Publications by authors named "Sian Estdale"

9 Publications

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12th GCC Closed Forum: critical reagents; oligonucleotides; CoA; method transfer; HRMS; flow cytometry; regulatory findings; stability and immunogenicity.

Bioanalysis 2019 Jun 19;11(12):1129-1138. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

WuXi Apptec, Plainsboro, NJ 08536, USA.

The 12th GCC Closed Forum was held in Philadelphia, PA, USA, on 9 April 2018. Representatives from international bioanalytical Contract Research Organizations were in attendance in order to discuss scientific and regulatory issues specific to bioanalysis. The issues discussed at the meeting included: critical reagents; oligonucleotides; certificates of analysis; method transfer; high resolution mass spectrometry; flow cytometry; recent regulatory findings and case studies involving stability and nonclinical immunogenicity. Conclusions and consensus from discussions of these topics are included in this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2019-0131DOI Listing
June 2019

Hybrid mass spectrometry methods reveal lot-to-lot differences and delineate the effects of glycosylation on the tertiary structure of Herceptin®.

Chem Sci 2019 Mar 17;10(9):2811-2820. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Manchester Institute of Biotechnology , Michael Barber Centre for Collaborative Mass Spectrometry , University of Manchester , 131 Princess Street , Manchester , M1 7DN , UK . Email:

To quantify the measurable variations in the structure of a biopharmaceutical product we systematically evaluate three lots of Herceptin®, two mAb standards and an intact Fc-hinge fragment. Each mAb is examined in three states; glycan intact, truncated (following endoS2 treatment) and fully deglycosylated. Despite equivalence at the intact protein level, each lot of Herceptin® gives a distinctive signature in three different mass spectrometry approaches. Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) shows that in the API, the attached N-glycans reduce the conformational spread of each mAb by 10.5-25%. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) data support this, with lower global deuterium uptake in solution when comparing intact to the fully deglycosylated protein. HDX-MS and activated IM-MS map the influence of glycans on the mAb and reveal allosteric effects which extend far beyond the Fc domains into the Fab region. Taken together, these findings and the supplied interactive data sets establish acceptance criteria with application for MS based characterisation of biosimilars and novel therapeutic mAbs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8sc05029eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425993PMC
March 2019

Recommendations for classification of commercial LBA kits for biomarkers in drug development from the GCC for bioanalysis.

Bioanalysis 2019 Apr 17;11(7):645-653. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

WuXi Apptec, Plainsboro, NJ, USA.

Over the last decade, the use of biomarker data has become integral to drug development. Biomarkers are not only utilized for internal decision-making by sponsors; they are increasingly utilized to make critical decisions for drug safety and efficacy. As the regulatory agencies are routinely making decisions based on biomarker data, there has been significant scrutiny on the validation of biomarker methods. Contract research organizations regularly use commercially available immunoassay kits to validate biomarker methods. However, adaptation of such kits in a regulated environment presents significant challenges and was one of the key topics discussed during the 12th Global Contract Research Organization Council for Bioanalysis (GCC) meeting. This White Paper reports the GCC members' opinion on the challenges facing the industry and the GCC recommendations on the classification of commercial kits that can be a win-win for commercial kit vendors and end users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2019-0072DOI Listing
April 2019

LC-MS/MS strategies for therapeutic antibodies and investigation into the quantitative impact of antidrug-antibodies.

Bioanalysis 2016 Dec;8(24):2565-2579

Biopharmaceutical CMC Solutions, Covance Laboratories Ltd, Otley Road, Harrogate, HG31PY, UK.

Aim: We aimed to establish novel, high-throughput LC-MS/MS strategies for quantification of monoclonal antibodies in human serum and examine the potential impact of antidrug antibodies.

Methodology: We present two strategies using a thermally stable immobilized trypsin. The first strategy uses whole serum digestion and the second introduces Protein G enrichment to improve the selectivity. The impact of anti-trastuzumab antibodies on the methods was tested.

Conclusion: Whole serum digestion has been validated for trastuzumab (LLOQ 0.25 µg/ml). Protein G enrichment has been validated for trastuzumab (LLOQ 0.1 µg/ml), bevacizumab (LLOQ 0.1 µg/ml) and adalimumab (LLOQ 0.25 µg/ml). We have shown the potential for anti-drug antibodies to impact on the quantification and we have subsequently established a strategy to overcome this impact where total quantification is desired.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2016-0197DOI Listing
December 2016

Orthogonal Assessment of Biotherapeutic Glycosylation: A Case Study Correlating N-Glycan Core Afucosylation of Herceptin with Mechanism of Action.

Anal Chem 2016 10 26;88(20):10259-10265. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Covance Laboratories Ltd. , Otley Road, Harrogate, HG3 1PY, United Kingdom.

In the development of therapeutic antibodies and biosimilars, an appropriate biopharmaceutical CMC control strategy that connects critical quality attributes with mechanism of action should enable product assessment at an early stage of development in order to mitigate risk. Here we demonstrate a new analytical workflow using trastuzumab which comprises "middle-up" analysis using a combination of IdeS and the endoglycosidases EndoS and EndoS2 to comprehensively map the glycan content. Enzymatic cleavage between the two N-acetyl glucosamine residues of the chitobiose core of N-glycans significantly simplifies the oligosaccharide component enabling facile distinction of GlcNAc from GlcNAc with core fucose. This approach facilitates quantitative determination of total Fc-glycan core-afucosylation, which was in turn correlated with receptor binding affinity by surface plasmon resonance and in vitro ADCC potency with a cell based bioassay. The strategy also quantifies Fc-glycan occupancy and the relative contribution from high mannose glycans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b02994DOI Listing
October 2016

A rapid approach for characterization of thiol-conjugated antibody-drug conjugates and calculation of drug-antibody ratio by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

Anal Biochem 2015 Sep 9;485:34-42. Epub 2015 Jun 9.

ADC Biotechnology, St Asaph, Denbighshire LL17 0JD, UK.

We present the demonstration of a rapid "middle-up" liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based workflow for use in the characterization of thiol-conjugated maleimidocaproyl-monomethyl auristatin F (mcMMAF) and valine-citrulline-monomethyl auristatin E (vcMMAE) antibody-drug conjugates. Deconvoluted spectra were generated following a combination of deglycosylation, IdeS (immunoglobulin-degrading enzyme from Streptococcus pyogenes) digestion, and reduction steps that provide a visual representation of the product for rapid lot-to-lot comparison-a means to quickly assess the integrity of the antibody structure and the applied conjugation chemistry by mass. The relative abundance of the detected ions also offer information regarding differences in drug conjugation levels between samples, and the average drug-antibody ratio can be calculated. The approach requires little material (<100 μg) and, thus, is amenable to small-scale process development testing or as an early component of a complete characterization project facilitating informed decision making regarding which aspects of a molecule might need to be examined in more detail by orthogonal methodologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2015.06.001DOI Listing
September 2015

Prostaglandin production by melanocytic cells and the effect of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone.

FEBS Lett 2004 Jul;570(1-3):223-6

School of Pharmacy, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK.

Prostaglandins are potent mediators of the inflammatory response and are also involved in cancer development. In this study, we show that human melanocytes and FM55 melanoma cells express cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and -2) and thus have the capability to produce prostaglandins. The FM55 cells produced predominantly PGE2 and PGF2alpha, whereas the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line produced mainly PGE2. The anti-inflammatory peptide, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), reduced prostaglandin production in FM55 and HaCaT cells and reversed the effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha in the former. These results indicate that melanocytes produce prostaglandins and that alpha-MSH, by inhibiting this response, may play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses in the skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2004.06.041DOI Listing
July 2004

Genotoxicity studies on DNA-interactive telomerase inhibitors with application as anti-cancer agents.

Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 2003 ;Suppl 2:31-41

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, United Kingdom.

Telomerase-targeted strategies have aroused recent interest in anti-cancer chemotherapy, because DNA-binding drugs can interact with high-order tetraplex rather than double-stranded (duplex) DNA targets in tumour cells. However, the protracted cell-drug exposure times necessary for clinical application require that telomerase inhibitory efficacy must be accompanied by both low inherent cytotoxicity and the absence of mutagenicity/genotoxicity. For the first time, the genotoxicity of a number of structurally diverse DNA-interactive telomerase inhibitors is examined in the Ames test using six Salmonella typhimurium bacterial strains (TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, TA100, and TA102). DNA damage induced by each agent was also assessed using the Comet assay with human lymphocytes. The two assay procedures revealed markedly different genotoxicity profiles that are likely to reflect differences in metabolism and/or DNA repair between bacterial and mammalian cells. The mutational spectrum for a biologically active fluorenone derivative, shown to be mutagenic in the TA100 strain, was characterised using a novel and rapid assay method based upon PCR amplification of a fragment of the hisG46 allele, followed by RFLP analysis. Preliminary analysis indicates that the majority (84%) of mutations induced by this compound are C --> A transversions at position 2 of the missense proline codon of the hisG46 allele. However, despite its genotoxic bacterial profile, this fluorenone agent gave a negative response in the Comet assay, and demonstrates how unwanted systemic effects (e.g., cytotoxicity and genotoxicity) can be prevented or ameliorated through suitable molecular fine-tuning of a candidate drug in targeted human tumour cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcm.10082DOI Listing
September 2004

Melanin-concentrating hormone and its receptor are expressed and functional in human skin.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002 Aug;296(3):698-701

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK.

In this study, we have demonstrated the presence of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and melanin-concentrating hormone receptor (MCHR1) transcripts in human skin. Sequence analysis confirmed that the transcripts of both genes were identical to those previously found in human brain. In culture, endothelial cells showed pro-MCH expression whereas no signal was found in keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts. MCHR1 expression was restricted to melanocytes and melanoma cells. Stimulation of cultured human melanocytes with MCH reduced the alpha-MSH-induced increase in cAMP production. Furthermore, the melanogenic actions of alpha-MSH were inhibited by MCH. We propose that the MCH/MCHR1 signalling system is present in human skin and may have a role with the melanocortins in regulating the melanocyte.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-291x(02)00932-4DOI Listing
August 2002