Publications by authors named "Sidney F Miller"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Burn Center Barrier Protocols During Dressing Change: A National Survey.

J Burn Care Res 2015 Jul-Aug;36(4):e238-43

From the Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Infection control is a critical component of post-burn care with prevention of infection serving as a major cause of decreasing morbidity and mortality. One potential deterrent for infection is barrier protection during dressing changes; however, no evidence-based standard has been established among burn centers. The purpose of this study is to describe the current barrier techniques of American burn centers. A 24-question survey was sent to 121 burn center nurse managers within the United States. The survey was comprised of yes or no questions with comment sections available for further detail. Questions were constructed to gain insight into the variation and commonality that may exist between burn center barrier protocols. Forty-one out of 121 centers (34%) responded. Centers reported the use of head covers, masks, gowns, and gloves during admission of a new burn (71%, 82%, 95%, and 100% respectively); daily dressing changes (64%, 80%, 97%, and 100% respectively); postoperative dressing changes (64%, masks 80%, 97%, and 100% respectively); and dressing changes of a nonburn (66%, 82%, 97%, and 100% respectively). Burn centers reported their use of sterile gloves and gowns during typical burn dressing changes as occurring 20% and 10% of the time, respectively. Estimates for costs of these garments annually ranged from $0 to $250,000. A calculation performed for this study demonstrated that barrier garments used for dressing changes nationwide is approximately $2.43 million. We demonstrated the immense cost, to an institution and nationwide, of barrier garments used solely for dressing changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0000000000000136DOI Listing
April 2016

Comorbidity-polypharmacy score predicts in-hospital complications and the need for discharge to extended care facility in older burn patients.

J Burn Care Res 2015 Jan-Feb;36(1):193-6

From the Division of Trauma, Critical Care, and Burn, Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus.

Advancing age is associated with increased mortality despite smaller burn size. Chronic conditions are common in the elderly with resulting polypharmacy. The Comorbidity-Polypharmacy Score (CPS) facilitates quantitative assessment of the severity of comorbid conditions, or physiologic age. Burn injury in older patients is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality and the CPS may be predictive of outcomes such as mortality, ICU and hospital LOS, complications, and final hospital disposition. Our goal was to evaluate the predictive value of CPS for outcomes in the elderly burn population. A retrospective study was undertaken of 920 burn patients with age ≥45 admitted with acute burn injuries (January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2012). CPS was calculated by adding preinjury comorbidities and medications. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to CPS severity. Data collected included demographics, total body surface area burned (TBSA), presence of inhalation injury, ICU/hospital length of stay, complications, discharge disposition, and mortality. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The mean age was 55.7; 72.9% were males; the mean initial TBSA was 6.93%; and mean CPS was 8.01. The risk of in-hospital complications is independently associated with CPS (OR 1.35). CPS (OR 1.81) was an independent predictor of discharge to a facility CPS but not of mortality. While increasing CPS was associated with lower TBSA, mortality remained unchanged. CPS is an independent predictor of in-hospital complications and need for transfer to extended care facilities in older burn patients, which can be determined at the stage of admission to help direct patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0000000000000094DOI Listing
October 2015

Synopsis of the 2013 annual report of the national burn repository.

J Burn Care Res 2014 May-Jun;35 Suppl 2:S218-34

From the *Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York;, †E-B Research, Minneapolis, Minnesota;, ‡Paul Silverstein Burn Center, INTEGRIS Baptist Medical Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma;, §University of Utah College of Nursing, Salt Lake City;, ‖University of Utah Burn Center, Department of Surgery, Salt Lake City;, ¶The Nathan Speare Regional Burn Treatment Center, Crozer Chester Medical Center, Upland, Pennsylvania;, #Oregon Burn Center, Surgical & Burn Specialists, Portland;, **Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California;, ††The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus;, ‡‡Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois;, §§University of California San Diego Regional Burn Center, San Diego; ‖‖American Burn Association, Chicago, Illinois.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0000000000000080DOI Listing
November 2014

Response to: cause of death and correlation with autopsy findings in burns patient.

Authors:
Sidney F Miller

Burns 2013 Dec 14;39(8):1649. Epub 2013 Sep 14.

The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center Burn Center, 410 W. 10th Avenue N748 Doan Hall Columbus, OH 43210, United States. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2013.07.017DOI Listing
December 2013

Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of a nursing-driven midazolam protocol for the management of procedural pain associated with burn injuries.

J Burn Care Res 2013 Jan-Feb;34(1):176-82

Departments of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus OH 43210, USA.

Burn pain is one of the most excruciating types of pain and can be difficult to manage. Benzodiazepines may be effective in reducing pain by minimizing anxiety associated with dressing changes. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adjunctive midazolam during dressing changes in patients with uncontrolled pain using opioid monotherapy or significant anxiety associated with dressing changes. A retrospective cohort analysis comparing patients who received midazolam during dressing changes with control patients was performed. Each midazolam patient was matched with up to two control patients who did not receive midazolam on the basis of age, sex, TBSA burned, and grafting requirement. The primary endpoint was the oral morphine equivalents required during admission after initiation of midazolam. Thirty-six patients were included for evaluation (14 midazolam and 22 control patients). Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, although patients in the midazolam group had higher pain scores and oral morphine equivalent requirements at baseline. When adjusted for baseline pain, day postburn, age, sex, and grafting status, total oral morphine equivalents and mean pain scores during admission were similar between the groups. One midazolam patient experienced oxygen desaturation with midazolam, but did not require flumazenil for reversal. The use of midazolam during burn dressing changes in patients with poorly controlled pain and/or anxiety was not associated with reduced requirements for oral morphine equivalents or lower pain scores during admission. Further research into the role of benzodiazepines in burn pain management is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e31826fc611DOI Listing
June 2013

The relationship between acute and chronic hyperglycemia and outcomes in burn injury.

J Burn Care Res 2013 Jan-Feb;34(1):109-14

Department of Pharmacy, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

A significant proportion of patients with burn injury have diabetes. Although hyperglycemia during critical illness has been associated with poor outcomes, patients with chronic hyperglycemia based on elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurements at admission have been shown to tolerate higher glucose levels during hospitalization. This relationship has not been evaluated in the burn population. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of chronic glucose control on outcomes in the acute period after burn. This is a retrospective analysis comparing outcomes in patients with chronic hyperglycemia (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) and euglycemia (HbA1c <6.5%). Patients aged 18 to 89 years, admitted for initial burn care between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, with an HbA1c measurement at admission were included. The primary endpoint was unplanned readmissions, with secondary endpoints of length of stay and mortality. We included 258 patients (32 with chronic hyperglycemia and 226 with euglycemia). Burn severity was similar between the groups. Patients with chronic hyperglycemia were significantly older and were more likely to have diabetes, respiratory disease, and hypertension. Chronic hyperglycemia was associated with significantly higher time-weighted glucose and glucose variability. Survival rates were similar, but the chronic hyperglycemia group had a significantly longer length of stay (13 vs 9 days; P = .038) and a higher rate of unplanned readmission (18.8 vs 3.6%; P = .001). Chronic hyperglycemia before burn injury is associated with altered glycemic response after burn injury and worse outcomes. Further research is needed to identify whether chronic hyperglycemia necessitates a modified approach to burn care or glycemic management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e3182700025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3809904PMC
June 2013

Impact of early methadone initiation in critically injured burn patients: a pilot study.

J Burn Care Res 2013 May-Jun;34(3):342-8

Department of Pharmacy, Methodist Healthcare, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, USA.

Numerous studies have identified strategies to reduce mechanical ventilation duration by targeting appropriate sedation levels. However, applicability of these strategies to critically injured patients with burn injury has not been established. At our medical center, methadone is commonly used early in the care of burn patients to treat background pain and limit the development of opioid tolerance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of early methadone initiation in critically injured burn patients requiring mechanical ventilation. This retrospective study compared patients who received early methadone with patients who did not while mechanically ventilated with the primary outcome of ventilator-free days in a 28-day period. Those who received methadone within 4 days of intubation and remained ventilated for 2 days after the first dose were included in the methadone group. Propensity scores were used to match up to three control patients to each methadone patient. Seventy patients (18 methadone and 52 matched control patients) were included in the final evaluation. Patients in the methadone group averaged 16.5 ventilator-free days compared with 11.5 in the control group (P = .03). There was no statistical difference in the duration of intensive care unit or hospital length of stay between groups. Our results suggest that early methadone initiation may have a significant effect on ventilator outcomes in critically injured patients with burn injury. However, further research is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e3182642c27DOI Listing
October 2013

Are general surgeons behind the curve when it comes to disaster preparedness training? A survey of general surgery and emergency medicine trainees in the United States by the Eastern Association for the Surgery for Trauma Committee on Disaster Preparedness.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2012 Sep;73(3):612-7

JSH Cook County Trauma Unit, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Purpose: We think that general surgeons are underprepared to respond to mass casualty disasters. Preparedness education is required in emergency medicine (EM) residencies, yet such requirements are not mandated for general surgery (GS) training programs. We hypothesize that EM residents receive more training, consider themselves better prepared, and are more comfortable responding to disaster events than are GS residents.

Methods: From February to May 2009, the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-Committee on Disaster Preparedness conducted a Web-based survey cataloging training and preparedness levels in both GS and EM residents. Approximately 3000 surveys were sent. Chi-squared, logistic regression, and basic statistical analyses were performed with SAS.

Results: Eight hindered forty-eight responses were obtained, GS residents represented 60.6% of respondents with 39% EM residents, and four residents did not respond with their specialty (0.4%). We found significant disparities in formal training, perceived preparedness, and comfort levels between resident groups. Experience in real-life disaster response had a significant positive effect on comfort level in all injury categories in both groups (odds ratio, 1.3-4.3, p < 0.005).

Conclusion: This survey confirms that EM residents have more disaster-related training than GS residents. The data suggest that for both groups, comfort and confidence in treating victims were not associated with training but seemed related to previous real-life disaster experience. Given wide variations in the relationship between training and comfort levels and the constraints imposed by the 80-hour workweek, it is critical that we identify and implement the most effective means of training for all residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e318265c9d9DOI Listing
September 2012

Comorbidity-polypharmacy score: a novel adjunct in post-emergency department trauma triage.

J Surg Res 2013 May 31;181(1):16-9. Epub 2012 May 31.

Division of Critical Care, Trauma, and Burn, Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Objective: Post-emergency department triage of older trauma patients continues to be challenging, as morbidity and mortality for any given level of injury severity tend to increase with age. The comorbidity-polypharmacy score (CPS) combines the number of pre-injury medications with the number of comorbidities to estimate the severity of comorbid conditions. This retrospective study examines the relationship between CPS and triage accuracy for older (≥45y) patients admitted for traumatic injury.

Methods: Patients aged 45y and older presenting to level 1 trauma center from 2005 to 2008 were included. Basic data included patient demographics, injury severity score, morbidity and mortality, and functional outcome measures. CPS was calculated by adding total numbers of comorbid conditions and pre-injury medications. Patients were divided into three triage groups: undertriage (UT), appropriate triage (AT), and overtriage (OT). UT criteria included initial admission to the floor or step-down unit followed by an unplanned transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) within 24h of admission. OT was defined as initial ICU admission for <1d without stated need for ICU level of care (i.e., lack of evidence for tracheal intubation or mechanical ventilation, injury-related hemorrhage, or other traditional ICU indications, such as intracranial bleeding). All other patients were presumed to be correctly triaged. The three triage groups were then analyzed looking for contributors to mistriage.

Results: Charts for 711 patients were evaluated (mean age, 63.5y; 55.7% male; mean ISS, 9.02). Of those, 11 (1.55%) met criteria for UT and 14 (1.97%) for OT. The remaining 686 patients had no evidence of mistriage. The three groups were similar in terms of injury severity and GCS. The groups were significantly different with respect to CPS, with UT CPSs (14.9±6.80) being nearly three times higher than OT CPSs (5.14±3.48). There were more similarities between AT and OT groups, with the UT group being characterized by greater number of complications and lower functional outcomes at discharge (all, P<0.05). The UT group had significantly higher mortality (27%) than the AT and OT groups (6% and 0%, respectively).

Conclusions: In the era of medication reconciliation, CPS is easy to obtain and calculate in patients who are not critically injured. This study suggests that CPS may be a promising adjunct in identifying older trauma patients who are more likely to be undertriaged. The significance of our findings is especially important when considering that injury severity in the UT group was similar to that in the other groups. Further evaluation of CPS as a triage tool in acute trauma is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2012.05.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3717608PMC
May 2013

Presidential address: looking back in order to look ahead.

Authors:
Sidney F Miller

J Burn Care Res 2012 Jan-Feb;33(1):1-6

Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210-1228, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e31823347f6DOI Listing
May 2012

Early glycemic control in critically ill patients with burn injury.

J Burn Care Res 2011 Nov-Dec;32(6):583-90

Department of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Glucose management in patients with burn injury is often difficult because of their hypermetabolic state with associated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Recent studies suggest that time to glycemic control is associated with improved outcomes. The authors sought to determine the influence of early glycemic control on the outcomes of critically ill patients with burn injury. A retrospective analysis was performed at the Ohio State University Medical Center. Patients hospitalized with burn injury were enrolled if they were admitted to the intensive care unit between March 1, 2006, and February 28, 2009. Early glycemic control was defined as the achievement of a mean daily blood glucose of ≤150 mg/dl for at least two consecutive days by postburn day 3. Forty-six patients made up the study cohort with 26 achieving early glycemic control and 20 who did not. The two groups were similar at baseline with regard to age, pre-existing diabetes, APACHE II score and burn size and depth. There were no differences in number of surgical interventions, infectious complications, or length of stay between patients who achieved or failed early glycemic control. Failure of early glycemic control was, however, associated with significantly higher mortality both by univariate (35.0 vs 7.7%, P = .03) and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio 6.754 [1.16-39.24], P = .03) adjusting for age, TBSA, and inhalation injury. Failure to achieve early glycemic control in patients with burn injury is associated with an increased risk of mortality. However, further prospective controlled trials are needed to establish causality of this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e31822dc3daDOI Listing
March 2012

The diversity of wound presentation associated with freon contact frostbite injury.

J Burn Care Res 2010 Sep-Oct;31(5):809-12

Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

The authors report two cases of patients presenting with chemical frostbite-like injuries to the hands and wrists after contact exposure to Freon liquid. Although the history and initial physical presentations were quite similar, the severity of these injuries varied widely from superficial bullae to deep tissue injuries, requiring skin grafting and amputation of several digits. Freon is a widely used coolant in refrigerators, air conditioners, freezers, and water coolers, with a boiling point of -41°C. Although several cases of Freon-induced inhalational injury have been reported, few case reports of Freon-associated contact skin injury exist in the literature. The authors detail the broad diversity of injuries resulting from Freon contact as well as the first report of severe Freon injury necessitating skin grafting and amputation of multiple digits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e3181eed452DOI Listing
January 2011

Identification of cutaneous functional units related to burn scar contracture development.

J Burn Care Res 2009 Jul-Aug;30(4):625-31

United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, Texas, USA.

The development of burn scar contractures is due in part to the replacement of naturally pliable skin with an inadequate quantity and quality of extensible scar tissue. Predilected skin surface areas associated with limb range of motion (ROM) have a tendency to develop burn scar contractures that prevent full joint ROM leading to deformity, impairment, and disability. Previous study has documented forearm skin movement associated with wrist extension. The purpose of this study was to expand the identification of skin movement associated with ROM to all joint surface areas that have a tendency to develop burn scar contractures. Twenty male subjects without burns had anthropometric measurements recorded and skin marks placed on their torsos and dominant extremities. Each subject performed ranges of motion of nine common burn scar contracture sites with the markers photographed at the beginning and end of motion. The area of skin movement associated with joint ROM was recorded, normalized, and quantified as a percentage of total area. On average, subjects recruited 83% of available skin from a prescribed area to complete movement across all joints of interest (range, 18-100%). Recruitment of skin during wrist flexion demonstrated the greatest amount of variability between subjects, whereas recruitment of skin during knee extension demonstrated the most consistency. No association of skin movement was found related to percent body fat or body mass index. Skin recruitment was positively correlated with joint ROM. Fields of skin associated with normal ROM were identified and subsequently labeled as cutaneous functional units. The amount of skin involved in joint movement extended far beyond the immediate proximity of the joint skin creases themselves. This information may impact the design of rehabilitation programs for patients with severe burns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e3181ac016cDOI Listing
August 2009

National burn repository 2007 report: a synopsis of the 2007 call for data.

J Burn Care Res 2008 Nov-Dec;29(6):862-70; discussion 871

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e31818cb046DOI Listing
January 2009

Pressure necrosis masquerading as a burn injury in a patient with a cervical epidural abscess producing acute quadriplegia.

J Burn Care Res 2008 Jul-Aug;29(4):660-2

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Center for Burn Care, Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

A case of a patient with acute onset of quadriplegia from a cervical epidural abscess referred to our tertiary burn center is presented. The pattern of the patient's 'burns' suggested pressure necrosis. A literature review was undertaken of this unusual condition, its evaluation and management. Cervical epidural abscesses are rare and present in a variety of ways. Acute onset of quadriplegia without a history of trauma should trigger a workup to make the diagnosis. The management of complicating skin lesions or burns and the patient outcome will primarily be determined by the management of the epidural abscess.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e31817db878DOI Listing
November 2008

Reflections on the establishment of Ohio's trauma system: a 20-year effort.

Bull Am Coll Surg 2004 May;89(5):11-5

Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA.

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May 2004

Uniplanar external fixation for care of circumferential extremity burn wounds in adults.

J Burn Care Res 2007 Nov-Dec;28(6):892-6

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA.

The optimal management of circumferential extremity burns remains a challenge. Elevation of the extremity to decrease wound swelling and avoid pressure at the point of contact on new skin grafts is a standard objective but can be frequently difficult to accomplish. Although various forms of elevation have been proposed, our purpose was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the uniplanar external fixation (UEF) device in providing extremity elevation and stabilization while optimizing skin grafting. Intraoperative application of either upper or lower extremity UEF was performed at the time of eschar excision and application of split-thickness autografts. Inclusion criterion was that patients should be over 16 years of age with third-degree circumferential extremity burns that were planned for autologous skin grafting within 48 hours after their injury. Patient consent was obtained in every case. Eight patients aged 17 to 62 with circumferential extremity burns were reviewed. No pin-tract infections were observed, nor were any of the skin grafts lost due to shearing. Peripheral nerve and arterial injuries were not encountered. Only one patient with an oversized arm secondary to morbid obesity had a pin pull-out. No other patient developed adverse sequelae from the surgery or from the placement of the UEF device. The UEF device provides a safe and effective means for elevation of extremites in patients with circumferential extremity burns undergoing skin grafting. This allows for optimal access for skin grafting, dressing changes, and postoperative positioning. Shear injury and pressure necrosis of the fresh grafts is minimized. Increasing the number of pins in obese patients should be considered to avoid the complications of pin pull-out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e318159a437DOI Listing
January 2008

Is the glass really half empty? A closer look at the TBSA data in the National Burn Repository.

J Burn Care Res 2007 Jul-Aug;28(4):542-3

Lehigh Valley Medical Center, Allentown, PA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0B013E3180A03290DOI Listing
October 2007

National Burn Repository 2005: a ten-year review.

J Burn Care Res 2006 Jul-Aug;27(4):411-36

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

In the early 1990s, the American Burn Association (ABA) started its first burn registry development initiatives. The impetus for the registry development software originated from several directions, including the following: (1) the recognition that national registries were widespread and of proven benefit; (2) growing demands from accrediting institutions, payers, and patient advocacy groups for objective and verifiable data regarding patient costs, treatments, and outcomes; and (3) the shift toward "evidence-based" medicine and the ongoing analysis of treatment effectiveness. The ABA has issued three calls for burn registry data for its National Burn Repository (NBR): 1994, 2002, and 2005. In 1994, 28 burn centers contributed data for more than 6,400 patients treated from 1991 to 1993. The ABA announced its second call for data in 2001 and distributed the published results of more than 54,000 acute burn admissions treated from 1974 to 2002 at the Association's 2002 Annual Meeting. The third ABA call for data was issued in the Fall of 2005. The results are detailed in this report, which provides a summary of more than a quarter million acute burn admissions from 1995 to 2005, representing 70 hospitals from 30 states plus the District of Columbia. Statistics are presented in chart and table format to illustrate such key factors as patient age, burn size group, types of injuries, mortality rates, and average hospital charges by etiology and length of hospital stay. The data presented herein should help stimulate quality improvement programs in burn care, as burn centers compare their performance with the national data and as research is expanded using the NBR. The NBR will be published annually and, with continued refinements to the registry software, should become of increasing importance to clinicians, payers, researchers, and the public.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.BCR.0000226260.17523.22DOI Listing
November 2006

BurnWare: NATIONAL-TRACS/ABA computer use in the burn center.

J Burn Care Rehabil 2002 Jul-Aug;23(4):272

BurnWare/ NATIONAL-TRACS/ABA Registry, Editor, 1 Wyoming St. Ste. 7000 CHE Dayton, OH 45409, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004630-200207000-00008DOI Listing
September 2002