Publications by authors named "Sibylle Loibl"

295 Publications

A plain language summary of the ASCENT study: Sacituzumab Govitecan for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.

Future Oncol 2021 09 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Medicine - Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Sacituzumab Govitecan (also known by the brand name TRODELVY) is a new and available treatment for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer, or mTNBC for short. Metastatic breast cancer means the breast cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Triple negative means the breast cancer does not have 3 common proteins on the cell surface called receptors. This is a summary of the ASCENT study, published in the in April 2021. This study compared Sacituzumab Govitecan with standard chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a treatment that kills cancer cells or stops them from dividing. 529 people with mTNBC took part in the study across 7 countries. All who took part had already received 2 previous chemotherapies, which stopped working for their cancer. The study showed that patients who took Sacituzumab Govitecan lived longer than those who took a different chemotherapy while on the study. Tumors shrank in more patients who took Sacituzumab Govitecan than in patients who took chemotherapy. In general, patients who took Sacituzumab Govitecan experienced more side effects. This included low levels of a type of white blood cell known as neutrophils (neutropenia) and loose or watery stool (diarrhea). Use of supportive care lessened these side effects. This summary also includes insights and perspectives from 2 breast cancer patient advocates. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT number: NCT02574455.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2021-0868DOI Listing
September 2021

Phase III randomised trial comparing intense dose-dense chemotherapy to tailored dose-dense chemotherapy in high-risk early breast cancer (GAIN-2).

Eur J Cancer 2021 Aug 24;156:138-148. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

German Breast Group, Neu-Isenburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: The GAIN-2 trial was designed to identify a superior intense dose-dense (idd) strategy for high-risk patients with early breast cancer. Here, we report an interim analysis, at which the predefined futility boundary was crossed.

Patients And Methods: GAIN-2 was an open-label, randomised, multicentre phase III trial. Two thousand eight hundred and eighty seven patients were randomised 1:1 between three courses each of idd epirubicin (E) 150 mg/m, nab-paclitaxel (nP) 330 mg/m and cyclophosphamide (C) 2000 mg/m (iddEnPC) versus four cycles of leucocyte nadir-based tailored and dose-dense EC (dtEC) followed by four cycles of tailored and dose-dense docetaxel (dtD) (dtEC-dtD).

Results: The duration of median follow-up was 45.8 (range 0.0-88.3) months. Trial objectives included invasive disease-free survival (iDFS) as the primary end-point. A total of 593 patients received the treatment as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. At the time of futility interim analysis, 414 events for iDFS were reported. Overall, there was no difference in iDFS between iddEnPC and dtEC-dtD with 4-year iDFS rates of 84.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82.0-86.4%). Among all predefined subgroups, hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR+/HER2-), lobular cancer and ≤50 years subgroups predicted for better iDFS in the dtEC-dtD arm. Overall, 88.1% of patients completed all treatment in both arms. Haematological toxicity grade 3/4 and grade 3/4 non-haematological adverse events were significantly higher with iddEnPC (iddEnPC 50.8% vs dtEC-dtD 45.1%, P = 0.002), especially arthralgia and peripheral sensory neuropathy. Two treatment-related deaths occurred during dtEC-dtD, corresponding to a low mortality rate of 0.07%.

Conclusions: iDFS is equal in both regimens, but tailoring dose-dense chemotherapy improved outcomes in HR+/HER2-, lobular cancer and patients ≤50 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.07.033DOI Listing
August 2021

TGFB-induced factor homeobox 1 (TGIF) expression in breast cancer.

BMC Cancer 2021 Aug 14;21(1):920. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Department of Gynecology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent female cancer and preferentially metastasizes to bone. The transcription factor TGFB-induced factor homeobox 1 (TGIF) is involved in bone metabolism. However, it is not yet known whether TGIF is associated with BC bone metastasis or patient outcome and thus of potential interest.

Methods: TGIF expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 1197 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from BC patients treated in the GAIN (German Adjuvant Intergroup Node-Positive) study with two adjuvant dose-dense schedules of chemotherapy with or without bisphosphonate ibandronate. TGIF expression was categorized into negative/low and moderate/strong staining. Endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and time to primary bone metastasis as first site of relapse (TTPBM).

Results: We found associations of higher TGIF protein expression with smaller tumor size (p = 0.015), well differentiated phenotype (p < 0.001) and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC (p < 0.001). Patients with higher TGIF expression levels showed a significantly longer disease-free (DFS: HR 0.75 [95%CI 0.59-0.95], log-rank p = 0.019) and overall survival (OS: HR 0.69 [95%CI 0.50-0.94], log-rank p = 0.019), but no association with TTPBM (HR 0.77 [95%CI 0.51-1.16]; p = 0.213). Univariate analysis in molecular subgroups emphasized that elevated TGIF expression was prognostic for both DFS and OS in ER-positive BC patients (DFS: HR 0.68 [95%CI 0.51-0.91]; log-rank p = 0.009, interaction p = 0.130; OS: HR 0.60 [95%CI 0.41-0.88], log-rank p = 0.008, interaction p = 0.107) and in the HER2-negative subgroup (DFS:HR 0.67 [95%CI 0.50-0.88], log-rank p = 0.004, interaction p = 0.034; OS: HR 0.57 [95%CI 0.40-0.81], log-rank p = 0.002, interaction p = 0.015).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that moderate to high TGIF expression is a common feature of breast cancer cells and that this is not associated with bone metastases as first site of relapse. However, a reduced expression is linked to tumor progression, especially in HER2-negative breast cancer.

Trial Registration: This clinical trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov ; registration number: NCT00196872 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08656-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364691PMC
August 2021

Breast cancer diagnosed in the post-weaning period is indicative for a poor outcome.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 27;155:13-24. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Gynecological Oncology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Gynecology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Gynecological Oncology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: In young women, a breast cancer diagnosis after childbirth increases the risk for metastasis and death. Studies in rodents suggest that post-weaning mammary gland involution contributes to the poor prognosis of postpartum breast cancers. However, this association has not been investigated in humans, mainly because of missing information on the patient's lactation status at diagnosis.

Patients And Methods: Clinicopathological data of 1180 young women with primary invasive breast cancer, diagnosed within 2 years postpartum (PP-BC), during pregnancy (Pr-BC), or nulliparous (NP-BC), were collected. For PP-BC patients, breastfeeding history was retrieved to differentiate breast cancers identified during lactation (PP-BC) from those diagnosed post-weaning (PP-BC). Differences in prognostic parameters, first site of distant metastasis, and risks for metastasis and death were determined between patient groups.

Results: Cox proportional hazard models pointed to a twofold increased the risk of metastasis and death in PP-BC patients compared with PP-BC (hazard ratio [HR] 2.1 [P = 0.021] and 2.9 [P = 0.004]), Pr-BC (HR 2.1 [P<0.001] and 2.3 [P<0.001]) and NP-BC (HR 2.1 [P<0.001] and 2.0 [P<0.001]) patients. Prognosis was poorest for PP-BC patients who did not breastfeed or only for ≤ 3 months before diagnosis. This could not fully be attributed to differences in standard prognostic characteristics. In addition, PP-BC tumours showed a 3- to 8-fold increased risk to metastasise to the liver, yet this did not correlate with the poor outcome of this patient cohort.

Conclusions: Breast cancer diagnosed shortly after weaning specifically adds to the poor prognosis in women diagnosed with PP-BC. Apart from the importance of an increased awareness, these data show that detailed lactation data need to be registered when breast cancer outcome in young women is investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.06.009DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of Celecoxib vs Placebo as Adjuvant Therapy on Disease-Free Survival Among Patients With Breast Cancer: The REACT Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Sep;7(9):1291-1301

Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Patients with breast cancer remain at risk of relapse after adjuvant therapy. Celecoxib has shown antitumor effects in preclinical models of human breast cancer, but clinical evidence is lacking.

Objective: To evaluate the role of celecoxib as an addition to conventional therapy for women with ERBB2 (formerly HER2)-negative primary breast cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Randomized European Celecoxib Trial (REACT) was a phase 3, randomized, double-blind study conducted in 160 centers across the UK and Germany testing 2 years of adjuvant celecoxib vs placebo among 2639 patients recruited between January 19, 2007, and November 1, 2012, with follow-up 10 years after treatment completion. Eligible patients had completely resected breast cancer with local and systemic therapy according to local practice. Patients with ERBB2-positive or node-negative and T1, grade 1 tumors were not eligible. Randomization was in a 2:1 ratio between celecoxib or placebo. Statistical analysis was performed from May 5, 2019, to March 5, 2020.

Interventions: Patients received celecoxib, 400 mg, or placebo once daily for 2 years.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS), analyzed in the intention-to-treat population using Cox proportional hazards regression and log-rank analysis. Follow-up is complete.

Results: A total of 2639 patients (median age, 55.2 years [range, 26.8-86.0 years]) were recruited; 1763 received celecoxib, and 876 received placebo. Most patients' tumors (1930 [73%]) were estrogen receptor positive or progesterone receptor positive and ERBB2 negative. A total of 1265 patients (48%) had node-positive disease, and 1111 (42%) had grade 3 tumors. At a median follow-up of 74.3 months (interquartile range, 61.4-93.6 years), DFS events had been reported for 487 patients (19%): 18% for those who received celecoxib (n = 323; 5-year DFS rate = 84%) vs 19% for those who received placebo (n = 164; 5-year DFS rate = 83%); the unadjusted hazard ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.80-1.17; log-rank P = .75). Rates of toxic effects were low across both treatment groups, with no evidence of a difference.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, patients showed no evidence of a DFS benefit for 2 years' treatment with celecoxib compared with placebo as adjuvant treatment of ERBB2-negative breast cancer. Longer-term treatment or use of a higher dose of celecoxib may lead to a DFS benefit, but further studies would be required to test this possibility.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02429427 and isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN48254013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.2193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283666PMC
September 2021

Clinical and molecular characteristics of HER2-low-positive breast cancer: pooled analysis of individual patient data from four prospective, neoadjuvant clinical trials.

Lancet Oncol 2021 08 9;22(8):1151-1161. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

German Breast Group, Neu-Isenburg, Germany.

Background: The development of anti-HER2 antibody-drug conjugates opens new therapeutic options for patients with breast cancer, including patients with low expression of HER2. To characterise this new breast cancer subtype, we have compared the clinical and molecular characteristics of HER2-low-positive and HER2-zero breast cancer, including response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and prognosis.

Methods: In this pooled analysis of individual patient data, we evaluated a cohort of 2310 patients with HER2-non-amplified primary breast cancer that were treated with neoadjuvant combination chemotherapy in four prospective neoadjuvant clinical trials (GeparSepto, NCT01583426; GeparOcto, NCT02125344; GeparX, NCT02682693; Gain-2 neoadjuvant, NCT01690702) between July 30, 2012, and March 20, 2019. Central HER2 testing was done prospectively before random assignment of participants in all trials. HER2-low-positive status was defined as immunohistochemistry (IHC) 1+ or IHC2+/in-situ hybridisation negative and HER2-zero was defined as IHC0, based on the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guidelines. Disease-free survival and overall survival data were available for 1694 patients (from all trials except GeparX) with a median follow-up of 46·6 months (IQR 35·0-52·3). Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models and Cox-proportional hazards models were performed based on a predefined statistical analysis plan for analysis of the endpoints pathological complete response, disease-free survival, and overall survival.

Findings: A total of 1098 (47·5%) of 2310 tumours were HER2-low-positive and 1212 (52·5%) were HER2-zero. 703 (64·0%) of 1098 patients with HER2-low-positive tumours were hormone receptor positive, compared with 445 (36·7%) of 1212 patients with HER2-zero tumours (p<0.0001). HER2-low-positive tumours had a significantly lower pathological complete response rate than HER2-zero tumours (321 [29·2%] of 1098 vs 473 [39·0%] of 1212, p=0·0002). Pathological complete response was also significantly lower in HER2-low-positive tumours versus HER2-zero tumours in the hormone receptor-positive subgroup (123 [17·5%] of 703 vs 105 [23·6%] of 445, p=0·024), but not in the hormone receptor-negative subgroup (198 [50·1%] of 395 vs 368 [48·0%] of 767, p=0·21). Patients with HER2-low-positive tumours had significantly longer survival than did patients with HER2-zero tumours (3-year disease-free survival: 83·4% [95% CI 80·5-85·9] vs 76·1% [72·9-79·0]; stratified log-rank test p=0·0084; 3-year overall survival: 91·6% [84·9-93·4] vs 85·8% [83·0-88·1]; stratified log-rank test p=0·0016). Survival differences were also seen in patients with hormone receptor-negative tumours (3-year disease-free survival: 84·5% [95% CI 79·5-88·3] vs 74·4% [70·2-78.0]; stratified log-rank test p=0·0076; 3-year overall survival: 90·2% [86·0-93·2] vs 84·3% [80·7-87·3], stratified log-rank test p=0·016), but not in patients with hormone receptor-positive tumours (3-year disease-free survival 82·8% [79·1-85·9] vs 79·3% [73·9-83·7]; stratified log-rank test p=0·39; 3-year overall survival 92·3% [89·6-94·4] vs 88·4% [83·8-91·8]; stratified log-rank test p=0·13).

Interpretation: Our results show that HER2-low-positive tumours can be identified as new subgroup of breast cancer by standardised IHC, distinct from HER2-zero tumours. HER2-low-positive tumours have a specific biology and show differences in response to therapy and prognosis, which is particularly relevant in therapy-resistant, hormone receptor-negative tumours. Our results provide a basis for a better understanding of the biology of breast cancer subtypes and the refinement of future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Funding: German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00301-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Reporting the Analytical Method Is Essential to Assessing Studies in Which Biomarkers Are a Major Study Objective-Reply.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Sep;7(9):1403-1404

German Breast Group, GBG Forschungs GmbH, Neu-Isenburg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.2046DOI Listing
September 2021

Reply to Y. Kawamura et al.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Sep 6;39(27):3090-3091. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Sibylle Loibl, MD, PhD, German Breast Group c/o GBG Forschungs GmbH, Neu-Isenburg, Germany, Center for Hematology and Oncology Bethanien, Frankfurt, Germany; Valentina Nekljudova, PhD, German Breast Group c/o GBG Forschungs GmbH, Neu-Isenburg, Germany; and Carsten Denkert, MD, PhD, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Marburg and Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.01403DOI Listing
September 2021

A clinical calculator to predict disease outcomes in women with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer treated with first-line endocrine therapy.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Aug 3;189(1):15-23. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Gregorio Marañón University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: Endocrine therapy (ET) is an effective strategy to treat hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR+/HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC) but nearly all patients eventually progress. Our goal was to develop and validate a web-based clinical calculator for predicting disease outcomes in women with HR+ABC who are candidates for receiving first-line single-agent ET.

Methods: The meta-database comprises 891 patient-level data from the control arms of five contemporary clinical trials where patients received first-line single-agent ET (either aromatase inhibitor or fulvestrant) for ABC. Risk models were constructed for predicting 24-months progression-free survival (PFS-24) and 24-months overall survival (OS-24). Final models were internally validated for calibration and discrimination using ten-fold cross-validation.

Results: Higher number of sites of metastases, measurable disease, younger age, lower body mass index, negative PR status, and prior endocrine therapy were associated with worse PFS. Final PFS and OS models were well-calibrated and associated with cross-validated time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) of 0.61 and 0.62, respectively.

Conclusions: The proposed ABC calculator is internally valid and can accurately predict disease outcomes. It may be used to predict patient prognosis, aid planning of first-line treatment strategies, and facilitate risk stratification for future clinical trials in patients with HR+ABC. Future validation of the proposed models in independent patient cohorts is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06319-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Utility of the CPS + EG scoring system in triple-negative breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Aug 26;153:203-212. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

HELIOS Clinic Berlin Buch, Germany.

Background: Pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is associated with superior survival. This association is strongest in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The CPS + EG system, based on pre-treatment clinical (CS) and post-treatment pathological stage (PS), oestrogen-receptor status (E) and grade (G), leads to a refined estimate of prognosis after NACT in all-comers and hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Here, we investigate if CPS + EG scoring provides a superior estimate of prognosis in TNBC to select patients for postneoadjuvant therapy.

Methods: We calculated the CPS + EG score for 1795 patients with TNBC from 8 prospective German trials. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: In TNBC, patients with pCR (ypT0/is ypN0, n = 822, 45.8%) had a 5-year DFS of 86%, whereas patients with residual American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I disease (n = 383; 21.3%) had a 5-year DFS of 77.5%.CPS + EG led to superior prognostic information compared with that provided by the clinical stage, but it was inferior to the prognostic information provided by the pathological stage (c-index statistics, p < 0.001). CPS + EG did not discriminate prognosis within the two best prognostic groups (score 1 and 2; n = 362; 37.2%). In contrast, pCR status added prognostic information beyond CPS + EG. Patients with a CPS + EG score of 3 had a 5-year DFS rate of 64% overall, but those with pCR had a 5-year DFS rate of 84%, and those without pCR had a 5-year DFS rate of only 49.7%.

Conclusions: In TNBC, CPS + EG scoring provided inferior prognostic information compared with the pathological stage and was unable to identify patients without pCR and with a sufficiently good prognosis, who could avoid postneoadjuvant therapy. pCR remains the strongest and most clinically useful prognostic factor after NACT. Other biologic factors beyond pCR are needed in TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.05.027DOI Listing
August 2021

Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of breast cancer primaries and matched metastases in AURORA, the Breast International Group (BIG) molecular screening initiative.

Cancer Discov 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital.

AURORA aims to study the processes of relapse in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) by performing multi-omics profiling on paired primary tumors and early-course metastases. Among 381 patients (primary tumor and metastasis pairs: 252 TGS, 152 RNA-Seq, 67 SNP Arrays), we found a driver role for GATA1 and MEN1 somatic mutations. Metastases were enriched in ESR1, PTEN, CDH1, PIK3CA and RB1 mutations; MDM4, MYC amplifications; ARID1A deletions. An increase in clonality was observed in driver genes like ERBB2 and RB1. Intrinsic subtype switching occurred in 36% of cases. Luminal A/B to HER2-Enriched switching was associated with TP53 and/or PIK3CA mutations. Metastases had lower immune score and increased immune permissive cells. High TMB correlated to shorter time to relapse in HR+/HER2- cancers. ESCAT tier I/II alterations were detected in 51% of patients and matched therapy was used in 7%. Integration of multi-omics analyses in clinical practice could impact treatment strategies in MBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-1647DOI Listing
June 2021

Treatment of Patients with Early Breast Cancer: Evidence, Controversies, Consensus: German Expert Opinions on the 17th International St. Gallen Consensus Conference.

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2021 Jun 19;81(6):637-653. Epub 2021 May 19.

Universitätsklinik und Poliklinik für Gynäkologie, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

This year's 17th St. Gallen (SG) Consensus Conference on the Treatment of Patients with Early Breast Cancer (SG-BCC) with the title "Customizing local and systemic therapies for women with early breast cancer" focused on the challenge of targeting the treatment of early breast cancer more specifically to the individual disease situation of each patient. As in previous years, a German working group of leading breast cancer experts discussed the results of the international SG-BCC 2021 in the context of the German guideline. It is helpful to compare the SG recommendations with the recently updated treatment recommendations of the Breast Commission of the German Working Group on Gynaecological Oncology (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie e. V., AGO) and the S3 guideline because the SG-BCC panel comprised experts from different countries, which is why country-specific aspects can be incorporated into the SG recommendations. The German treatment recommendations of the AGO and the S3 guideline are based on current evidence. Nevertheless, any therapeutic decision must always undergo a risk-benefit analysis for the specific situation and to be discussed with the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1483-2782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216767PMC
June 2021

Chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure in young women with early breast cancer: Prospective analysis of four randomised neoadjuvant/adjuvant breast cancer trials.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 8;152:193-203. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

German Breast Group, Neu-Isenburg, Germany.

Background: Young women receiving chemotherapy for early breast cancer (EBC) have a high probability for ovarian failure, defined by chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) as a surrogate. CIA is insufficiently reliable and reproducible. We analysed chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure (CIOF) by assessing hormone parameters, CIA, and antral follicle count (AFC).

Methods: Blood samples of women aged ≤45 years treated with anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy for EBC from four neoadjuvant/adjuvant trials were collected at baseline, at the end of treatment (EOT), and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after EOT. Centrally assessed oestradiol (cutoff <52.2 ng/L) and follicle-stimulating hormone (cutoff >12.4IU/L) were used to define CIOF for patients with baseline premenopausal hormone levels, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and AFC to assess ovarian reserve. Further analyses included CIA, regain of premenopausal hormone levels, and disease-free survival (DFS) also in subgroups.

Results: Six hundred ninety-six patients aged ≤45 years had premenopausal hormone levels at baseline. Overall, 85.1% (592/696) experienced CIOF at EOT, and 147 of 592 had further hormone measurements after EOT. Of those, 32.7% (48/147) regained premenopausal hormone levels after 6 months, 57.9% (66/114) regained premenopausal hormone levels after 12 months, 83.0% (73/88) regained premenopausal hormone levels after 18 months, and 89.2% (74/83) regained premenopausal hormone levels after 24 months. After 24 months, 72.4% (21/29) of patients without CIOF and 100% (14/14) with CIOF had low AMH levels. Four-year DFS without CIOF versus CIOF was 65.9% versus 84.6% (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37-3.19; P < 0.001); in hormone receptor positive 61.8% versus 87.5% (HR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.57-4.60; P < 0.001); in <30 years 68.3% versus 92.6% (HR = 4.87, 95% CI: 1.05-22.63; P = 0.026).

Conclusion: Most premenopausal women experienced CIOF after chemotherapy for EBC. After 2 years, nearly all regain premenopausal hormone levels. CIOF was associated with better DFS, especially in patients with hormone receptor-positive EBC or aged <30 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.04.038DOI Listing
July 2021

Adjuvant Olaparib for Patients with - or -Mutated Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2021 06 3;384(25):2394-2405. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

From the Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, the Institute of Cancer Research (A.N.J.T.), and the Breast Cancer Now Unit, Guy's Hospital Cancer Centre, King's College London (A.N.J.T.), London, AstraZeneca, Cambridge (S.J.H., N.B.), and Frontier Science (Scotland), Kincraig (R.M.C., E.M.F., C.C.) - all in the United Kingdom; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School (J.E.G., R.D.G.), Frontier Science Foundation (R.D.G.), and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (R.D.G.) - all in Boston; the Breast Oncology Institute, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel (B.K.); the University of Milan, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan (G.V.); Breast International Group (D.F., A.A.) and Institut Jules Bordet, l'Université Libre de Bruxelles (E.A., M.P.), Brussels; NRG Oncology (P.R., H.B., P.C.L., N.W., G.Y., C.E.G.) and the Basser Center for BRCA, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania (S.M.D.), Philadelphia, and the UPMC Hillman Cancer Center (P.R., P.C.L., N.W.) and the Department of Biostatistics (H.B., J.P.C., G.Y.), University of Pittsburgh, and the NSABP Foundation (N.W.), Pittsburgh - all in Pennsylvania; AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg (A.F.), and the National Cancer Institute, Rockville (L.A.K.) - both in Maryland; Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology and Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (J.B.) - both in Barcelona; BC Cancer, Vancouver, BC, Canada (K.A.G.); Sahlgrenska University Hospital (B.L.) and the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University (B.L.) - both in Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk (E.S.), the Maria Skłodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Warsaw (Z.N.), the International Hereditary Cancer Center, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin (T.H.), and Read-Gene, Grzepnica (T.H.) - all in Poland; Kaiser Permanente Vallejo Medical Center, Vallejo (J.M.S.), and the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA (P.A.G.), and the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (P.A.G.), Los Angeles - all in California; Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China, (Z.S.); Georgia NCORP, Northside Hospital Cancer Institute (A.W.P.), and Piedmont Healthcare (A.W.P.) - both in Atlanta; German Breast Group, Neu-Isenburg (S.L.), the Center for Hematology and Oncology Bethanien and Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.L.), and the Center for Familial Breast and Ovarian Cancer and the Center for Integrated Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne (R.S.) - all in Germany; the Department of Internal Medicine I and Gaston H. Glock Research Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (G.G.S.); Merck, Kenilworth, NJ (V.K.); the University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research and Pathology Queensland (S.R.L.) - both in Brisbane, QLD, Australia; and Houston Methodist Cancer Center (C.E.G.) and Weill Cornell Medical College (C.E.G.) - both in Houston.

Background: Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors target cancers with defects in homologous recombination repair by synthetic lethality. New therapies are needed to reduce recurrence in patients with or germline mutation-associated early breast cancer.

Methods: We conducted a phase 3, double-blind, randomized trial involving patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative early breast cancer with or germline pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants and high-risk clinicopathological factors who had received local treatment and neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to 1 year of oral olaparib or placebo. The primary end point was invasive disease-free survival.

Results: A total of 1836 patients underwent randomization. At a prespecified event-driven interim analysis with a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the 3-year invasive disease-free survival was 85.9% in the olaparib group and 77.1% in the placebo group (difference, 8.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5 to 13.0; hazard ratio for invasive disease or death, 0.58; 99.5% CI, 0.41 to 0.82; P<0.001). The 3-year distant disease-free survival was 87.5% in the olaparib group and 80.4% in the placebo group (difference, 7.1 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.0 to 11.1; hazard ratio for distant disease or death, 0.57; 99.5% CI, 0.39 to 0.83; P<0.001). Olaparib was associated with fewer deaths than placebo (59 and 86, respectively) (hazard ratio, 0.68; 99% CI, 0.44 to 1.05; P = 0.02); however, the between-group difference was not significant at an interim-analysis boundary of a P value of less than 0.01. Safety data were consistent with known side effects of olaparib, with no excess serious adverse events or adverse events of special interest.

Conclusions: Among patients with high-risk, HER2-negative early breast cancer and germline or pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants, adjuvant olaparib after completion of local treatment and neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with significantly longer survival free of invasive or distant disease than was placebo. Olaparib had limited effects on global patient-reported quality of life. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and AstraZeneca; OlympiA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02032823.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2105215DOI Listing
June 2021

Assessment of Ovarian Function in Phase 3 (Neo)adjuvant Breast Cancer Clinical Trials: A Systematic Evaluation.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Loss of ovarian function is a recognized adverse effect of chemotherapy for breast cancer, and of great importance to patients. Little is known about the ovarian toxicity of newer cancer treatments. This study examined whether breast cancer clinical trials include assessment of the impact of trial interventions on ovarian function.

Methods: Eligible trials were phase 3 (neo)adjuvant trials of pharmacologic treatments for breast cancer recruiting between June 2008-October 2019, which included premenopausal women. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Clinicaltrials.gov, EudraCT were searched. Data were extracted from trial publications, protocols, databases, and a survey sent to all trial chairs. Tests of statistical significance were two-sided. PROSPERO registration CRD42019134551.

Results: Of 2,354 records identified, 141 trials were eligible. Investigational treatments included chemotherapy (36.9%), HER2-targeted (24.8%), endocrine (12.8%), immunotherapy (7.8%), CDK4/6-inhibitors (5.0%), PARP-inhibitors (2.8%). Ovarian function was a pre-specified endpoint in 13 (9.2%) trials. Forty-five (31.9%) trials collected ovarian function data, but only 33 (23.4%) collected post-trial-intervention data. Common post-intervention data collected included menstruation (15.6%), pregnancy (13.5%), estradiol (9.9%) and follicle-stimulating hormone levels (8.5%). Only four (2.8%) trials collected post-intervention anti-mullerian hormone levels and three (2.1%) trials collected antral follicle count. Of 22 trials investigating immunotherapy, CDK4/6-inhibitors or PARP-inhibitors, none specified ovarian function as an endpoint, but four (18.2%) collected post-intervention ovarian function data.

Conclusions: The impact of pharmacologic interventions on ovarian function is infrequently assessed in phase 3 breast cancer (neo)adjuvant trials that include premenopausal women. Trialists should consider inclusion of ovarian function endpoints when designing clinical trials, given its importance for informed decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab111DOI Listing
May 2021

Intestinal microbiota influences clinical outcome and side effects of early breast cancer treatment.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Sep 7;28(9):2778-2796. Epub 2021 May 7.

Gustave Roussy Cancer Center, Villejuif, France.

The prognosis of early breast cancer (BC) relies on cell autonomous and immune parameters. The impact of the intestinal microbiome on clinical outcome has not yet been evaluated. Shotgun metagenomics was used to determine the composition of the fecal microbiota in 121 specimens from 76 early BC patients, 45 of whom were paired before and after chemotherapy. These patients were enrolled in the CANTO prospective study designed to record the side effects associated with the clinical management of BC. We analyzed associations between baseline or post-chemotherapy fecal microbiota and plasma metabolomics with BC prognosis, as well as with therapy-induced side effects. We examined the clinical relevance of these findings in immunocompetent mice colonized with BC patient microbiota that were subsequently challenged with histo-compatible mouse BC and chemotherapy. We conclude that specific gut commensals that are overabundant in BC patients compared with healthy individuals negatively impact BC prognosis, are modulated by chemotherapy, and may influence weight gain and neurological side effects of BC therapies. These findings obtained in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings warrant prospective validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00784-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408230PMC
September 2021

Sacituzumab Govitecan in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2021 04;384(16):1529-1541

From the Division of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center (A. Bardia), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (S.M.T.) - both in Boston; the University of California, Los Angeles, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles (S.A.H.); the Medical Oncology Department and the Department of Drug Development and Innovation, Institut Curie, Paris (D.L.), Institut Claudius Regaud, Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse Oncopole, Toulouse (F.D.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Eugène Marquis, Rennes (V.D.) - all in France; the Department of General Medical Oncology and Multidisciplinary Breast Center, Leuven Cancer Institute, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (K.P.), and the Clinical Trials Conduct Unit (P.A.), Institut Jules Bordet-Université Libre de Bruxelles (M.J.P.), Brussels - all in Belgium; the Medical Oncology Department and Breast Cancer Group, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology (M.O.), and the International Breast Cancer Center, Quiron Group (J.C.) - all in Barcelona; Magee-Womens Hospital and the Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh (A. Brufsky); Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus (S.D.S.); Columbia University Irving Medical Center (K.K.) and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (T.T.) - both in New York; Northside Hospital, Atlanta (A.B.Z.); Florida Cancer Specialists, Tampa (R.W.); Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC (F.L.); Rocky Mountain Cancer Centers, Greenwood Village, CO (S.D.); Baylor University Medical Center and Texas Oncology, Dallas (J.O.); Segal Cancer Centre, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal (C.F.); Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London (P.S.); University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill (L.A.C.); Gianni Bonadonna Foundation, Milan (L.G.); the Department of Medicine and Research, Hämatologisch-Onkologische Gemeinschaftspraxis am Bethanien-Krankenhaus, Frankfurt, Germany (S.L.); Immunomedics, Morris Plains, NJ (D.M.G., Q.H., M.S.O., L.M.I.); and the University of California, San Francisco, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco (H.S.R.).

Background: Patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer have a poor prognosis. Sacituzumab govitecan is an antibody-drug conjugate composed of an antibody targeting the human trophoblast cell-surface antigen 2 (Trop-2), which is expressed in the majority of breast cancers, coupled to SN-38 (topoisomerase I inhibitor) through a proprietary hydrolyzable linker.

Methods: In this randomized, phase 3 trial, we evaluated sacituzumab govitecan as compared with single-agent chemotherapy of the physician's choice (eribulin, vinorelbine, capecitabine, or gemcitabine) in patients with relapsed or refractory metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. The primary end point was progression-free survival (as determined by blinded independent central review) among patients without brain metastases.

Results: A total of 468 patients without brain metastases were randomly assigned to receive sacituzumab govitecan (235 patients) or chemotherapy (233 patients). The median age was 54 years; all the patients had previous use of taxanes. The median progression-free survival was 5.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3 to 6.3; 166 events) with sacituzumab govitecan and 1.7 months (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.6; 150 events) with chemotherapy (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.52; P<0.001). The median overall survival was 12.1 months (95% CI, 10.7 to 14.0) with sacituzumab govitecan and 6.7 months (95% CI, 5.8 to 7.7) with chemotherapy (hazard ratio for death, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.59; P<0.001). The percentage of patients with an objective response was 35% with sacituzumab govitecan and 5% with chemotherapy. The incidences of key treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher were neutropenia (51% with sacituzumab govitecan and 33% with chemotherapy), leukopenia (10% and 5%), diarrhea (10% and <1%), anemia (8% and 5%), and febrile neutropenia (6% and 2%). There were three deaths owing to adverse events in each group; no deaths were considered to be related to sacituzumab govitecan treatment.

Conclusions: Progression-free and overall survival were significantly longer with sacituzumab govitecan than with single-agent chemotherapy among patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. Myelosuppression and diarrhea were more frequent with sacituzumab govitecan. (Funded by Immunomedics; ASCENT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02574455; EudraCT number, 2017-003019-21.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2028485DOI Listing
April 2021

Breast cancer.

Lancet 2021 May 1;397(10286):1750-1769. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy; University of Milano, Milan, Italy.

Breast cancer is still the most common cancer worldwide. But the way breast cancer is viewed has changed drastically since its molecular hallmarks were extensively characterised, now including immunohistochemical markers (eg, ER, PR, HER2 [ERBB2], and proliferation marker protein Ki-67 [MKI67]), genomic markers (eg, BRCA1, BRCA2, and PIK3CA), and immunomarkers (eg, tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and PD-L1). New biomarker combinations are the basis for increasingly complex diagnostic algorithms. Neoadjuvant combination therapy, often including targeted agents, is a standard of care (especially in HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer), and the basis for de-escalation of surgery in the breast and axilla and for risk-adapted post-neoadjuvant strategies. Radiotherapy remains an important cornerstone of breast cancer therapy, but de-escalation schemes have become the standard of care. ER-positive tumours are treated with 5-10 years of endocrine therapy and chemotherapy, based on an individual risk assessment. For metastatic breast cancer, standard therapy options include targeted approaches such as CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors, PI3K inhibitors, PARP inhibitors, and anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy, depending on tumour type and molecular profile. This range of treatment options reflects the complexity of breast cancer therapy today.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32381-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Palbociclib for Residual High-Risk Invasive HR-Positive and HER2-Negative Early Breast Cancer-The Penelope-B Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 1;39(14):1518-1530. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

German Breast Group, Neu-Isenburg, Germany.

Purpose: About one third of patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer who have residual invasive disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) will relapse. Thus, additional therapy is needed. Palbociclib is a cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor demonstrating efficacy in the metastatic setting.

Patients And Methods: PENELOPE-B (NCT01864746) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study in women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative primary breast cancer without a pathological complete response after taxane-containing NACT and at high risk of relapse (clinical pathological staging-estrogen receptor grading score ≥ 3 or 2 and ypN+). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 13 cycles of palbociclib 125 mg once daily or placebo on days 1-21 in a 28-day cycle in addition to endocrine therapy (ET). Primary end point is invasive disease-free survival (iDFS). Final analysis was planned after 290 iDFS events with a two-sided efficacy boundary < .0463 because of two interim analyses.

Results: One thousand two hundred fifty patients were randomly assigned. The median age was 49.0 years (range, 19-79), and the majority were ypN+ with Ki-67 ≤ 15%; 59.4% of patients had a clinical pathological staging-estrogen receptor grading score ≥ 3. 50.1% received aromatase inhibitor, and 33% of premenopausal women received a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog in addition to either tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor. After a median follow-up of 42.8 months (92% complete), 308 events were confirmed. Palbociclib did not improve iDFS versus placebo added to ET-stratified hazard ratio, 0.93 (95% repeated CI, 0.74 to 1.17) and two-sided weighted log-rank test (Cui, Hung, and Wang) = .525. There was no difference among the subgroups. Most common related serious adverse events were infections and vascular disorders in 113 (9.1%) patients with no difference between the treatment arms. Eight fatal serious adverse events (two palbociclib and six placebo) were reported.

Conclusion: Palbociclib for 1 year in addition to ET did not improve iDFS in women with residual invasive disease after NACT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03639DOI Listing
May 2021

Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients With -Mutated Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer From SOLAR-1.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 29;39(18):2005-2015. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: In the phase III SOLAR-1 trial (NCT02437318), the PI3Kα-selective inhibitor and degrader alpelisib significantly improved median progression-free survival when added to fulvestrant in patients with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha ()-mutated, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. We assessed health-related quality of life using patient-reported outcome measures in these patients.

Materials And Methods: In the -mutant cohort, 341 patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive alpelisib 300 mg daily or placebo plus fulvestrant 500 mg on days 1 and 15 of cycle 1 and on day 1 of subsequent 28-day cycles. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL of Cancer Patients and Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form questionnaires. Changes from baseline and time to 10% deterioration were analyzed using repeated measurement models and Cox models, respectively.

Results: Global Health Status/QoL and functional status were maintained from baseline (mean changes < 10 points) in the alpelisib (overall change from baseline [95% CI], -3.50 [-8.02 to 1.02]) and placebo arms (overall change from baseline [95% CI], 0.27 [-4.48 to 5.02]). Overall treatment effect in Global Health Status/QoL was not significantly different between arms (-3.77; 95% CI, -8.35 to 0.80; = .101). Time to 10% deterioration for Global Health Status/QoL was similar between arms (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.48). Compared with placebo, deterioration in social functioning and in diarrhea, appetite loss, nausea or vomiting, and fatigue symptom subscales occurred with alpelisib. Numerical improvement in Worst Pain was observed with alpelisib versus placebo (42% 32%, week 24; = .090).

Conclusion: In SOLAR-1, there was no statistical difference in deterioration of Global Health Status/QoL between arms, whereas symptom subscales favored placebo for diarrhea, appetite loss, nausea or vomiting, and fatigue, known side effects of alpelisib. Treatment decisions must consider efficacy and tolerability; taken with clinical efficacy, these results support the benefit-risk profile of alpelisib in patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative -mutated advanced breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210974PMC
June 2021

Therapy response and prognosis of patients with early breast cancer with low positivity for hormone receptors - An analysis of 2765 patients from neoadjuvant clinical trials.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 18;148:159-170. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

German Breast Group (GBG Forschungs GmbH), Neu-Isenburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Aim: To evaluate HER2-negative breast cancer (BC) with a low hormone receptor (HR) expression, with regard to pathological complete response (pCR) and survival, in comparison to triple-negative BC (TNBC) and strong HR-positive BC.

Methods: We compared negative [oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) <1%], low-positive (ER and/or PR 1-9%) and strong-positive (ER or PR 10-100%) HR-expression in neoadjuvant clinical trial cohorts (n = 2765) of BC patients. End-points were disease-free survival (DFS), distant-disease free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS). We performed RNA sequencing on available tumour tissue samples from patients with low-HR expression (n = 38).

Results: Ninety-four (3.4%) patients had low HR-positive tumours, 1769 (64.0%) had strong HR-positive tumours, and 902 (32.6%) had TNBC. There were no significant differences in pCR rates between women with low HR-positive tumours (27.7%) and women with TNBC (35.5%). DFS and DDFS were also not different [for DFS, hazard ratio 1.26, 95%-CI (confidence interval) : 0.87-1.83, log-rank test p = 0.951; for DDFS, hazard ratio 1.17, 95%-CI: 0.78-1.76, log-rank test p = 0.774]. Patients with strong HR-positive tumours had a significantly lower pCR rate (pCR 9.4%; odds ratio 0.38, 95%-CI: 0.23-0.63), but better DFS (hazard ratio 0.48, 95%-CI: 0.33-0.70) and DDFS (hazard ratio 0.49, 95%-CI: 0.33-0.74) than patients with low HR-positive tumours. Molecular subtyping (RNA sequencing) of low HR-positive tumours classified these predominantly into a basal subtype (86.8%).

Conclusion: Low HR-positive, HER2-negative tumours have a similar clinical behaviour to TNBC showing high pCR rates and poor survival and also a basal-like gene expression signature. Patients with low HR-positive tumours should be regarded as candidates for therapy strategies targeting TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.02.020DOI Listing
May 2021

Predicting Prognosis of Breast Cancer Patients with Brain Metastases in the BMBC Registry-Comparison of Three Different GPA Prognostic Scores.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 17;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Gynecology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Several scores have been developed in order to estimate the prognosis of patients with brain metastases (BM) by objective criteria. The aim of this analysis was to validate all three published graded-prognostic-assessment (GPA)-scores in a subcohort of 882 breast cancer (BC) patients with BM in the Brain Metastases in the German Breast Cancer (BMBC) registry. The median age at diagnosis of BM was 57 years. All in all, 22.3% of patients ( = 197) had triple-negative, 33.4% ( = 295) luminal A like, 25.1% ( = 221) luminal B/HER2-enriched like and 19.2% ( = 169) HER2 positive like BC. Age ≥60 years, evidence of extracranial metastases (ECM), higher number of BM, triple-negative subtype and low Karnofsky-Performance-Status (KPS) were all associated with worse overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis ( < 0.001 each). All three GPA-scores were associated with OS. The breast-GPA showed the highest probability of classifying patients with survival above 12 months in the best prognostic group (specificity 68.7% compared with 48.1% for the updated breast-GPA and 21.8% for the original GPA). Sensitivities for predicting 3 months survival were very low for all scores. In this analysis, all GPA-scores showed only moderate diagnostic accuracy in predicting the OS of BC patients with BM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922206PMC
February 2021

Association of Immunophenotype With Pathologic Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of the BrighTNess Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Apr;7(4):603-608

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.

Importance: Adding carboplatin to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) likely benefits a subset of patients; however, determinants of benefit are poorly understood.

Objective: To define the association of molecular subtype, tumor proliferation, and immunophenotype with benefit of carboplatin added to NAC for patients with stages II to III TNBC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a prespecified secondary analysis of a phase 3, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (BrighTNess) that enrolled 634 women across 145 centers in 15 countries. Women with clinical stages II to III TNBC who had undergone pretreatment biopsy were eligible to participate. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing was performed on the biopsy specimens. The prespecified end point was association of pathologic complete response (pCR) with gene expression-based molecular subtype, with secondary end points investigating established signatures (proliferation, immune) and exploratory analyses of immunophenotype. Data were collected from April 2014 to March 2016. The study analyses were performed from January 2018 to March 2019.

Interventions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, or this same regimen with carboplatin or carboplatin plus veliparib.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Association of gene expression-based molecular subtype (PAM50 and TNBC subtypes) with pCR.

Results: Of the 634 women (median age, 51 [range, 22-78] years) enrolled in BrighTNess, 482 (76%) patients had evaluable RNA sequencing data, with similar baseline characteristics relative to the overall intention-to-treat population. Pathologic complete response was significantly more frequent in PAM50 basal-like vs nonbasal-like cancers overall (202 of 386 [52.3%] vs 34 of 96 [35.4%]; P = .003). Carboplatin benefit was not significantly different in basal-like vs nonbasal-like subgroups (P = .80 for interaction). In multivariable analysis, proliferation (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.21-0.61; P < .001) and immune (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49-0.79; P < .001) signatures were independently associated with pCR. Tumors above the median for proliferation and immune signatures had the highest pCR rate (84 of 125; 67%), while those below the median for both signatures had the lowest pCR rate (42 of 125; 34%). Exploratory gene expression immune analyses suggested that tumors with higher inferred CD8+ T-cell infiltration may receive greater benefit with addition of carboplatin.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, triple-negative breast cancer subtyping revealed high pCR rates in basal-like and immunomodulatory subsets. Analysis of biological processes related to basal-like and immunomodulatory phenotypes identified tumor cell proliferation and immune scores as independent factors associated with achieving pCR; the benefit of carboplatin on pCR was seen across all molecular subtypes. Further validation of immunophenotype with existing biomarkers may help to escalate or de-escalate therapy for patients with TNBC.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02032277.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.7310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893540PMC
April 2021

Immune-related Gene Expression Predicts Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy but not Additional Benefit from PD-L1 Inhibition in Women with Early Triple-negative Breast Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 16;27(9):2584-2591. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Pathology, Philipps-University Marburg and University Hospital Marburg (UKGM), Marburg, Germany.

Purpose: We evaluated mRNA signatures to predict response to neoadjuvant PD-L1 inhibition in combination with chemotherapy in early triple-negative breast cancer.

Experimental Design: Targeted mRNA sequencing of 2,559 transcripts was performed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from 162 patients of the GeparNuevo trial. We focused on validation of four predefined gene signatures and differential gene expression analyses for new predictive markers.

Results: Two signatures [GeparSixto signature (G6-Sig) and IFN signature (IFN-Sig)] were predictive for treatment response in a multivariate model including treatment arm [G6-Sig: OR, 1.558; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.130-2.182; = 0.008 and IFN-Sig: OR, 1.695; 95% CI, 1.234-2.376; = 0.002), while the CYT metric predicted pathologic complete response (pCR) in the durvalumab arm, and the proliferation-associated gene signature in the placebo arm. Expression of PD-L1 mRNA was associated with better response in both arms, indicating that increased levels of PD-L1 are a general predictor of neoadjuvant therapy response. In an exploratory analysis, we identified seven genes that were higher expressed in responders in the durvalumab arm, but not the placebo arm: , and . These genes were associated with cellular antigen processing and presentation and IFN signaling.

Conclusions: Immune-associated signatures are associated with pCR after chemotherapy, but might be of limited use for the prediction of response to additional immune checkpoint blockade. Gene expressions related to antigen presentation and IFN signaling might be interesting candidates for further evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-3113DOI Listing
May 2021

Gene Expression-Based Prediction of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response in Early Breast Cancer: Results of the Prospective Multicenter EXPRESSION Trial.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Apr 4;27(8):2148-2158. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Leibniz-Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the TU Dortmund (IfADo), Dortmund, Germany.

Purpose: Expression-based classifiers to predict pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) are not routinely used in the clinic. We aimed to build and validate a classifier for pCR after NACT.

Patients And Methods: We performed a prospective multicenter study (EXPRESSION) including 114 patients treated with anthracycline/taxane-based NACT. Pretreatment core needle biopsies from 91 patients were used for gene expression analysis and classifier construction, followed by validation in five external cohorts ( = 619).

Results: A 20-gene classifier established in the EXPRESSION cohort using a Youden index-based cut-off point predicted pCR in the validation cohorts with an accuracy, AUC, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.811, 0.768, 0.829, 0.587, 0.216, and 0.962, respectively. Alternatively, aiming for a high NPV by defining the cut-off point for classification based on the complete responder with the lowest predicted probability of pCR in the EXPRESSION cohort led to an NPV of 0.960 upon external validation. With this extreme-low cut-off point, a recommendation to not treat with anthracycline/taxane-based NACT would be possible for 121 of 619 unselected patients (19.5%) and 112 of 322 patients with luminal breast cancer (34.8%). The analysis of the molecular subtypes showed that the identification of patients who do not achieve a pCR by the 20-gene classifier was particularly relevant in luminal breast cancer.

Conclusions: The novel 20-gene classifier reliably identifies patients who do not achieve a pCR in about one third of luminal breast cancers in both the EXPRESSION and combined validation cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2662DOI Listing
April 2021
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