Publications by authors named "Siao Wei See"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Optimization and validation of a low temperature microwave-assisted extraction method for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter.

Talanta 2006 Mar 10;69(1):79-86. Epub 2005 Nov 10.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Drive 4, Singapore.

A low temperature microwave-assisted extraction method (MAE) is reported for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulate matter (PM). The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency (choice of extractants, microwave power, and extraction time) were investigated and optimized. The optimized procedure requires a 20 ml mixture of acetone:n-hexane (1:1) for extraction of PAHs in PM at 150W of microwave energy (20 min extraction time). Clean-up of MAE extracts was not found to be necessary. The optimized method was validated using two different SRM (1648-urban particulate matter and 1649a, urban dust). The results obtained are in good agreement with certified values. PAHs recoveries for both reference materials were between 79 and 122% with relative standard deviation ranging from 3 to 21%. Detection limits were determined based on blank determination using two kinds of quartz filter substrates (n=10), which ranged from 0.001 (0.03) ng m(-3)(pg/microg) for B(k)Ft to 1.119 (37.3) for Naph in ng m(-3) (pg/microg), respectively. The repeatability and day-to-day reproducibility obtained in this study were in the range of 4-16 and 3-25% for spiked standards and SRM 1649, respectively. The optimized and validated MAE technique was applied to the extraction of PAHs from a set of real world PM samples collected in Singapore. The sum of particulate-bound PAHs in outdoor PM ranged from 1.05 to 3.45 ng m(-3) while that in indoor PM (cooking emissions) ranged from 27.6 to 75.7 ng m(-3), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2005.08.060DOI Listing
March 2006

Characterization and source apportionment of particulate matter < or = 2.5 micrometer in Sumatra, Indonesia, during a recent peat fire episode.

Environ Sci Technol 2007 May;41(10):3488-94

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Block E5, #02-11, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore.

An intensive field study was conducted in Sumatra, Indonesia, during a peat fire episode to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of particulate emissions in peat smoke and to provide necessary data for source-receptor analyses. Ambient air sampling was carried out at three different sites located at varying distances from the peatfires to determine changes in mass and number concentrations of PM2.5 and its chemical composition (carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, water-soluble inorganic and organic ions, and total and water-soluble metals). The three sites represent a rural site directly affected by the local peat combustion, a semirural site, and an urban site situated downwind of the peat fires. The mass concentration of PM2.5 and the number concentration of airborne particles were as high as 1600 microg/m3 and 1.7 x 10(5) cm(-3), respectively, in the vicinity of peat fires. The major components of PM2.5 in peat smoke haze were carbonaceous particles, particularly organic carbon, NO3-, and SO4(2-), while the less abundant constituents included ions such as NH4+, NO2-, Na+, K+, organic acids, and metals such as Al, Fe, and Ti. Source apportionment by chemical mass balance receptor modeling indicates that peat smoke can travel long distances and significantly affect the air quality at locations downwind.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es061943kDOI Listing
May 2007

Assessing exposure to diesel exhaust particles: a case study.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2006 Nov;69(21):1909-25

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

The assessment of the vehicular contributions to urban pollution levels is of particular importance given the current interest in the possible adverse health effects. This study focused on human exposure to diesel-engine-derived particulate matter. Diesel vehicles are known to emit fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and have therefore received considerable attention. In this study, the physical (mass and number concentration, and size distribution) and chemical (PAHs) properties were investigated at a major bus interchange in Singapore, influenced only by diesel exhausts. Number concentration and size distribution of particles were determined in real time, while the mass concentrations of PM2.5, and PAHs were measured during operating and nonoperating hours. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs increased by a factor of 2.34 and 5.18, respectively, during operating hours. The average number concentration was also elevated by a factor of 5.07 during operating hours. This increase in the concentration of PM2.5 particles and their chemical constituents during operating hours was attributable to diesel emissions from in-use buses based on the particle size analysis, correlation among PAHs, and the commonly used PAHs diagnostic ratios. To evaluate the potential health threat due inhalation of air pollutants released from diesel engines, the incremental lifetime cancer risk was also calculated for a maximally exposed individual. The findings indicate that the air quality at the bus interchange poses adverse health effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287390600751280DOI Listing
November 2006

Health risk assessment of occupational exposure to particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with Chinese, Malay and Indian cooking.

J Environ Monit 2006 Mar 19;8(3):369-76. Epub 2006 Jan 19.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E5, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117576, Singapore.

Food cooking using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has received considerable attention in recent years since it is an important source of particulate air pollution in indoor environments for non-smokers. Exposure to organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in particles is of particular health concern since some of these compounds are suspected carcinogens. It is therefore necessary to chemically characterize the airborne particles emitted from gas cooking to assess their possible health impacts. In this work, the levels of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and 16 priority PAHs were determined in three different ethnic commercial kitchens, specifically Chinese, Malay and Indian food stalls, where distinctive cooking methods were employed. The mass concentrations of PM(2.5) and PAHs, and the fraction of PAHs in PM(2.5) were the highest at the Malay stall (245.3 microg m(-3), 609.0 ng m(-3), and 0.25%, respectively), followed by the Chinese stall (201.6 microg m(-3), 141.0 ng m(-3), and 0.07%), and the Indian stall (186.9 microg m(-3), 37.9 ng m(-3), and 0.02%). This difference in the levels of particulate pollution among the three stalls may be attributed to the different cooking methods employed at the food stalls, the amount of food cooked, and the cooking time, although the most sensitive parameter appears to be the predominant cooking method used. Frying processes, especially deep-frying, produce more air pollutants, possibly due to the high oil temperatures used in such operations. Furthermore, it is found that frying, be it deep-frying at the Malay stall or stir-frying at the Chinese stall, gave rise to an abundance of higher molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[b]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene whereas low-temperature cooking, such as simmering at the Indian stall, has a higher concentration of lower molecular weight PAHs. In addition, the correlation matrices and diagnostic ratios of PAHs were calculated to determine the markers of gas cooking. To evaluate the potential health threat due to inhalation exposure from the indoor particulate pollution, excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was also calculated for an exposed individual. The findings suggest that cooking fumes in the three commercial kitchens pose adverse health effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b516173hDOI Listing
March 2006
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