Publications by authors named "Siddhartha Ganguly"

147 Publications

Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Non-Relapse Mortality and Disease Relapse in Older versus Younger Adults Undergoing Matched Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A CIBMTR Analysis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Oct 9. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

CIBMTR® (Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research), Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Background: The effect of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) on the risk of non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse has not been specifically studied in older adults, who are increasingly undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) and surviving long-term to develop cGVHD. In this Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research analysis, we tested our hypothesis that the risk of NRM was higher with the development of cGVHD, particularly among older adults (≥60 years).

Methods: We included 4429 adults ≥40 years who received first HLA-matched peripheral blood alloHCT for acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome between the years 2008-2017. We compared outcomes of 4 groups: older adults (≥60 years) and younger adults (40-59 years) with or without cGVHD to determine the effect of older age and cGVHD on various outcomes. We used Cox proportional hazard models to determine the risk of NRM, relapse and overall survival (OS). We treated cGVHD as a time-dependent covariate. Severity of cGVHD was based on the CIBMTR clinical definitions.

Results: cGVHD was significantly associated with a higher risk of NRM and lower risk of relapse regardless of age. The risk of NRM was higher among older versus younger adults. Adults who developed cGVHD as a group had longer OS, compared to age-matched cohorts without cGVHD. Older adults had worse OS regardless of cGVHD. Among adults with cGVHD, clinically moderate or severe cGVHD was associated with a significantly higher risk of NRM and lower risk of relapse; severe cGVHD was associated with shorter OS, whereas mild and moderate cGVHD were associated with longer OS.

Conclusions: Among both younger and older adults, the development of cGVHD was associated with a higher risk of NRM, lower risk of relapse and longer OS. Older adults had a higher risk of NRM but the increased risk of NRM associated with cGVHD did not differ based on age. Development of mild-moderate cGVHD offered the most favorable balance between minimizing NRM and decreasing relapses. The relapse risk was lowest for adults with severe cGVHD, but high NRM resulted in shorter OS. Developing strategies to avoid clinically severe cGVHD is critically important.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.10.002DOI Listing
October 2021

Post-Transplant cyclophosphamide is associated with increase in Non-CMV Herpesvirus infections in Acute leukemia and MDS patients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Sep 26. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Division of Hematology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.

Background: There is increasing use of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for GVHD prophylaxis for both haploidentical and fully matched transplants. Published studies have reported an increased incidence of CMV infection with the use of PTCy. Limited data exist regarding the incidence and outcomes of infection with non-CMV herpes viruses (NCHV) in this setting.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative incidence of NCHV infections and the association of NCHV infections with transplant-specific outcomes in patients receiving haploidentical transplant with PTCy(HaploCy), matched sibling donor transplant with PTCy (SibCy) or matched sibling donor transplant with calcineurin inhibitor based prophylaxis (SibCNI). We hypothesized that, like CMV infection, patients receiving haploidentical transplant with PTCy will have higher risk of NCHV infections.

Study Design: Using the CIBMTR database, we analyzed patients (HaploCy, n=757; SibCNI, n=1605; SibCy, n=403) receiving first hematopoietic stem-cell transplant between 2012 and 2017 for acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

Results: The cumulative incidence of non-CMV herpes virus infection at six months post-transplant in the HaploCy, SibCy and SibCNI were 13.9% (99%CI=10.8-17.3%), 10.7% (99%CI=7.1-15%), and 5.7% (99%CI=4.3-7.3%), p<0.001 respectively. This was primarily due to a higher frequency of HHV-6 viremia reported in patients receiving PTCy. Incidence of Epstein-Barr viremia was low in all groups and no cases of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder were seen in PTCy groups. The incidence of non-CMV herpes virus organ disease was low in all three cohorts. Development of NCHV infection was associated with increased treatment-related mortality, particularly in the HaploCy group. There was no association with the development of GVHD, relapse, and disease-free survival. Patients in PTCy cohorts who did not develop non-CMV herpes virus infection had lower rates of cGVHD.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the use of PTCy is associated with increased risk of NCHV infection. Development of NCHV infection is associated with increased non-relapse mortality, especially in HaploCY group. Prospective trials should consider viral surveillance strategies in conjunction with assessment of immune reconstitution for better understanding of the clinical relevance of viral reactivation in different transplant settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.09.015DOI Listing
September 2021

Autologous Transplant versus Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Therapy for Relapsed DLBCL in Partial Remission.

Blood 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

CIBMTR, Medical College of WI, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States.

The relative efficacy of autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (auto-HCT) versus chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients who achieve a partial remission (PR) after salvage chemotherapy is not known. Using the Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research registry database, we identified adult DLBCL patients who received either an auto-HCT (2013-2019) or CAR-T treatment with axicabtagene ciloleucel (2018-2019) while in a PR by CT or PET scan. We compared the clinical outcomes between the two cohorts using univariable and multivariable regression models after adjustment for relevant baseline and clinical factors. In the univariable analysis, the 2-year progression-free survival (52% vs. 42% ; p=0.1) and the rate of 100-day non-relapse mortality (4% vs. 2% ; p=0.3) were not different between the 2 cohorts but consolidation with auto-HCT was associated with a lower rate of relapse/progression (40% vs. 53% ; p=0.05) and a superior overall survival (OS) (69% vs. 47% ; p=0.004) at 2-years. In the multivariable regression analysis, treatment with auto-HCT was associated with a significantly lower risk of relapse/progression rate (HR=1.49; p=0.01) and a superior OS (HR=1.63; p=0.008). In patients with DLBCL in a PR after salvage therapy, treatment with auto-HCT was associated with a lower incidence of relapse and a superior OS compared with CAR-T. These data support the role of auto-HCT as the standard-of-care in transplant-eligible patients with relapsed DLBCL in PR after salvage therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021013289DOI Listing
September 2021

Risk classification at diagnosis predicts post-HCT outcomes in intermediate-, adverse-risk, and KMT2A-rearranged AML.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States.

Little is known about whether risk classification at diagnosis predicts post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. We evaluated 8709 AML patients from the CIBMTR database and, after selection and manual curation of cytogenetics data, 3779 patients in CR1 were included in the final analysis: 2384 with intermediate-risk, 969 with adverse-risk, and 426 with KMT2A-rearranged disease. An adjusted multivariable analysis compared to intermediate-risk patients detected an increased risk of relapse for KMT2A-rearranged and adverse-risk patients (HR 1.27, p = 0.01 and HR 1.71, p < 0.001, respectively). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was similar for KMT2A and adverse-risk patients (HR 1.26, p = 0.002 and HR 1.47, p < 0.001), as was overall survival (OS) (HR 1.32, p < 0.001 and HR 1.45, p < 0.001). No differences in outcome could be detected when patients were stratified by KMT2A fusion partner. This is the largest study conducted to date on post-HCT outcomes in AML using manually curated cytogenetics for risk stratification. Our work demonstrates that risk classification at diagnosis remains predictive of post-HCT outcomes in AML. It also highlights the critical need to develop novel treatment strategies for patients with KMT2A rearrangements and adverse-risk disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004881DOI Listing
September 2021

Haploidentical vs. sibling, unrelated, or cord blood hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States.

The role of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is being defined. We performed a retrospective, multivariate analysis comparing outcomes of HCT approaches by donor for adults with ALL in remission. The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) between haploidentical HCT using PTCy and HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD), 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) , 7/8 HLA-matched UD, or umbilical cord blood (UCB) HCT. Comparing haploidentical to MSD HCT, OS, leukemia-free survival (LFS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) were not different but chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was higher with MSD HCT. Compared to MUD HCT, OS, LFS, and relapse were not different but MUD HCT had increased NRM (HR 1.42, P=0.02), grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.59, P=0.005), and cGVHD. Compared to 7/8 UD HCT, LFS and relapse were not different, but 7/8 UD HCT had worse OS (HR 1.38, P=0.01) and increased NRM (HR 2.13, P=<0.001), grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.86, P=0.003), and cGVHD (HR 1.72, P=<0.001). Compared to UCB HCT, late OS , late LFS, relapse, and cGVHD were not different but UCB HCT had worse early OS (≤18 months, HR 1.93, P<0.001), worse early LFS (HR 1.40, P=0.007) and increased incidences of NRM (HR 2.08, P<0.001) and grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.97, P<0.001). Haploidentical HCT using PTCy showed no difference in survival but less GVHD compared to traditional MSD and MUD HCT and is the preferred alternative donor HCT option for adults with ALL in CR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004916DOI Listing
September 2021

Allogeneic Transplantation to Treat Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in Adults.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Section of Bone Marrow Transplant and Cell Therapy, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Patients who develop therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, either myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (t-AML), have a poor prognosis. An earlier Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) analysis of 868 allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (allo-HCTs) performed between 1990 and 2004 showed a 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of 22% and 21%, respectively. Modern supportive care, graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have led to improved outcomes. Therefore, the CIBMTR analyzed 1531 allo-HCTs performed in adults with t-MDS (n = 759) or t-AML (n = 772) between and 2000 and 2014. The median age was 59 years (range, 18 to 74 years) for the patients with t-MDS and 52 years (range, 18 to 77 years) for those with t-AML. Twenty-four percent of patients with t-MDS and 11% of those with t-AML had undergone a previous autologous (auto-) HCT. A myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen was used in 49% of patients with t-MDS and 61% of patients with t-AML. Nonrelapse mortality at 5 years was 34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30% to 37%) for patients with t-MDS and 34% (95% CI, 30% to 37%) for those with t-AML. Relapse rates at 5 years in the 2 groups were 46% (95% CI, 43% to 50%) and 43% (95% CI, 40% to 47%). Five-year OS and DFS were 27% (95% CI, 23% to 31%) and 19% (95% CI, 16% to 23%), respectively, for patients with t-MDS and 25% (95% CI, 22% to 28%) and 23% (95% CI, 20% to 26%), respectively, for those with t-AML. In multivariate analysis, OS and DFS were significantly better in young patients with low-risk t-MDS and those with t-AML undergoing HCT with MAC while in first complete remission, but worse for those with previous auto-HCT, higher-risk cytogenetics or Revised International Prognostic Scoring System score, and a partially matched unrelated donor. Relapse remains the major cause of treatment failure, with little improvement seen over the past 2 decades. These data mandate caution when recommending allo-HCT in these conditions and indicate the need for more effective antineoplastic approaches before and after allo-HCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.010DOI Listing
August 2021

Fludarabine and Melphalan Compared with Reduced Doses of Busulfan and Fludarabine Improve Transplantation Outcomes in Older Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Aug 14. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus, Madrid, Spain.

Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens developed to extend the use of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to older patients have resulted in encouraging outcomes. We aimed to compare the 2 most commonly used RIC regimens, i.v. fludarabine with busulfan (FluBu) and fludarabine with melphalan (FluMel), in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), we identified 1045 MDS patients age ≥60 years who underwent first HSCT with a matched related or matched (8/8) unrelated donor using an RIC regimen. The CIBMTR's definition of RIC was used: a regimen that incorporated an i.v. busulfan total dose ≤7.2 mg/kg or a low-dose melphalan total dose ≤150 mg/m. The 2 groups, recipients of FluBu (n = 697) and recipients of FluMel (n = 448), were comparable in terms of disease- and transplantation-related characteristics except for the more frequent use of antithymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab in the FluBu group (39% versus 31%). The median age was 67 years in both groups. FluMel was associated with a reduced relapse incidence (RI) compared with FluBu, with a 1-year adjusted incidence of 26% versus 44% (P ≤ .0001). Transplantation-related mortality (TRM) was higher in the FluMel group (26% versus 16%; P ≤ .0001). Because the magnitude of improvement with FluMel in RI was greater than the improvement in TRM with FluBu, disease-free survival (DFS) was better at 1 year and beyond with FluMel compared with FluBu (48% versus 40% at 1 year [P = .02] and 35% versus 27% at 3 years [P = .01]). Overall survival was comparable in the 2 groups at 1 year (63% versus 61%; P = .4) but was significantly improved with FluMel compared with FluBu at 3 years (46% versus 39%; P = .03). Our results suggest that FluMel is associated with superior DFS compared with FluBu owing to reduced RI in older patients with MDS patients. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.007DOI Listing
August 2021

Carfilzomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (KCd) for the treatment of triple-class relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM).

Eur J Haematol 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

US Myeloma Research Consortium (USMRC), Westwood, Kansas, USA.

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematologic malignancy, and outcomes remain poor for patients with triple-class relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM). Descriptive analyses were performed on available data for patient characteristics, disease course, and outcomes of the KCd on triple-class RRMM patients at our institution.

Patients And Methods: Twenty-three patients with triple-class RRMM treated with KCd between June 2017 and October 2020 were included in our analysis. The regimen KCd consisted of 28 days cycles of carfilzomib 20/36 mg/m IV on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16, cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2 IV weekly, and dexamethasone (20-40) mg orally weekly.

Results: Patients received a median of 6 (3-10) prior regimens. The median number of cycles administered was 4 (1-11) cycles. Overall response rate was 52%, 6 patients (26%) achieved very good partial response (VGPR), 6 patients (26%) achieved partial response (PR), and 5 patients (22%) achieved stable disease (SD). Progression-free survival (PFS) and Overall-survival (OS) were 4 and 11.9 months, respectively. There was no reported treatment-related mortality. The most common grade ≥3 adverse events were neutropenia (26%), thrombocytopenia (56.5%), and anemia (56.5%).

Conclusions: KCd showed clinically meaningful efficacy and manageable safety profile in patients with triple-class RRMM in real-world.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13697DOI Listing
August 2021

Impact of SARS-CoV-2 in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy Recipients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 09 10;27(9):796.e1-796.e7. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic in March 2020, and has caused more than 600,000 deaths in the United States at the time of this report. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) or chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy recipients have a higher risk of mortality with COVID-19 owing to profound immune dysregulation. In this study, we investigated the impact of SARS-CoV-2 in HCT/CAR-T therapy recipients. This single-center prospective study included all (n = 58) adult HCT/CAR-T recipients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 at the University of Kansas Medical Center between March 2020 and May 2021. Baseline and disease-related characteristics were ascertained from medical records. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 (IBM, Armonk, NY). Bivariate analyses, using the chi-square and t-test, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The study included 58 HCT/CAR-T patients who acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection, including recipients of allogeneic HCT (n = 32), autologous HCT (n = 23), and CAR-T therapy (n = 3). The median patient age was 58 years (range, 24 to 77 years), and 64% were males. The median time from HCT/CAR-T therapy to SARS-CoV-2 infection was 17.7 months (range, 0.2 to 201.9 months), and 22% of the patients acquired SARS-CoV-2 within the first 100 days post-HCT/CAR-T therapy. The primary hematologic disorders were plasma cell (36%), myeloid (38%), and lymphoid (26%) malignancies. Myeloablative conditioning was performed in 62% of patients. Donors were autologous (45%), matched sibling (15%), matched unrelated (21%), and haploidentical (19%). Prior history of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), active GVHD, and current immunosuppressive therapy (IST) was noted in 22%, 31%, and 36% of patients, respectively. Concurrent infections were observed in 19%. Lymphopenia (P = .049) and high serum ferritin concentration (P = .020) were associated with mortality. COVID-19 severity was mild in 50% of the patients, moderate in 22%, and severe in 28%. Clinical findings included pneumonia or abnormal chest imaging (in 50%), hypoxia (28%), intensive care unit admission (19%), and mechanical ventilation (10%). Therapies included remdesivir (in 41%), convalescent plasma (35%), dexamethasone (22%), monoclonal antibodies (19%), and tocilizumab (3%). The median duration of viral shedding (positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR) was 7.7 weeks (range, 2 to 18.7 weeks), and 2 patients had a persistent infection for >5 months post-CAR-T therapy. After a median follow-up of 6.1 months (range, 0.5-13.6 months), the mortality rate was 16% in all patients and 28% in allogeneic HCT recipients. Among 9 patients who died, the median survival after SARS-CoV-2 infection was 23 days (range, 14 to 140 days). In survivors with moderate-severe COVID-19, the median time to recovery was 4.2 weeks (range, 1.1 to 24.7 weeks). Among allogeneic HCT recipients, 5 (16%) developed subsequent pulmonary chronic GVHD necessitating systemic steroids and additional IST. Significant predictors of COVID-19 severity included allogeneic HCT (odds ratio [OR], 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 10.8; P = .020), history of grade II-IV acute GVHD (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.10 to 18.86; P = .036) and concurrent IST (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.8 to 19.8; P = .004). HCT and CAR-T cell therapy recipients are at an increased risk of moderate-severe COVID-19 pneumonia and higher mortality with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our findings confirm the need for continuing vigilance with social distancing and masks, vaccination prioritization, close monitoring, and aggressive treatment of HCT/CAR-T therapy recipients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.07.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8272625PMC
September 2021

Infection risks in multiple myeloma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials from 2015 to 2019.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jun 26;21(1):730. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

University of Kansas Cancer Center, 2650 Shawnee Mission Pkwy, Westwood, KS, 66205, USA.

Background: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) remain at an increased risk of infection due to the disease process, as well as the ensuing treatments.

Methods: We performed a systematic review to evaluate the monthly risk of grade III/IV infection, pneumonia, and neutropenia in patients with myeloma enrolled in randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

Results: The risk of grade III or higher infection, pneumonia, and neutropenia persists among all phases of treatment. There was no statistical difference in grade III or higher infection, pneumonia, and neutropenia between frontline and relapsed/refractory setting. In the maintenance setting, the complications of infection, pneumonia, and neutropenia were low, but not negligible. Three-drug regimens were no more likely than two-drug regimens to have an increased risk of Grade III or higher infection.

Conclusions: This is the first study to quantify the monthly risk of grade III or higher infection, pneumonia, and neutropenia across different treatment regimens in the frontline, maintenance, and relapsed/refractory settings. The results of our systematic review demonstrate a significant risk for severe infection, pneumonia, and neutropenia in patients with MM. Further studies are needed to determine the value of antibiotic prophylaxis in a broader myeloma patient population, as well as other approaches that will further mitigate the morbidity and mortality related to infection in this vulnerable patient population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08451-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233183PMC
June 2021

Incidence and impact of community respiratory viral infections in post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis and haploidentical stem cell transplantation.

Br J Haematol 2021 07 14;194(1):145-157. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Medicine, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.

Community respiratory viral infections (CRVIs) are associated with pulmonary function impairment, alloimmune lung syndromes and inferior survival in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Although the incidence of viral infections in HLA-haploidentical HCT recipients who receive post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis is reportedly increased, there are insufficient data describing the incidence of CRVIs and the impact of donor source and PTCy on transplant outcomes. Analysing patients receiving their first HCT between 2012 and 2017 for acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, we describe comparative outcomes between matched sibling transplants receiving either calcineurin-based GVHD prophylaxis (SibCNI, N = 1605) or PTCy (SibCy, N = 403), and related haploidentical transplants receiving PTCy (HaploCy, N = 757). The incidence of CRVIs was higher for patients receiving PTCy, regardless of donor type. Patients in the HaploCy cohort who developed a CRVI by day +180 had both a higher risk of treatment-related mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 2⋅14, 99% confidence interval (CI) 1⋅13-4⋅07; P = 0⋅002] and inferior 2-year overall survival (HR 1⋅65, 99% CI 1⋅11-2⋅43; P = 0⋅001) compared to SibCNI with no CRVI. This finding justifies further research into long-term antiviral immune recovery, as well as development of preventive and treatment strategies to improve long-term outcomes in such patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17563DOI Listing
July 2021

Return to Work Among Young Adult Survivors of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in the United States.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08 22;27(8):679.e1-679.e8. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research), National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Young adult (YA) survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at risk for late psychosocial challenges, including the inability to return to work post-HCT. Work-related outcomes in this population remain understudied, however. We conducted this study to assess the post-HCT work status of survivors of allogeneic HCT who underwent HCT as YAs and to analyze the patient-, disease-, and HCT-related factors associated with their work status at 1 year post-HCT. Using Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data, we evaluated the post-HCT work status (full-time, part-time work, unemployed, or medical disability) of 1365 YA HCT survivors who underwent HCT between 2008 and 2015. Percentages of work status categories were reported at 4 time points: 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-HCT. Percentages of post-HCT work status categories at the 1-year time point were also described in relation to survivors' pre-HCT work status categories. Factors associated with 1-year post-HCT work status (full-time or part-time work) were examined using logistic regression. From 6 months to 3 years post-HCT, the percentage of survivors working full-time increased from 18.3% to 50.7% and the percentage working part-time increased from 6.9% to 10.5%. Of patients in full-time work pre-HCT, 50% were unemployed or on medical disability at 1 year post-HCT. Female sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.77), HCT Comorbidity Index score ≥3 (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.82), pre-HCT unemployment (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.56), medical disability (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.70), development of grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.80), and relapse within 1 year post-HCT (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.56) were associated with a lower likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Compared with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) with total body irradiation (TBI), MAC without TBI (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.53) was associated with a greater likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Graduate school-level education (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.10) was also associated with a greater likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Although the work status among YA HCT survivors continued to improve over time, a substantial subset became or remained unemployed or on medical disability. These findings underscore the need for effective interventions to support return to work in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425287PMC
August 2021

Impact of depth of clinical response on outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia patients in first complete remission who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 09 16;56(9):2108-2117. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Haematology Research Centre, Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients often undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) in first complete remission (CR). We examined the effect of depth of clinical response, including incomplete count recovery (CRi) and/or measurable residual disease (MRD), in patients from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR) registry. We identified 2492 adult patients (1799 CR and 693 CRi) who underwent alloHCT between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for patient-, disease-, and transplant-related factors. Baseline characteristics were similar. Patients in CRi compared to those in CR had an increased likelihood of death (HR: 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.43). Compared to CR, CRi was significantly associated with increased non-relapse mortality (NRM), shorter disease-free survival (DFS), and a trend toward increased relapse. Detectable MRD was associated with shorter OS, shorter DFS, higher NRM, and increased relapse compared to absence of MRD. The deleterious effects of CRi and MRD were independent. In this large CIBMTR cohort, survival outcomes differ among AML patients based on depth of CR and presence of MRD at the time of alloHCT. Further studies should focus on optimizing post-alloHCT outcomes for patients with responses less than CR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01261-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425595PMC
September 2021

Impact of Pretransplantation Renal Dysfunction on Outcomes after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 26;27(5):410-422. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Renal dysfunction is a recognized risk factor for mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), yet our understanding of the effect of different levels of renal dysfunction at time of transplantation on outcomes remains limited. This study explores the impact of different degrees of renal dysfunction on HCT outcomes and examines whether the utilization of incremental degrees of renal dysfunction based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) improve the predictability of the hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI). The study population included 2 cohorts: cohort 1, comprising patients age ≥40 years who underwent alloHCT for treatment of hematologic malignancies between 2008 and 2016 (n = 13,505; cohort selected given a very low incidence of renal dysfunction in individuals age <40 years), and cohort 2, comprising patients on dialysis at the time of HCT (n = 46). eGFR was measured using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) method. The patients in cohort 1 were assigned into 4 categories-eGFR ≥90 mL/min (n = 7062), eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min (n = 5264), eGFR 45 to 59 mL/min (n = 897), and eGFR <45 mL/min (n=282)-to assess the impact of degree of renal dysfunction on transplantation outcomes. Transplantation outcomes in patients on dialysis at the time of alloHCT were analyzed separately. eGFR <60 mL/min was associated with an increased risk for nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and requirement for dialysis post-HCT. Compared with the eGFR ≥90 group, the hazard ratio (HR) for NRM was 1.46 (P = .0001) for the eGFR 45 to 59 mL/min group and 1.74 (P = .004) for the eGFR <45 mL/min group. Compared with the eGFR ≥90 mL/min group, the eGFR 45 to 59 mL/min group (HR, 2.45; P < .0001) and the eGFR <45 mL/min group (HR, 3.09; P < .0001) had a higher risk of renal failure necessitating dialysis after alloHCT. In addition, eGFR <45 mL/min was associated with an increased overall mortality (HR, 1.63; P < .0001). An eGFR-based revised HCT-CI was also developed and shown to be predictive of overall survival (OS) and NRM, with predictive performance similar to the original HCT-CI. Among 46 patients on dialysis at alloHCT, the 1-year probability of OS was 20%, and that of NRM was 67%. The degree of pretransplantation renal dysfunction is an independent predictor of OS, NRM, and probability of needing dialysis after alloHCT. An eGFR-based HCT-CI is a validated index for predicting outcomes in adults with hematologic malignancies undergoing alloHCT. The outcomes of alloHCT recipients on dialysis are dismal; therefore, one should strongly weigh the significant risks of being on hemodialysis as a factor in determining alloHCT candidacy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168834PMC
May 2021

Delayed COVID-19 Respiratory Failure in Patients with Lymphoma on Rituximab-based Chemoimmunotherapy.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Jun 27;21(6):e548-e550. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910130PMC
June 2021

Posttransplant cyclophosphamide is associated with increased cytomegalovirus infection: a CIBMTR analysis.

Blood 2021 Jun;137(23):3291-3305

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR), Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Prior studies suggest increased cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after haploidentical donor transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (HaploCy). The role of allograft source and posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in CMV infection is unclear. We analyzed the effect of graft source and PTCy on incidence of CMV infection, and effects of serostatus and CMV infection on transplant outcomes. We examined patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research between 2012 and 2017 who had received HaploCy (n = 757), matched related (Sib) with PTCy (SibCy, n = 403), or Sib with calcineurin inhibitor-based prophylaxis (SibCNI, n = 1605). Cumulative incidences of CMV infection by day 180 were 42%, 37%, and 23%, respectively (P < .001). CMV disease was statistically comparable. CMV infection risk was highest for CMV-seropositive recipients (R+), but significantly higher in PTCy recipients regardless of donor (HaploCy [n = 545]: hazard ratio [HR], 50.3; SibCy [n = 279]: HR, 47.7; SibCNI [n = 1065]: HR, 24.4; P < .001). D+/R- patients also had increased risk for CMV infection. Among R+ or those developing CMV infection, HaploCy had worse overall survival and nonrelapse mortality. Relapse was unaffected by CMV infection or serostatus. PTCy was associated with lower chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) overall, but CMV infection in PTCy recipients was associated with higher chronic GVHD (P = .006). PTCy, regardless of donor, is associated with higher incidence of CMV infection, augmenting the risk of seropositivity. Additionally, CMV infection may negate the chronic GVHD protection of PTCy. This study supports aggressive prevention strategies in all receiving PTCy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351903PMC
June 2021

WJMSC-derived small extracellular vesicle enhance T cell suppression through PD-L1.

J Extracell Vesicles 2021 02 8;10(4):e12067. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine University of Kansas Medical Center Kansas City Kansas USA.

Both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their corresponding small extracellular vesicles (sEVs, commonly referred to as exosomes) share similar immunomodulatory properties that are potentially beneficial for the treatment of acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD). We report that clinical grade Wharton's Jelly-derived MSCs (WJMSCs) secrete sEVs enriched in programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), an essential ligand for an inhibitory immune checkpoint. A rapid increase in circulating sEV-associated PD-L1 was observed in patients with aGvHD and was directly associated with the infusion time of clinical grade WJMSCs. In addition, in vitro inhibitory antibody mediated blocking of sEV-associated PD-L1 restored T cell activation (TCA), suggesting a functional inhibitory role of sEVs-PD-L1. PD-L1-deficient sEVs isolated from WJMSCs following CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing fail to inhibit TCA. Furthermore, we found that PD-L1 is essential for WJMSC-derived sEVs to modulate T cell receptors (TCRs). Our study reveals an important mechanism by which therapeutic WJMSCs modulate TCR-mediated TCA through sEVs or sEV-carried immune checkpoints. In addition, our clinical data suggest that sEV-associated PD-L1 may be not only useful in predicting the outcomes from WJMSC clinical administration, but also in developing cell-independent therapy for aGvHD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jev2.12067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869022PMC
February 2021

Preclinical Evaluation of Gilteritinib on NPM1-ALK-Driven Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Cells.

Mol Cancer Res 2021 05 29;19(5):913-920. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. More than three-fourths of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive ALCL cases express the () fusion gene as a result of t(2;5) chromosomal translocation. The homodimerization of NPM1-ALK fusion protein mediates constitutive activation of the chimeric tyrosine kinase activity and downstream signaling pathways responsible for lymphoma cell proliferation and survival. Gilteritinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of FMS-like tyrosine kinase mutation-positive acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time gilteritinib-mediated growth inhibitory effects on NPM1-ALK-driven ALCL cells. We utilized a total of five ALCL model cell lines, including both human and murine. Gilteritinib treatment inhibits NPM1-ALK fusion kinase phosphorylation and downstream signaling, resulting in induced apoptosis. Gilteritinib-mediated apoptosis was associated with caspase 3/9, PARP cleavage, the increased expression of proapoptotic protein BAD, and decreased expression of antiapoptotic proteins, survivin and MCL-1. We also found downregulation of fusion kinase activity resulted in decreased c-Myc protein levels. Furthermore, cell-cycle analysis indicated gilteritinib induced G-G-phase cell-cycle arrest and reduced CD30 expression. In summary, our preclinical studies explored the novel therapeutic potential of gilteritinib in the treatment of ALCL cells expressing NPM1-ALK and potentially in other ALK or ALK fusion-driven hematologic or solid malignancies. IMPLICATIONS: Our preclinical results explore the use of gilteritinib for the treatment of NPM1-ALK-driven ALCL cells and pave a path for developing future clinical trials. VISUAL OVERVIEW: http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/molcanres/19/5/913/F1.large.jpg.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-20-0738DOI Listing
May 2021

Renal insufficiency in multiple myeloma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized trials from 2005-2019.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 06 8;62(6):1386-1395. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Kansas City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Clinical trials may be inconsistent in their enrollment and reporting of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who have renal insufficiency (RI). We performed a systematic review of all MM randomized clinical trials (RCT) from 2005-2019 to evaluate reporting of prevalence, eligibility criteria and outcomes of patients with RI and MM. One-hundred and twenty-three RCTs were included. Only 30% of studies clearly reported on the proportion of patients who had RI. Only 68.2% reported eligibility criteria pertaining to RI, with no uniformity in the reported criteria. The relative risk (RR) of disease progression or death in patients with RI was higher than those without, RR of 1.20 (1.003-1.431) for relapsed/refractory and 1.07 (1.001-1.046) for newly diagnosed. There is inconsistent reporting and enrollment of patients with RI on MM RCT's. We advocate for higher enrollment of patients with RI and transparent reporting of their eligibility criteria and outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1867725DOI Listing
June 2021

Concentration-QTc analysis of quizartinib in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 04 8;87(4):513-523. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Daiichi Sankyo, Inc, Basking Ridge, NJ, USA.

Purpose: This analysis evaluated the relationship between concentrations of quizartinib and its active metabolite AC886 and QT interval corrected using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated in the phase 3 QuANTUM-R study (NCT02039726).

Methods: The analysis dataset included 226 patients with AML. Quizartinib dihydrochloride was administered as daily doses of 20, 30, and 60 mg. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed using observed quizartinib and AC886 concentrations and time-matched mean electrocardiogram measurements.

Results: Observed QTcF increased with quizartinib and AC886 concentrations; the relationship was best described by a nonlinear maximum effect (E) model. The predicted mean increase in QTcF at the maximum concentration of quizartinib and AC886 associated with 60 mg/day was 21.1 ms (90% CI, 18.3-23.6 ms). Age, body weight, sex, race, baseline QTcF, QT-prolonging drug use, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia were not significant predictors of QTcF. Hypokalemia (serum potassium < 3.5 mmol/L) was a statistically significant covariate affecting baseline QTcF, but no differences in ∆QTcF (change in QTcF from baseline) were predicted between patients with versus without hypokalemia at the same quizartinib concentration. The use of concomitant QT-prolonging drugs did not increase QTcF further.

Conclusion: QTcF increase was dependent on quizartinib and AC886 concentrations, but patient factors, including sex and age, did not affect the concentration-QTcF relationship. Because concomitant strong cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) inhibitor use significantly increases quizartinib concentration, these results support the clinical recommendation of quizartinib dose reduction in patients concurrently receiving a strong CYP3A inhibitor.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02039726 (registered January 20, 2014).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-020-04204-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946665PMC
April 2021

Peri-transplant extracorporeal photopheresis to mitigate GVHD- a pilot clinical trial.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 04 20;56(4):980-982. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Division of Hematological Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01142-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Maintenance regimens after a second autologous transplant for multiple myeloma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 03 4;62(3):758-760. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Division of Hematology and Hematologic Malignancies, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1842402DOI Listing
March 2021

Neighborhood poverty and pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes: a CIBMTR analysis.

Blood 2021 01;137(4):556-568

CIBMTR, National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, MN.

Social determinants of health, including poverty, contribute significantly to health outcomes in the United States; however, their impact on pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes is poorly understood. We aimed to identify the association between neighborhood poverty and HCT outcomes for pediatric allogeneic HCT recipients in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database. We assembled 2 pediatric cohorts undergoing first allogeneic HCT from 2006 to 2015 at age ≤18 years, including 2053 children with malignant disease and 1696 children with nonmalignant disease. Neighborhood poverty exposure was defined a priori per the US Census definition as living in a high-poverty ZIP code (≥20% of persons below 100% federal poverty level) and used as the primary predictor in all analyses. Our primary outcome was overall survival (OS), defined as the time from HCT until death resulting from any cause. Secondary outcomes included relapse and transplantation-related mortality (TRM) in malignant disease, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, and infection in the first 100 days post-HCT. Among children undergoing transplantation for nonmalignant disease, neighborhood poverty was not associated with any HCT outcome. Among children undergoing transplantation for malignant disease, neighborhood poverty conferred an increased risk of TRM but was not associated with inferior OS or any other transplantation outcome. Among children with malignant disease, a key secondary finding was that children with Medicaid insurance experienced inferior OS and increased TRM compared with those with private insurance. These data suggest opportunities for future investigation of the effects of household-level poverty exposure on HCT outcomes in pediatric malignant disease to inform care delivery interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7845011PMC
January 2021

Novel prognostic scoring system for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in multiple myeloma.

Br J Haematol 2020 11 23;191(3):442-452. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

CIBMTR® (Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research), Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

We studied 2,528 patients with upfront autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for multiple myeloma (MM) from 2008-2017 to develop a prognostic model to predict outcomes. High-risk cytogenetics included t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), del13q on karyotype, del17p, +1q or 1pdel. A Cox model identified factors prognostic of progression/relapse in a training subset (n = 1,246). A weighted score using these factors was assigned to a validation cohort (n = 774). Presence of high-risk cytogenetics [hazard ratio, (HR) 1·68 (1·3-2·17)] and pre-AHCT bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) ≥10% [1·68 (1·33-2·12)] were assigned 4 points each; albumin at diagnosis <3·5 g/dl [1·31 (1·07-1·61)] 2; standard risk cytogenetics 1, and no cytogenetics abnormality, BMPCs <10% at AHCT and albumin ≥3·5 g/dl at diagnosis 0 points each. A three-category system with low risk (0-3), intermediate risk (4-8) and high risk (9-10) showed 3-year progression-free survival in the low vs. intermediate vs. high risk of 58% (95% CI: 52-63) vs. 49% (95% CI: 43-56) vs. 31% (95% CI: 12-51), P < 0.001 respectively, and 3-year OS in low vs. intermediate vs. high risk of 88% (95% CI: 84-91) vs. 81% (95% CI: 76-86) vs. 64% (95% CI: 39-80); P < 0·001. Our prognostic scoring system can identify MM patients at risk for early relapse after AHCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990054PMC
November 2020

Outcomes of VD-PACE With Immunomodulatory Agent as a Salvage Therapy for Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 02 30;21(2):e220-e226. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Westwood, KS.

Background: Aggressive relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) often requires salvage cytotoxic chemotherapy. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of VD-PACE (bortezomib, dexamethasone, cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide) with an immunomodulatory agent (IMiD) in RRMM.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the effectiveness and tolerability among 30 patients with RRMM receiving ≥ 1 cycle of VD-PACE + IMiD between January 2012 to April 2019.

Results: Of 30 patients, 26 (86%) had myeloma double refractory to protease inhibitors and IMiDs, and had received a median of 3 lines prior of therapy. The overall response rate was 67.7%, 13% patients experienced complete remission or better, and 13% experienced very good partial response. Median progression-free and median overall survival were 11 and 26 months, respectively. The most common grade 3 or higher adverse events were hematologic events, which were manageable.

Conclusion: VD-PACE + IMiD is an effective and tolerable salvage treatment for RRMM, with an impressive response rate in pretreated RRMM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.09.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Community health status and outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in the United States.

Cancer 2021 02 21;127(4):609-618. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Background: The association of community factors and outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has not been comprehensively described. Using the County Health Rankings and Roadmaps (CHRR) and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), this study evaluated the impact of community health status on allogeneic HCT outcomes.

Methods: This study included 18,544 adult allogeneic HCT recipients reported to the CIBMTR by 170 US centers in 2014-2016. Sociodemographic, environmental, and community indicators were derived from the CHRR, an aggregate community risk score was created, and scores were assigned to each patient (patient community risk score [PCS]) and transplant center (center community risk score [CCS]). Higher scores indicated less healthy communities. The impact of PCS and CCS on patient outcomes after allogeneic HCT was studied.

Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 18-83 years). The median PCS was -0.21 (range, -1.37 to 2.10; standard deviation [SD], 0.42), and the median CCS was -0.13 (range, -1.04 to 0.96; SD, 0.40). In multivariable analyses, a higher PCS was associated with inferior survival (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD increase, 1.04; 99% CI, 1.00-1.08; P = .0089). Among hematologic malignancies, a tendency toward inferior survival was observed with a higher PCS (HR, 1.04; 99% CI, 1.00-1.08; P = .0102); a higher PCS was associated with higher nonrelapse mortality (NRM; HR, 1.08; 99% CI, 1.02-1.15; P = .0004). CCS was not significantly associated with survival, relapse, or NRM.

Conclusions: Patients residing in counties with a worse community health status have inferior survival as a result of an increased risk of NRM after allogeneic HCT. There was no association between the community health status of the transplant center location and allogeneic HCT outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855526PMC
February 2021

Outcomes of Daratumumab, Pomalidomide, and Dexamethasone, Followed by High-dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation, in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 02 18;21(2):e212-e219. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Westwood, KS.

Background: The number of therapeutic options for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) has increased significantly. Our institute treated a series of patients with RRMM using DPd (daratumumab, pomalidomide, dexamethasone) as salvage therapy, followed by high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT).

Patients And Methods: We treated 18 patients with RRMM from May 2016 to April 2020, with DPd as salvage therapy, followed by HDCT and ASCT. DPd was administered as daratumumab 16 mg/kg weekly for cycles 1 and 2, every 2 weeks for cycles 3 to 6, and then every 4 weeks. Pomalidomide was given at 4 mg orally on days 1 to 21 of a 28-day cycle, and dexamethasone at 20 or 40 mg weekly.

Results: The patients had received a median of 2 (range, 1-4) previous regimens. Of the 18 patients, 13 (72%) had received ASCT before this treatment. In addition, 78% had disease refractory to proteasome inhibitors, 78% refractory to immunomodulatory agents, and 72% double refractory to immunomodulatory agents and proteasome inhibitors. The overall response rate after salvage treatment with DPd was 100% and at day 100 after ASCT was 100%; 67% had achieved a complete response or better and 78% had achieved a very good partial response or better. No treatment-related mortality had occurred by day 100. The 2-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 83.3% and 94.4%, respectively. The most common grade ≥ 3 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (100%), neutropenia (100%), and neutropenic fever (67%).

Conclusions: DPd as salvage therapy, followed by HDCT and ASCT, demonstrated deep, durable, and clinically meaningful responses with a manageable safety profile in patients with RRMM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.08.026DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical Outcomes in Patients with FLT3-ITD-Mutated Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation after Quizartinib or Salvage Chemotherapy in the QuANTUM-R Trial.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 02 2;27(2):153-162. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Hematology & Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California.

Despite the substantial clinical activity of fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitors in relapsed or refractory (R/R) FLT3-ITD‒positive acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), durable remissions and prolonged survival in this population require allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Quizartinib, a once-daily oral, highly potent, and selective FLT3 inhibitor, significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) and improved clinical benefit compared with salvage chemotherapy (median OS, 6.2 months versus 4.7 months; hazard ratio [HR], .76; 95% confidence interval [CI], .58 to .98; P = .018; composite complete remission [CRc] rate, 48% versus 27%; median duration of CRc, 2.8 months versus 1.2 months; mortality rate, .8% versus 14% by day 30, 7% versus 24% by day 60) in patients with R/R FLT3-ITD AML in the phase 3 QuANTUM-R trial. In this post hoc analysis, we described the characteristics of and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent on-study HSCT in QuANTUM-R at the investigator's discretion and institutional practices. Of 367 randomized patients, 78 (32%) in the quizartinib arm and 14 (11%) in the salvage chemotherapy arm underwent on-study allo-HSCT without any intervening therapy for AML after quizartinib or study-specified salvage chemotherapy. Pooled data of patients from both treatment arms showed a longer median overall survival (OS) in transplant recipients versus those treated without allo-HSCT (12.2 months versus 4.4 months; HR, .315; 95% CI, .233 to .427). Pooled data also showed a longer median OS in patients with a last recorded response of CRc before allo-HSCT versus patients without a CRc (20.1 months versus 8.8 months; HR, .506; 95% CI, .296 to .864). By treatment arm, the median OS was 25.1 months with quizartinib and 20.1 months with salvage chemotherapy in patients with a last recorded response of CRc before allo-HSCT. Forty-eight patients in the quizartinib arm continued quizartinib treatment after allo-HSCT. In the 31 patients with a last recorded response of CRc before allo-HSCT who continued quizartinib after allo-HSCT, the median OS was 27.1 months. Continuation of quizartinib after allo-HSCT was tolerable, and no new safety signals were identified. These results suggest that post-transplantation survival following salvage chemotherapy and quizartinib treatment are similar. However, quizartinib response occurs more frequently than with salvage chemotherapy, potentially allowing more patients to undergo transplantation and achieve durable clinical benefit. In addition, post-transplant quizartinib was found to be tolerable and may be associated with prolonged survival in some patients, highlighting its potential value in the management of patients with FLT3-ITD R/R AML.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.09.036DOI Listing
February 2021
-->