Publications by authors named "Signe Risum"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

High-dose versus standard-dose twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy for patients with limited stage small-cell lung cancer: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 03;22(3):321-331

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Oncology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.

Background: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for limited stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy of 45 Gy in 30 fractions is considered to be the most effective schedule. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-dose, twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy of 60 Gy in 40 fractions improves survival.

Methods: This open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial was done at 22 public hospitals in Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. Patients aged 18 years and older with treatment-naive confirmed limited stage SCLC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-2, and measurable disease according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 were eligible. All participants received four courses of intravenous cisplatin 75 mg/m or carboplatin (area under the curve 5-6 mg/mL × min, Calvert's formula) on day 1 and intravenous etoposide 100 mg/m on days 1-3 every 3 weeks. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) in permuted blocks (sized between 4 and 10) stratifying for ECOG performance status, disease stage, and presence of pleural effusion to receive thoracic radiotherapy of 45 Gy in 30 fractions or 60 Gy in 40 fractions to the primary lung tumour and PET-CT positive lymph node metastases starting 20-28 days after the first chemotherapy course. Patients in both groups received two fractions per day, ten fractions per week. Responders were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation of 25-30 Gy. The primary endpoint, 2-year overall survival, was assessed after all patients had been followed up for a minimum of 2 years. All randomly assigned patients were included in the efficacy analyses, patients commencing thoracic radiotherapy were included in the safety analyses. Follow-up is ongoing. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02041845.

Findings: Between July 8, 2014, and June 6, 2018, 176 patients were enrolled, 170 of whom were randomly assigned to 60 Gy (n=89) or 45 Gy (n=81). Median follow-up for the primary analysis was 49 months (IQR 38-56). At 2 years, 66 (74·2% [95% CI 63·8-82·9]) patients in the 60 Gy group were alive, compared with 39 (48·1% [36·9-59·5]) patients in the 45 Gy group (odds ratio 3·09 [95% CI 1·62-5·89]; p=0·0005). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (72 [81%] of 89 patients in the 60 Gy group vs 62 [81%] of 77 patients in the 45 Gy group), neutropenic infections (24 [27%] vs 30 [39%]), thrombocytopenia (21 [24%] vs 19 [25%]), anaemia (14 [16%] vs 15 [20%]), and oesophagitis (19 [21%] vs 14 [18%]). There were 55 serious adverse events in 38 patients in the 60 Gy group and 56 serious adverse events in 44 patients in the 45 Gy group. There were three treatment-related deaths in each group (one neutropenic fever, one aortic dissection, and one pneumonitis in the 60 Gy group; one thrombocytic bleeding, one cerebral infarction, and one myocardial infarction in the 45 Gy group).

Interpretation: The higher radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy resulted in a substantial survival improvement compared with 45 Gy, without increased toxicity, suggesting that twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy of 60 Gy is an alternative to existing schedules.

Funding: The Norwegian Cancer Society, The Liaison Committee for Education, Research and Innovation in Central Norway, the Nordic Cancer Union, and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30742-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Intrafractional fiducial marker position variations in stereotactic liver radiotherapy during voluntary deep inspiration breath-hold.

Br J Radiol 2020 Dec 11;93(1116):20200859. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objectives: To evaluate intrafractional fiducial marker position variations during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients treated for liver metastases in visually guided, voluntary deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH).

Methods: 10 patients with implanted fiducial markers were studied. Respiratory coaching with visual guidance was used to ensure comfortable voluntary breath-holds for SBRT imaging and delivery. Three DIBH CTs were acquired for treatment planning. Pre- and post-treatment CBCTs were acquired for each of the three treatment fractions. Per-fraction marker position was evaluated on planar 2D kV images acquired during treatment fractions for 4 of the 10 patients.

Results: The median difference in marker position was 0.3 cm (range, 0.0-0.9 cm) between the three DIBH CTs and 0.3 cm (range, 0.1 to 1.4 cm) between pre- and post-treatment CBCTs. The maximum intrafractional variation in marker position in craniocaudal (CC) direction on planar kV images was 0.7 to 1.3 cm and up to 1.0 cm during a single DIBH.

Conclusion: Difference in marker position of up to 1.0 cm was observed during a single DIBH despite use of narrow external gating window and visual feedback. Stability examination on pre-treatment DIBH CTs was not sufficient to guarantee per-fraction stability. Evaluation of differences in marker position on pre- and post-treatment CBCT did not always reveal the full magnitude of the intrafractional variation.

Advances In Knowledge: To increase treatment accuracy, it is necessary to apply real-time monitoring of the tumour or a reliable internal surrogate when delivering liver SBRT in voluntary DIBH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716004PMC
December 2020

Hitherto unseen survival in an ALK-positive-patient with advanced stage adult ganglioneuroblastoma treated with personalized medicine.

Clin Case Rep 2017 12 7;5(12):2085-2087. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Department of Oncology ENETS Neuroendocrine Tumor Centre of Excellence Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital Copenhagen DK-2100 Denmark.

Survival of stage 4 ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB) patients is poor; no reports exist of patients surviving up to 5 years (1, 2). We report the clinical and therapeutic course of a patient with stage 4 GNB surviving beyond expectations due to a multimodal treatment approach incorporating new technologies in cancer diagnostic and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.1262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5715430PMC
December 2017

Incidence and survival from lung cancer in Greenland is comparable to survival in the Nordic countries.

Dan Med J 2015 Apr;62(4):A5033

Medical Department, Queen Ingrid's Hospital, Box 3333, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland.

Introduction: Oncological treatment of lung cancer has been available in Greenland since 2004. We evaluated patient characteristics and survival rates for the first six years of local lung cancer treatment.

Methods: From September 2004 to August 2010, a total of 173 patients with lung cancer were referred to treatment at Queen Ingrid's Hospital. On 1 February 2014, treatment results, survival, and prognostic variables were analysed.

Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 63 years. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was diagnosed in 145 patients (84%); 56% had squamous cell carcinoma, 34% had adenocarcinoma, 2% had large cell carcinoma and 8% had NSCLC not otherwise specified (NOS). In all, 28 (16%) had small cell lung cancer. A total of 142 patients (82%) received treatment; 20 underwent surgery (ten stage Ib, one stage IIa, five stage IIb, four stage IIIa); palliative chemotherapy was given to 122 of the 142 treated patients (86%). Of these, 36 patients (30%) received second-line chemotherapy.The median survival of patients undergoing primary lobectomy/pneumonectomy, palliative chemotherapy, and no treatment was 76.3 months, 11.8 months, and 2.0 months, respectively (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Evaluation of the first six years of lung cancer treatment in Greenland revealed a disease incidence and survival comparable to those found in the Nordic countries. To further decrease mortality from lung cancer, health-care resources should continue to be allocated to the prevention and treatment of lung cancer in Greenland.

Funding: not relevant.

Trial Registration: not relevant.
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April 2015

Positron emission tomography/computed tomography predictors of overall survival in stage IIIC/IV ovarian cancer.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2012 Sep;22(7):1163-9

Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: To evaluate the role of 2-deoxy-2-(F)fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for selecting patients with extensive ovarian cancer (OC) for neoadjuvant chemotherapy by evaluating predictors of overall survival in patients with stage IIIC/IV OC.

Materials And Methods: From September 1, 2004, to November 20, 2011, 514 consecutive patients with a pelvic tumor underwent preoperative PET/CT; 179 patients had stage IIIC/IV OC. Patients' characteristics were collected from 153 patients with stage IIIC/IV OC who underwent primary surgery. In 152 patients with stage IIIC/IV OC, clinical predictors and PET/CT predictors of survival were evaluated.

Results: Median age was 64 years (range, 38-88 years); 87% (113) of the 153 patients had a performance status of less than 2; 55% (84) of the 153 patients had PET/CT stage III, and 45% (69) of the 153 patients had PET/CT stage IV. Using univariate analysis, incomplete debulking (P = 0.0001), pleural exudates (P = 0.001), postmenopausal state (P = 0.01), WHO performance status greater than 2 (P = 0.01), PET/CT stage IV (P = 0.01), and large bowel mesentery implants (P = 0.02) were statistically significant prognostic variables. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, incomplete debulking was the only statistically significant independent prognostic variable (P = 0.0001). Median overall survival was significantly longer in the 53 patients with no residual tumor than in the 99 patients with residual tumor (33.3 vs 25.5 months; P = 0.0001)

Conclusion: Suggested PET/CT criteria for referral of patients with advanced OC to neoadjuvant chemotherapy are PET/CT stage IV, pleural exudates, and PET-positive large bowel mesentery implants. Evaluation of selection criteria for neoadjuvant chemotherapy should be promoted in prospective clinical trials, with survival as the primary end point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0b013e3182606ecbDOI Listing
September 2012

A novel proteomic biomarker panel as a diagnostic tool for patients with ovarian cancer.

Gynecol Oncol 2011 Nov 19;123(2):308-13. Epub 2011 Aug 19.

University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Previous reports have shown that the proteomic markers apolipoprotein A1, hepcidin, transferrin, inter-alpha trypsin IV internal fragment, transthyretin, connective-tissue activating protein 3 and beta-2 microglobulin may discriminate between a benign pelvic mass and ovarian cancer (OC). The aim was to determine if these serum proteomic biomarkers alone as well as in combination with age and serum CA125, could be helpful in triage of women with a pelvic mass.

Methods: We included prospectively 144 patients diagnosed with (OC), 40 with a borderline tumor and 469 with a benign tumor. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry was used for analyses. The Danish Index (DK-Index) based on the proteomic data, age and CA125 was developed using logistic regression models.

Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the selected proteomic markers, CA125 and age were independent predictors of OC and the combination of these is proposed as the DK-index. A sensitivity (SN) of 99% had a specificity (SP) of 57% for DK-index and 49% for CA125. At a SN of 95%, the SP increased to 81% for DK-index compared to 68% for CA125 alone. For stage I+II the SP was 58% for DK-index and 49% for CA125. For stage III+IV the corresponding values were 94% and 86% respectively.

Conclusions: The DK-index warrants further evaluation in independent cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2011.07.018DOI Listing
November 2011

Comparison of proteomic biomarker panels in urine and serum for ovarian cancer diagnosis.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2010 Mar 4;4(3):304-14. Epub 2010 Jan 4.

Department of Gynaecology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose: The purposes of this study were to confirm previously found candidate epithelial ovarian cancer biomarkers in urine and to compare a paired serum biomarker panel and a urine biomarker panel from the same study cohort with regard to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) area under the ROC curve (AUC) values.

Experimental Design: Four significant urine biomarkers were confirmed among 130 pelvic mass patients in the present study. The four biomarkers form a potential urine biomarker panel. From the same study cohort, the potential urine biomarker panel was compared to a serum biomarker panel, consisting of seven proteins/peptides, OvaRI.

Results: Multivariate analysis of the urine panel demonstrated a significant differentiation (p<0.0001) between epithelial ovarian cancer patients and patients with benign ovarian pelvic masses. The ROC AUC of the urine panel was 0.84 and the ROC AUC of OvaRI was 0.83. Combining the urine panel with OvaRI demonstrated a significant contribution from both, for urine peaks, OR=2.12 and for OvaRI, OR=1.39; the ROC AUC of this model was 0.88.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: We demonstrated that both urine and serum can be used individually or in combination to potentially aid in ovarian cancer diagnostics. Urine proteomic profiling could provide biomarkers for the non-invasive test required in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prca.200900042DOI Listing
March 2010

Proteomic biomarkers for overall and progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2010 Dec;4(12):940-52

Department of Pathology, Danish CancerBiobank, Herlev University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose: To determine if the level of apolipoprotein A1, hepcidin, transferrin, inter-α trypsin IV internal fragment, transthyretin (TT), connective-tissue activating protein 3 (CTAP3), serum amyloid A1, β-2 microglobulin (B2M) might have impact on overall and progression-free survival for ovarian cancer (OC) patients.

Experimental Design: Serum from 150 OC patients was tested using SELDI-TOF-MS.

Results: A proteomic prognostic index (xb-pro) was constructed using the regression coefficients based on inter-α trypsin IV internal fragment, B2M and TT. A multivariable Cox survival analysis including the xb-pro index showed that xb-pro (p<0.0001, HR=2.50, 95% CI: 1.65-3.79), residual tumor after primary surgery (p=0.0005), age (p=0.01) and chemotherapy (p=0.0002) are of independent prognostic value for overall survival. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, performance status, histological type of tumor and serum CA125 were found of no independent value. A proteomic index (xb-pfs) based on B2M and CTAP3 was found to predict progression-free survival (xb-pfs: p=0.008, HR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.17-2.70 together with type of surgery, age and chemotherapy.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: We found an index with three proteomic biomarkers (xb-pro) to be of independent prognostic value for overall survival and an index with two proteomic biomarkers (xb-pfs) with evidence of independent prognostic value for progression-free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prca.200900171DOI Listing
December 2010

Standardized FDG uptake as a prognostic variable and as a predictor of incomplete cytoreduction in primary advanced ovarian cancer.

Acta Oncol 2011 Apr 11;50(3):415-9. Epub 2010 Aug 11.

Department of Oncology, the Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark.

Introduction: In patients with advanced ovarian cancer undergoing preoperative PET/CT, we investigated the prognostic value of SUV in the primary tumor and we evaluated the value of SUV for predicting incomplete primary cytoreduction (macroscopic residual tumor).

Material And Methods: From September 2004 to August 2007, 201 consecutive patients with a pelvic tumor and a Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) > 150 based on serum CA-125, ultrasound examinations and menopausal state, underwent PET/CT within two weeks prior to standard surgery/debulking of a pelvic tumor. At two-year follow-up (August 15, 2009) the association between SUV and overall survival/cytoreductive result were analyzed in 60 ovarian cancer patients (58 stage III and two stage IV).

Results: At inclusion median age was 62 years (range 35-85 years); 97% (58/60) had a performance status ≤2; 42% (25/60) underwent complete debulking (no macroscopic residual tumor); median SUV(max) was 13.5 (range 2.5-39.0). Median follow-up was 30.2 months. At follow-up 57% (34/60) were alive and 43% (26/60) had died from ovarian cancer. SUV(max) in patients alive was not statistically different from SUV(max) in dead patients (p=0.69), and SUV(max) was not correlated with the amount of residual tumor after surgery (p=0.19). Using univariate Cox regression analysis, residual tumor was a significant prognostic variable (p=0.001); SUV(max) was not a statistically significant prognostic variable (p=0.86).

Discussion: FDG uptake (SUV(max)) in the primary tumor of patients with advanced ovarian cancer was not a prognostic variable and the FDG uptake did not predict complete cytoreduction after primary surgery. Future prospective clinical trials will need to clarify if other PET tracers can serve as prognostic variables in ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0284186X.2010.500296DOI Listing
April 2011

A proteomics panel for predicting optimal primary cytoreduction in stage III/IV ovarian cancer.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2009 Dec;19(9):1535-8

Department of Oncology, Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate CA-125 and a 7-marker panel as predictors of incomplete primary cytoreduction in patients with stage III/IV ovarian cancer (OC). From September 2004 to January 2008, serum from 201 patients referred to surgery for a pelvic tumor was analyzed for CA-125. In addition, serum was analyzed for 7 biomarkers using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. These biomarkers were combined into a single-valued ovarian-cancer-risk index (OvaRI). CA-125 and OvaRI were evaluated as predictors of cytoreduction in 75 stage III/IV patients using receiver operating characteristic curves. Complete primary cytoreduction (no macroscopic residual disease) was achieved in 31% (23/75) of the patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.66 for CA-125 and 0.75 for OvaRI. The sensitivity and specificity of CA-125 for predicting incomplete cytoreduction were 71% (37/52) and 57% (13/23), respectively (P = 0.04). The sensitivity and specificity of OvaRI for predicting incomplete cytoreduction were 73% (38/52) and 70% (16/23), respectively (P = 0.001). In conclusion, CA-125 and an index of 7 biomarkers were found to be predictors of cytoreduction. However, future studies of biomarkers are anticipated to promote early diagnosis and provide prognostic information to guide treatment of OC patients. In addition, new biomarkers might also play a role in predicting outcome from primary surgery in OC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/IGC.0b013e3181a840f5DOI Listing
December 2009

Influence of 2-(18F) fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography on recurrent ovarian cancer diagnosis and on selection of patients for secondary cytoreductive surgery.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2009 May;19(4):600-4

Department of Oncology, Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The objective of this prospective study was to compare the sensitivities and the specificities of combined 2-(F) fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), abdominal/transvaginal ultrasound (US), and CT for diagnosing recurrent ovarian cancer (OC) and to evaluate the influence of PET/CT on referral of patients with solitary recurrence to secondary cytoreductive surgery. From April 2005 to November 2007, 60 patients were consecutively included to PET/CT 68 times. The inclusion criteria were remission of 3 months or longer and recurrent OC suspected from physical examination, US, or increasing cancer antigen 125 (CA125) level (>50 U/mL or >15% above baseline level). Recurrent OC was diagnosed 58 times in 52 patients. The sensitivities of US, CT, and PET/CT for diagnosing recurrence were 66% (P = 0.003), 81% (P = 0.0001), and 97% (P < 0.0001), respectively. The specificity of US, CT, and PET/CT for diagnosing recurrence was 90%. Positron emission tomography/CT diagnosed recurrence in 19 (66%) of 29 patients without recurrence according to US and in 10 (50%) of 20 patients without recurrence after CT. Multiple recurrent tumors were found using PET/CT in 27 (69%) of 39 patients with solitary tumors on US and in 8 (42%) of 19 patients with solitary tumors on CT. We conclude that the diagnostic value of PET/CT for detecting recurrent OC was higher than those of US and CT and that PET/CT more accurately identified patients with solitary recurrence. However, prospective clinical trials are needed to specify the characteristics of patients most likely to undergo complete secondary surgery and to further clarify the role of PET/CT in selecting patients for secondary surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/IGC.0b013e3181a3cc94DOI Listing
May 2009

The diagnostic value of PET/CT for primary ovarian cancer--a prospective study.

Gynecol Oncol 2007 Apr 16;105(1):145-9. Epub 2007 Jan 16.

Dept. of Oncology, 5073, The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objectives: To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic value of combined PET/CT in detecting a malignant tumor in patients with no previous cancer history, presenting with a pelvic mass.

Methods: From September 2004 to March 2006, 101 patients (median age=60 years, range=24-85 years) with a Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI)>150 based on serum CA-125, ultrasound examinations (US) and menopausal state, were referred to PET/CT within 2 weeks prior to standard surgery/debulking of a pelvic tumor. Histological specimens from 97 patients were evaluated and the histological diagnoses were compared to the PET/CT results to calculate the diagnostic value of PET/CT in differentiating between malignant and borderline/benign tumors. Four patients refrained from surgery or biopsy.

Results: The average serum CA-125 in the 97 studied patients was 784 U/ml (range=22-9665 U/ml). PET/CT demonstrated areas of abnormally increased metabolic activity considered highly suspicious for malignant tumor in 60 patients (62%). In 37 patients (38%) the tumors were considered benign on PET/CT. Histopathology showed benign tumors in 40 patients and malignant tumors in 57 patients. The sensitivity and specificity for PET/CT in diagnosing a malignant pelvic tumor were 100% (57/57) and 92.5% (37/40), respectively (P<0.00005).

Conclusion: Combined PET/CT demonstrates high diagnostic value in identifying primary ovarian cancer in patients with a pelvic mass of unknown origin and RMI>150. We suggest PET/CT as the image modality of choice when US shows a pelvic tumor and additional information prior to surgery is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2006.11.022DOI Listing
April 2007

[Plantar-palmar erythrodysesthesia. A new and relatively frequent side effect in antineoplastic treatment].

Ugeskr Laeger 2003 Aug;165(33):3161-2

Onkologisk Klinik, Finsencentret 5073, H:S Rigshospitalet, DK-2100 København ø.

Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE, hand-foot syndrome) is a relatively frequent cutaneous toxicity related to antineoplastic treatment with e.g. fluorouracil, capecitabine, and liposomal doxorubicin. It usually presents as paresthesia and painful erythema of the palms and soles and may lead to ulceration of the skin. The symptoms are dose-dependent, and the condition may be dose-limiting. Two cases of chemotherapy-associated PPE are presented.
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August 2003