted for six years, but there was no persistence of NAb to HPV33, 45, 52 or 58. Our results suggest that one or two doses of 4vHPV may provide long-term protection against HPV31.
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November 2019

A Comparison of Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Carriage in Very Young Fijian Infants Born by Vaginal or Cesarean Delivery.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 10 2;2(10):e1913650. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Infection and Immunity, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Importance: Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage is a prerequisite for pneumococcal disease. The main transmission route is from toddlers, who commonly carry pneumococci. However, neonatal pneumococcal disease case reports suggest that vertical pneumococcal transmission may also occur.

Objective: To describe and compare pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and density by infant mode of delivery in young Fijian infants.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Annual cross-sectional surveys were performed in Suva, Fiji, before the introduction of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10), from September 14 to December 20, 2012, and after PCV10 was introduced, from July 11 to November 19, 2013; July 15 to December 9, 2014; and August 13 to November 19, 2015. Caregivers of 2006 infants aged 5 to 8 weeks participated in the surveys. Statistical analysis was performed from May 24, 2018, to August 12, 2019.

Exposures: Caregivers provided data on infant mode of delivery and demographics via interviewer-led survey.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Pneumococci in swab samples were detected and quantified by lytA quantitative polymerase chain reaction with molecular serotyping by microarray. Pneumococci were categorized as PCV10 or non-PCV10 serotypes.

Results: Of the 2006 infants (976 girls and 1030 boys; mean [SD] age, 6.1 [0.02] weeks]), 1742 (86.8%) were born vaginally and 264 were born by cesarean delivery. Infants delivered vaginally, compared with those born by cesarean delivery, had a higher prevalence of overall pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage (470 of 1722 [27.3%; 95% CI, 25.2%-29.4%] vs 47 of 260 [18.1%; 95% CI, 13.6%-23.3%]; P = .002), PCV10 carriage (113 of 1698 [6.7%; 95% CI, 5.5%-7.9%] vs 8 of 256 [3.1%; 95% CI, 1.4%-6.1%]; P = .03), and non-PCV10 carriage (355 of 1698 [20.9%; 95% CI, 19.0%-22.9%] vs 38 of 256 [14.8%; 95% CI, 10.7%-19.8%]; P = .02), and had higher median densities of overall pneumococci (4.9 log10 genome equivalents [GE]/mL [interquartile range, 4.8-5.0 log10 GE/mL] vs 4.5 log10 GE/mL [interquartile range, 4.1-4.6 log10 GE/mL]; P = .01) and non-PCV10 pneumococci (4.9 log10 GE/mL [interquartile range, 4.7-5.0 log10 GE/mL] vs 4.4 log10 GE/mL [interquartile range, 4.0-4.7 log10 GE/mL]; P = .01). Vaginal delivery was associated with overall (adjusted odds ratio, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.10-2.23]; P = .01) and non-PCV10 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.01-2.20]; P = .04]) pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage. Vaginal delivery was not associated with PCV10 carriage (adjusted odds ratio, 1.67 [95% CI, 0.80-3.51]; P = .17). After adjustment, vaginal delivery was not associated with density.

Conclusions And Relevance: Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence and density were higher in infants delivered vaginally compared with those delivered by cesarean birth. After adjustment, vaginal delivery was associated with pneumococcal carriage. Differences in carriage by mode of delivery may be due to differential exposure to the vaginal microbiota during delivery and the effect of intrapartum antibiotics during cesarean delivery on the infant microbiome. Our findings also raise the hypothesis that vertical transmission may contribute to pneumococcal acquisition.
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October 2019

Effect of ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction on pneumococcal carriage in Fiji: results from four annual cross-sectional carriage surveys.

Lancet Glob Health 2018 12;6(12):e1375-e1385

Pneumococcal Research, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Background: The indirect effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are mediated through reductions in carriage of vaccine serotypes. Data on PCVs in Asia and the Pacific are scarce. Fiji introduced the ten-valent PCV (PCV10) in 2012, with a schedule consisting of three priming doses at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age and no booster dose (3 + 0 schedule) without catch-up. We investigated the effects of PCV10 introduction using cross-sectional nasopharyngeal carriage surveys.

Methods: We did four annual carriage surveys (one pre-PCV10 and three post-PCV10) in the greater Suva area in Fiji, during 2012-15, of 5-8-week-old infants, 12-23-month-old children, 2-6-year-old children, and their caregivers (total of 8109 participants). Eligible participants were of appropriate age, had axillary temperature lower than 37°C, and had lived in the community for at least 3 consecutive months. We used purposive quota sampling to ensure a proper representation of the Fiji population. Pneumococci were detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and molecular serotyping was done with microarray.

Findings: 3 years after PCV10 introduction, vaccine-serotype carriage prevalence declined, with adjusted prevalences (2015 vs 2012) of 0·56 (95% CI 0·34-0·93) in 5-8-week-old infants, 0·34 (0·23-0·49) in 12-23-month-olds, 0·47 (0·34-0·66) in 2-6-year-olds, and 0·43 (0·13-1·42) in caregivers. Reductions in PCV10 serotype carriage were evident in both main ethnic groups in Fiji; however, carriage of non-PCV10 serotypes increased in Indigenous Fijian infants and children. Density of PCV10 serotypes and non-PCV10 serotypes was lower in PCV10-vaccinated children aged 12-23 months than in PCV10-unvaccinated children of the same age group (PCV10 serotypes -0·56 [95% CI -0·98 to -0·15], p=0·0077; non-PCV10 serotypes -0·29 [-0·57 to -0·02], p=0·0334).

Interpretation: Direct and indirect effects on pneumococcal carriage post-PCV10 are likely to result in reductions in pneumococcal disease, including in infants too young to be vaccinated. Serotype replacement in carriage in Fijian children, particularly Indigenous children, warrants further monitoring. Observed changes in pneumococcal density might be temporal rather than vaccine related.

Funding: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade of the Australian Government through the Fiji Health Sector Support Program; Victorian Government's Operational Infrastructure Support Program; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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December 2018

Cellular Immune Responses 6 Years Following 1, 2, or 3 Doses of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine in Fijian Girls and Subsequent Responses to a Dose of Bivalent HPV Vaccine.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Jul 20;5(7):ofy147. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Background: This study examined the cellular immunity of 0, 1, 2, and 3 doses of Gardasil vaccine (4vHPV) in girls after 6 years and their responses to a subsequent dose of Cervarix vaccine (2vHPV).

Methods: A subset of girls (n = 59) who previously received 0, 1, 2, or 3 doses of 4vHPV 6 years earlier were randomly selected from a cohort study of Fijian girls (age 15-19 years). Blood was collected before and 28 days after a dose of 2vHPV. The HPV16- and HPV18-specific cellular immune response was determined by IFNγ-ELISPOT and by measurement of cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants.

Results: Six years after 4vHPV vaccination, HPV18-specific responses were significantly lower in the 1- (1D) or 2-dose (2D) recipients compared with 3-dose recipients (2D: IFNγ-ELISPOT: = .008; cytokines, IFNγ: = .002; IL-2: = .022; TNFα: = .016; IL-10: = .018; 1D: IL-2: = .031; IL-10: = .014). These differences were no longer significant post-2vHPV. No significant differences in HPV16 responses (except IL-2, < .05) were observed between the 2- or 1-dose recipients and 3-dose recipients.

Conclusions: These data suggest that cellular immunity following reduced-dose schedules was detectable after 6 years, although the responses were variable between HPV types and dosage groups. The clinical significance of this is unknown. Further studies on the impact of reduced dose schedules are needed, particularly in high-disease burden settings.
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July 2018

Sustained Antibody Responses 6 Years Following 1, 2, or 3 Doses of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine in Adolescent Fijian Girls, and Subsequent Responses to a Single Dose of Bivalent HPV Vaccine: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Apr;64(7):852-859

Pneumococcal Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, and.

Background: The duration of antibody response following reduced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine doses has not been determined. We compared the antibody responses in girls previously vaccinated with zero, 1, 2, or 3 doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV; Gardasil, Merck) 6 years previously.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken in 200 Fijian girls 15-19 years of age. Approximately equal numbers of girls from 2 main ethnic groups (Fijians of Indian descent [FID] and Indigenous Fijians [iTaukei]) in Fiji were recruited for each dosage groups. Blood was drawn before and 28 days following a single dose of bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV; Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline). We measured neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 using the pseudovirion-based neutralization assay.

Results: After 6 years (before a dose of 2vHPV was given), the geometric mean NAb titers for all 4 HPV types were not statistically different between 2-dose (2D) and 3-dose (3D) recipients: HPV-6 (3D: 2216 [95% confidence interval {CI},1695-2896]; 2D: 1476 [95% CI, 1019-2137]; P = .07), HPV-11 (3D: 4431 [95% CI, 3396-5783]; 2D: 2951 [95% CI, 1984-4390]; P = .09), HPV-16 (3D: 3373 [95% CI, 2511-4530]; 2D: 3275 [95% CI, 2452-4373]; P = .89); HPV-18 (3D: 628 [95% CI: 445-888]; 2D: 606 [95% CI, 462-862]; P = .89), and were higher in FID than iTaukei girls. Although 1-dose recipients had significantly lower NAb titers than 2-/3-dose recipients, their NAb titers were 5- to 30-fold higher than unvaccinated girls. Post-2vHPV NAb titers against HPV-16 and -18 were not statistically different between girls who received 1, 2, or 3 doses of 4vHPV previously.

Conclusions: Two doses of 4vHPV provide similar NAb titers as 3 doses for 6 years, although the clinical significance is unknown. A single dose of 4vHPV elicits antibodies that persisted for at least 6 years, and induced immune memory, suggesting possible protection against HPV vaccine types after a single dose of 4vHPV.
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April 2017