Publications by authors named "Siham Boukour"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

An incomplete trafficking defect to the cell-surface leads to paradoxical thrombocytosis for human and murine MPL P106L.

Blood 2016 12 10;128(26):3146-3158. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

INSERM, UMR 1170, Équipe labellisée Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

The mechanisms behind the hereditary thrombocytosis induced by the thrombopoietin (THPO) receptor MPL P106L mutant remain unknown. A complete trafficking defect to the cell surface has been reported, suggesting either weak constitutive activity or nonconventional THPO-dependent mechanisms. Here, we report that the thrombocytosis phenotype induced by MPL P106L belongs to the paradoxical group, where low MPL levels on platelets and mature megakaryocytes (MKs) lead to high serum THPO levels, whereas weak but not absent MPL cell-surface localization in earlier MK progenitors allows response to THPO by signaling and amplification of the platelet lineage. MK progenitors from patients showed no spontaneous growth and responded to THPO, and MKs expressed MPL on their cell surface at low levels, whereas their platelets did not respond to THPO. Transduction of MPL P106L in CD34 cells showed that this receptor was more efficiently localized at the cell surface on immature than on mature MKs, explaining a proliferative response to THPO of immature cells and a defect in THPO clearance in mature cells. In a retroviral mouse model performed in Mpl mice, MPL P106L could induce a thrombocytosis phenotype with high circulating THPO levels. Furthermore, we could select THPO-dependent cell lines with more cell-surface MPL P106L localization that was detected by flow cytometry and [I]-THPO binding. Altogether, these results demonstrate that MPL P106L is a receptor with an incomplete defect in trafficking, which induces a low but not absent localization of the receptor on cell surface and a response to THPO in immature MK cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-06-722058DOI Listing
December 2016

Carboxyl-terminal-dependent recruitment of nonmuscle myosin II to megakaryocyte contractile ring during polyploidization.

Blood 2014 Oct 2;124(16):2564-8. Epub 2014 Sep 2.

INSERM UMR1009, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; Université Paris-Sud, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1009, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; Institut Gustave Roussy, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1009, Villejuif, France; and.

Endomitosis is a unique megakaryocyte (MK) differentiation process that is the consequence of a late cytokinesis failure associated with a contractile ring defect. Evidence from in vitro studies has revealed the distinct roles of 2 nonmuscle myosin IIs (NMIIs) on MK endomitosis: only NMII-B (MYH10), but not NMII-A (MYH9), is localized in the MK contractile ring and implicated in mitosis/endomitosis transition. Here, we studied 2 transgenic mouse models in which nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (NMHC) II-A was genetically replaced either by II-B or by a chimeric NMHCII that combined the head domain of II-A with the rod and tail domains of II-B. This study provides in vivo evidence on the specific role of NMII-B on MK polyploidization. It demonstrates that the carboxyl-terminal domain of the heavy chains determines myosin II localization to the MK contractile ring and is responsible for the specific role of NMII-B in MK polyploidization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-06-584995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199958PMC
October 2014

A new form of macrothrombocytopenia induced by a germ-line mutation in the PRKACG gene.

Blood 2014 Oct 24;124(16):2554-63. Epub 2014 Jul 24.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité Mixte de Recherche 1009, Université Paris-Sud 11, Equipe Labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer, Villejuif, France; Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France;

Macrothrombocytopenias are the most important subgroup of inherited thrombocytopenias. This subgroup is particularly heterogeneous because the affected genes are involved in various functions such as cell signaling, cytoskeleton organization, and gene expression. Herein we describe the clinical and hematological features of a consanguineous family with a severe autosomal recessive macrothrombocytopenia associated with a thrombocytopathy inducing a bleeding tendency in the homozygous mutated patients. Platelet activation and cytoskeleton reorganization were impaired in these homozygous patients. Exome sequencing identified a c.222C>G mutation (missense p.74Ile>Met) in PRKACG, a gene encoding the γ-catalytic subunit of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase, the mutated allele cosegregating with the macrothrombocytopenia. We demonstrate that the p.74Ile>Met PRKACG mutation is associated with a marked defect in proplatelet formation and a low level in filamin A in megakaryocytes (MKs). The defect in proplatelet formation was rescued in vitro by lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of wild-type PRKACG in patient MKs. We thus conclude that PRKACG is a new central actor in platelet biogenesis and a new gene involved in inherited thrombocytopenia with giant platelets associated with a thrombocytopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-01-551820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199957PMC
October 2014

Loss of the F-BAR protein CIP4 reduces platelet production by impairing membrane-cytoskeleton remodeling.

Blood 2013 Sep 23;122(10):1695-706. Epub 2013 Jul 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center and Children's Memorial Hospital, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Megakaryocytes generate platelets through extensive reorganization of the cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. Cdc42 interacting protein 4 (CIP4) is an F-BAR protein that localizes to membrane phospholipids through its BAR domain and interacts with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) via its SRC homology 3 domain. F-BAR proteins promote actin polymerization and membrane tubulation. To study its function, we generated CIP4-null mice that displayed thrombocytopenia similar to that of WAS(-) mice. The number of megakaryocytes and their progenitors was not affected. However, the number of proplatelet protrusions was reduced in CIP4-null, but not WAS(-), megakaryocytes. Electron micrographs of CIP4-null megakaryocytes showed an altered demarcation membrane system. Silencing of CIP4, not WASP, expression resulted in fewer proplatelet-like extensions. Fluorescence anisotropy studies showed that loss of CIP4 resulted in a more rigid membrane. Micropipette aspiration demonstrated decreased cortical actin tension in megakaryocytic cells with reduced CIP4 or WASP protein. These studies support a new biophysical mechanism for platelet biogenesis whereby CIP4 enhances the complex, dynamic reorganization of the plasma membrane (WASP independent) and actin cortex network (as known for WASP and cortical actin) to reduce the work required for generating proplatelets. CIP4 is a new component in the highly coordinated system of megakaryocytic membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling affecting platelet production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-03-484550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3765055PMC
September 2013

Monocytic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells and fetal liver share common differentiation pathways and homeostatic functions.

Blood 2011 Mar 13;117(11):3065-75. Epub 2010 Dec 13.

Inserm, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

The early emergence of macrophages and their large pattern of tissue distribution during development suggest that they may play a critical role in the initial steps of embryogenesis. In the present study, we show that monocytic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and from fetal liver follow a differentiation pathway different to that of adult cells, leading to specific functions. Embryonic and fetal monocytic cells differentiated from a CD14(low)CD16(-) precursor to form CD14(high)CD16(+) cells without producing the CD14(high)CD16(-) cell population that predominates in adult peripheral blood. Both demonstrated an enhanced expression of genes encoding tissue-degrading enzymes, chemokines, and scavenger receptors, as was previously reported for M2 macrophages. Compared with adult blood monocytes, embryonic and fetal monocytic cells secreted high amounts of proteins acting on tissue remodeling and angiogenesis, and most of them expressed the Tie2 receptor. Furthermore, they promoted vascular remodeling in xenotransplanted human tumors. These findings suggest that the regulation of human fetal and embryonic monocytic cell differentiation leads to the generation of cells endowed mainly with anti-inflammatory and remodeling functions. Trophic and immunosuppressive functions of M2-polarized macrophages link fetus and tumor development, and hESCs offer a valuable experimental model for in vitro studies of mechanisms sustaining these processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-07-295246DOI Listing
March 2011

miR-28 is a thrombopoietin receptor targeting microRNA detected in a fraction of myeloproliferative neoplasm patient platelets.

Blood 2010 Jul 5;116(3):437-45. Epub 2010 May 5.

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd, Brussels, Belgium.

BCR-ABL negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs; polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, primary myelofibrosis) are malignant diseases arising from a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor, frequently altered by JAK2 V617F or other JAK/STAT activating mutations. The thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR, MPL) is one of the major dimeric cytokine receptors that use JAK2 in the myeloid lineage, and was found to be down-modulated in certain MPN patients. We searched for negative regulators of MPL expression. Here we report that miR-28 targets the 3' untranslated (3'UTR) region of MPL, inhibiting its translation, as well as other proteins potentially involved in megakaryocyte differentiation, such as E2F6. Expression of miR-28 in CD34-derived megakaryocytes inhibited terminal differentiation. miR-28 was found to be overexpressed in platelets of a fraction of MPN patients, while it was expressed at constant low levels in platelets from healthy subjects. Constitutive activation of STAT5 leading to autonomous growth of hematopoietic cell lines was associated with increased miR-28 expression. We discuss how down-modulating MPL and other targets of miR-28, and of related miR-708 and miR-151, could contribute to MPN pathogenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-06-165985DOI Listing
July 2010

Platelets and viruses: an ambivalent relationship.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2010 Feb 12;67(4):545-56. Epub 2009 Dec 12.

Service d'Hématologie et d'Immunologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne-Billancourt, 92100 Paris, France.

Thrombocytopenia is a frequent complication of viral infections providing evidence that interaction of platelets with viruses is an important pathophysiological phenomenon. Multiple mechanisms are involved depending on the nature of the viruses involved. These include immunological platelet destruction, inappropriate platelet activation and consumption, and impaired megakaryopoiesis. Viruses bind platelets through specific receptors and identified ligands, which lead to mutual alterations of both the platelet host and the viral aggressor. We have shown that HIV-1 viruses are internalized specifically in platelets and megakaryocytes, where they can be either sheltered, unaltered (with potential transfer of the viruses into target organs), or come in contact with platelet secretory products leading to virus destruction and facilitated platelet clearance. In this issue, we have reviewed the various pathways that platelets use in order to interact with viruses, HIV and others. This review also shows that more work is still needed to precisely identify platelet roles in viral infections, and to answer the challenge of viral safety in platelet transfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-009-0209-xDOI Listing
February 2010

MAL/SRF complex is involved in platelet formation and megakaryocyte migration by regulating MYL9 (MLC2) and MMP9.

Blood 2009 Nov 1;114(19):4221-32. Epub 2009 Sep 1.

Inserm, U790, Villejuif, France.

Megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MAL) is a transcriptional coactivator of serum response factor (SRF). In acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, the MAL gene is translocated and fused with the gene encoding one twenty-two (OTT). Herein, we show that MAL expression increases during the late differentiation steps of neonate and adult human megakaryopoiesis and localized into the nucleus after Rho GTPase activation by adhesion on collagen I or convulxin. MAL knockdown in megakaryocyte progenitors reduced the percentage of cells forming filopodia, lamellipodia, and stress fibers after adhesion on the same substrates, and reduced proplatelet formation. MAL repression led to dysmorphic megakaryocytes with disorganized demarcation membranes and alpha granules heterogeneously scattered in the cytoplasm. Gene expression profiling revealed a marked decrease in metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and MYL9 expression after MAL inhibition. Luciferase assays in HEK293T cells and chromatin immunoprecipitation in primary megakaryocytes showed that the MAL/SRF complex directly regulates MYL9 and MMP9 in vitro. Megakaryocyte migration in response to stromal cell-derived factor 1, through Matrigel was considerably decreased after MAL knockdown, implicating MMP9 in migration. Finally, the use of a shRNA to decrease MYL9 expression showed that MYL9 was involved in proplatelet formation. MAL/SRF complex is thus involved in platelet formation and megakaryocyte migration by regulating MYL9 and MMP9.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-03-209932DOI Listing
November 2009

Unusual evolution of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia into osteolytic myeloma.

Eur J Haematol 2006 Jul;77(1):74-9

Service d'Hématologie et d'Immunologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne, France.

We report the unusual transformation of a case of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) into IgM multiple myeloma (MM). The initial clinical and biological presentation of the disease was typical smouldering WM, with lymphocytic infiltration of the bone marrow. Five years later, signs of transformation appeared: the patient presented with diffuse osteolytic bone lesions without organomegaly, and the bone marrow was infiltrated with characteristic malignant plasma cells. Electron microscopy (EM) examination showed that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the dysmorphic plasma cells contained monoclonal IgM. Immunolabeling for calreticulin, a resident protein of the ER, demonstrated unequivocally that the characteristic intranuclear inclusions were indeed part of ER. Flow cytometry revealed an MM profile for the cellular proliferation. Molecular biology performed on the final marrow could only retrieve a single cellular clone. In conclusion, this is the first documented description of the transformation of typical WM into an aggressive form of MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.2006.00654.xDOI Listing
July 2006

Deficiency in the Wiskott-Aldrich protein induces premature proplatelet formation and platelet production in the bone marrow compartment.

Blood 2006 Jul 7;108(1):134-40. Epub 2006 Mar 7.

Institut National de la Santé etde la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U790, Université Paris XI, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejut, France.

The pathophysiology of microthrombocytopenia in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and its milder form, X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT), is unclear. Although quantitative defects are correctable by splenectomy, residual platelet abnormalities are suggestive of intrinsic disturbances of production. In contrast to human patients, murine models of WASp deficiency exhibit only mild thrombocytopenia, and platelets are of normal size. Here, we have identified a critical role for WASp during murine platelet biogenesis. By electron microscopy, WASp-deficient MKs appeared to have shed platelets ectopically within the bone marrow space. WASp-deficient megakaryocytes (MKs) also displayed defects in response to fibrillar collagen I (CI) in vitro, the major matrix component of bone. These included a loss of normal CI receptor (alpha2beta1 integrin)-mediated inhibition of proplatelet formation, a marked abrogation of SDF-1-induced chemotactic migration of CD41+ MKs adherent to CI, and an almost complete lack of actin-rich podosomes, normally induced by interaction between CI and its receptors GPVI or alpha2beta1 integrin. These findings highlight the central and highly specialized role of WASp in MKs during platelet biogenesis, and may provide a mechanism for the mild thrombocytopenia observed in WASp-deficient mice. In addition, they suggest a novel explanation for some of the platelet abnormalities characteristic of patients with WAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2005-03-1219DOI Listing
July 2006

Platelet interaction with bacteria.

Platelets 2005 May-Jun;16(3-4):215-7

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537100500136941DOI Listing
October 2005
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