Publications by authors named "Si Gao"

87 Publications

Inverse synthetic aperture ladar imaging based on modified cubic phase function.

Appl Opt 2021 Mar;60(7):2014-2021

Inverse synthetic aperture imaging ladar (ISAL) can achieve high-resolution images, and yet it faces pulse-to-pulse high-order phase errors that the microwave radar can ignore. The high-order phase errors are almost caused by mechanical vibrations in general, which blur the azimuth focusing effect. This paper presents an ISAL imaging model to obtain high-resolution images. A novel modified cubic phase function (CPF) algorithm is proposed to compensate the additional high-order phase errors. Some high-resolution well-focused ISAL simulation images and real target images are shown to validate the methods. It is shown that the third-order phase errors are compensated by the distinctive digital signal process and the image entropy of real target images is reduced significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.413512DOI Listing
March 2021

Perilesional neurodegenerative injury in multiple sclerosis: Relation to focal lesions and impact on disability.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jan 5;49:102738. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Neuroimaging Unit, Neuro-immunology Division, Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Department of Neurology, VA Hospital, TN Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Axonal injury is the primary source of irreversible neurological decline in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Identifying and quantifying myelin and axonal loss in lesional and perilesional tissue in vivo is fundamental for a better understanding of multiple sclerosis (MS) outcomes and patient impairment. Using advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, consisting of selective inversion recovery quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (SIR-qMT) and multi-compartment diffusion MRI with the spherical mean technique (SMT), we conducted a cross-sectional pilot study to assess myelin and axonal damage in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) surrounding chronic black holes (cBHs) and how this pathology correlates with disability in vivo. We hypothesized that lesional axonal transection propagates tissue injury in the surrounding NAWM and that the degree of this injury is related to patient disability.

Methods: Eighteen pwMS underwent a 3.0 Tesla conventional clinical MRI, inclusive of T1 and T2 weighted protocols, as well as SIR-qMT and SMT. Regions of interests (ROIs) were manually delineated in cBHs, NAWM neighboring cBHs (perilesional NAWM), distant ipsilateral NAWM and contra-lateral distant NAWM. SIR-qMT-derived macromolecular-to-free pool size ratio (PSR) and SMT-derived apparent axonal volume fraction (V) were extracted to infer on myelin and axonal content, respectively. Group differences were assessed using mixed-effects regression models and correlation analyses were obtained by bootstrapping 95% confidence interval.

Results: In comparison to perilesional NAWM, both PSR and V values were reduced in cBHs (p < 0.0001) and increased in distant contra-lateral NAWM ROIs (p < 0.001 for PSR and p < 0.0001 for V) but not ipsilateral NAWM (p = 0.176 for PSR and p = 0.549 for V). V values measured in cBHs correlated with those in perilesional NAWM (Pearson rho = 0.63, p < 0.001). No statistically relevant associations were seen between PSR/V values and clinical and/or MRI metrics of the disease with the exception of cBH PSR values, which correlated with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (Pearson rho = -0.63, p = 0.03).

Conclusions: Our results show that myelin and axonal content, detected by PSR and V, are reduced in perilesional NAWM, as a function of the degree of focal cBH axonal injury. This finding is indicative of an ongoing anterograde/retrograde degeneration and suggests that treatment prevention of cBH development is a key factor for preserving NAWM integrity in surrounding tissue. It also suggests that measuring changes in perilesional areas over time may be a useful measure of outcome for proof-of-concept clinical trials on neuroprotection and repair. PSR and V largely failed to capture associations with clinical and MRI characteristics, likely as a result of the small sample size and cross-sectional design, however, longitudinal assessment of a larger cohort may unravel the impact of this pathology on disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.102738DOI Listing
January 2021

EGCG inhibits pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy via the PSMB5/Nmnat2/SIRT6-dependent signalling pathways.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2021 04 7;231(4):e13602. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Aim: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol found in green tea, exerts multiple protective effects against cardiovascular diseases, including cardiac hypertrophy. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its anti-hypertrophic effect has not been clarified. This study revealed that EGCG could inhibit pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy by regulating the PSMB5/Nmnat2/SIRT6-dependent signalling pathway.

Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to determine the expression of mRNA and protein respectively. A fluorometric assay kit was used to determine the activity of SIRT6, a histone deacetylase. Luciferase reporter gene assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay were employed to measure transcriptional activity and DNA binding activity respectively.

Results: EGCG could significantly increase Nmnat2 protein expression and enzyme activity in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes stimulated with angiotensin II (Ang II) and heart tissues from rats subjected to abdominal aortic constriction. Nmnat2 knockdown by RNA interference attenuated the inhibitory effect of EGCG on cardiac hypertrophy. EGCG blocked NF-κB DNA binding activity induced by Ang II, which was dependent on Nmnat2 and the subsequent SIRT6 activation. Moreover the activation of PSMB5 (20S proteasome subunit β-5, chymotrypsin-like) was required for EGCG-induced Nmnat2 protein expression. Additionally, we demonstrated that EGCG might interact with PSMB5 and inhibit the activation of the proteasome.

Conclusions: These findings serve as the first evidence that the effect of EGCG against cardiac hypertrophy may be, at least partially, attributed to the modulation of the PSMB5/Nmnat2-dependent signalling pathway, suggesting the therapeutic potential of EGCG in the prevention and treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apha.13602DOI Listing
April 2021

Targeting of the Alox12-12-HETE in Blast Crisis Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Inhibits Leukemia Stem/Progenitor Cell Function.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 3;12:12509-12517. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Wuhan Fourth Hospital; Puai Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloid malignancy characterized by the oncogene BCR-ABL. CML responds well to therapy targeting BCR-ABL in the chronic phase but is resistant to treatment when it progresses to the blast phase (BP). This study attempted to address whether arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (Alox12) confers to CML drug resistance.

Materials And Methods: We analyzed the expression of Alox12 using Western blotting, ELISA, and RT-PCR methods. Loss of functional analysis was performed using cellular activity assays on CML and normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs).

Results: Alox12 and 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) are overexpressed in BP-CML but not HSPCs, and that Alox12-12-HETE axis is regulated by BCR-ABL. The Alox12-12-HETE axis is required for CML. Specific Alox12 inhibitor inhibits colony formation, survival, and self-renewal capacity in BP-CML HSPCs, and to a significantly greater extent than in normal HSPCs. Of note, the Alox12 inhibitor significantly augments dasatinib's efficacy in BP-CML HSPCs. Mechanism studies show that Alox12 inhibition does not affect activities of essential signaling pathways involved in maintaining stem cell function, such as Wnt, p53, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). In contrast, we show that Alox12 inhibition disrupts nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) homeostasis and induces oxidative stress and damage in CML HSPCs and committed cells.

Conclusion: Alox12-12-HETE axis is a specific and critical regulator of BP-CML HSPCs functions. Pharmacological inhibition of Alox12 may be useful in BP-CML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S280554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726836PMC
December 2020

Improved discrimination of molecular subtypes in invasive breast cancer: Comparison of multiple quantitative parameters from breast MRI.

Magn Reson Imaging 2021 04 9;77:148-158. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China.

Purpose: To compare multiple quantitative parameters from breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the synthetic MRI sequence included for discrimination of molecular subtypes of invasive breast cancer.

Materials And Methods: Between March 2019 and September 2020, two hundred breast cancer patients underwent preoperative breast multiparametric MRI examinations including synthetic MRI, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE)-MRI sequences. MRI morphological features, T1 and T2 relaxation times (T1, T2) and proton density (PD) values from synthetic MRI, K, K, and V from DCE-MRI, mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from DWI and tumor volume were measured. Quantitative parameters were compared according to molecular markers and subtypes. Logistic regression were performed to find the related MRI parameters and establish combined parameters. The comparison between single and combined quantitative parameters by using DeLong tests.

Results: T1, T2 values were significantly higher in hormone receptor (HR)- negative and Ki67 > 14% tumors (p < 0.05). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumors demonstrated significantly higher K and K (p < 0.01). Mean ADC values were significantly decreased in HR-positive and Ki67 > 14% tumors (p < 0.01). Tumor volumes were significantly higher in HER2-positive and Ki67 > 14% tumors (p < 0.05). Independent influencing factors were lower T2 values (p < 0.001), smaller tumor volume (p = 0.031) and higher mean ADC (p = 0.002) associated with luminal A subtype, while T1 values (p = 0.007) was the only quantitative parameter associated with triple-negative subtype. The diagnostic efficiency of combined parameters (T2 + mean ADC + volume) (AUC = 0.765) was significantly higher than that of mean ADC (AUC = 0.666, p = 0.031 by DeLong test) and volume (AUC = 0.650, p = 0.008 by DeLong test) for separating luminal A subtype.

Conclusions: MRI quantitative parameters could help distinguish molecular markers and subtypes. The emerging synthetic MRI parameters - T1 values were associated with the TN subtype, and combined parameters with added T2 values might improve the discrimination of the luminal A subtype. Application of synthetic MRI can enrich quantitative descriptors from breast MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2020.12.001DOI Listing
April 2021

The first step in an investigation of quantitative ultrasound as a technique for evaluating infant bone strength.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Mar 28;66(2):456-469. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

This study's purpose is to evaluate whether bone speed of sound (SOS) data, a parameter of quantitative ultrasound, collected from an infant autopsy sample are comparable to data collected from healthy, living infants. We hypothesize that SOS values obtained from deceased term-born infants will fall within the normal range for healthy, living infants. The study sample consists of 351 deceased infants between the ages of 30 weeks gestation at birth to 1 year postnatal at the time of death receiving autopsies at the Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences or Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, TX. Various multivariate and univariate statistics were used to examine the relationship between SOS and age, prematurity, and chronic illness. The results of an ANOVA comparing the study sample data to published data from healthy, living infants indicate the SOS data are comparable. Additionally, a MANOVA indicated significant differences in SOS related to prematurity (p = 0.001) and age (p < 0.001). Mean SOS was significantly greater among term-born infants (M = 3065.66, SD =165.05) than premature infants (M = 2969.71, SD =192.72). Age had a significant polynomial (cubic) relationship with SOS for both the premature and term groups (p < 0.001). Results suggest that bone from an infant autopsy sample is an appropriate surrogate to examine the relationship between SOS and determinants of bone strength. Therefore, future research will use this study sample to investigate the relationship between SOS and determinants of bone strength in infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14605DOI Listing
March 2021

A model based on CT radiomic features for predicting RT-PCR becoming negative in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.

BMC Med Imaging 2020 10 20;20(1):118. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110001, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic. According to the diagnosis and treatment guidelines of China, negative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the key criterion for discharging COVID-19 patients. However, repeated RT-PCR tests lead to medical waste and prolonged hospital stays for COVID-19 patients during the recovery period. Our purpose is to assess a model based on chest computed tomography (CT) radiomic features and clinical characteristics to predict RT-PCR negativity during clinical treatment.

Methods: From February 10 to March 10, 2020, 203 mild COVID-19 patients in Fangcang Shelter Hospital were retrospectively included (training: n = 141; testing: n = 62), and clinical characteristics were collected. Lung abnormalities on chest CT images were segmented with a deep learning algorithm. CT quantitative features and radiomic features were automatically extracted. Clinical characteristics and CT quantitative features were compared between RT-PCR-negative and RT-PCR-positive groups. Univariate logistic regression and Spearman correlation analyses identified the strongest features associated with RT-PCR negativity, and a multivariate logistic regression model was established. The diagnostic performance was evaluated for both cohorts.

Results: The RT-PCR-negative group had a longer time interval from symptom onset to CT exams than the RT-PCR-positive group (median 23 vs. 16 days, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the other clinical characteristics or CT quantitative features. In addition to the time interval from symptom onset to CT exams, nine CT radiomic features were selected for the model. ROC curve analysis revealed AUCs of 0.811 and 0.812 for differentiating the RT-PCR-negative group, with sensitivity/specificity of 0.765/0.625 and 0.784/0.600 in the training and testing datasets, respectively.

Conclusion: The model combining CT radiomic features and clinical data helped predict RT-PCR negativity during clinical treatment, indicating the proper time for RT-PCR retesting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-020-00521-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7573533PMC
October 2020

Electrophysiological Evidence of Early Cortical Sensitivity to Human Conspecific Mimic Voice as a Distinct Category of Natural Sound.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2020 10 16;63(10):3539-3559. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Neuroscience, Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, West Virginia University, Morgantown.

Purpose From an anthropological perspective of hominin communication, the human auditory system likely evolved to enable special sensitivity to sounds produced by the vocal tracts of human conspecifics whether attended or passively heard. While numerous electrophysiological studies have used stereotypical human-produced verbal (speech voice and singing voice) and nonverbal vocalizations to identify human voice-sensitive responses, controversy remains as to when (and where) processing of acoustic signal attributes characteristic of "human voiceness" per se initiate in the brain. Method To explore this, we used animal vocalizations and human-mimicked versions of those calls ("mimic voice") to examine late auditory evoked potential responses in humans. Results Here, we revealed an N1b component (96-120 ms poststimulus) during a nonattending listening condition showing significantly greater magnitude in response to mimics, beginning as early as primary auditory cortices, preceding the time window reported in previous studies that revealed species-specific vocalization processing initiating in the range of 147-219 ms. During a sound discrimination task, a P600 (500-700 ms poststimulus) component showed specificity for accurate discrimination of human mimic voice. Distinct acoustic signal attributes and features of the stimuli were used in a classifier model, which could distinguish most human from animal voice comparably to behavioral data-though none of these single features could adequately distinguish human voiceness. Conclusions These results provide novel ideas for algorithms used in neuromimetic hearing aids, as well as direct electrophysiological support for a neurocognitive model of natural sound processing that informs both neurodevelopmental and anthropological models regarding the establishment of auditory communication systems in humans. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.12903839.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00063DOI Listing
October 2020

The influence of socioeconomic status on menarcheal age among Chinese school-age girls in Tianjin, China.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Mar 12;180(3):825-832. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

The association between socioeconomic status and the onset age of menarche is still not conclusive. This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary and middle school girls aged 7 to 16 years old in Tianjin, China, to explore the distribution of menarcheal age and its association with socioeconomic status. A self-designed structured questionnaire was completed by students and their parents to collect information on socioeconomic status (i.e., family income, parental education level, living residence), menarcheal status, and covariates (weight status of girls and their parents, sleeping hours per day, physical activity). Information on menarcheal status included whether or not menarche had occurred (Yes/No) and the exact age at menarche. Linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between socioeconomic status and menarcheal age before and after covariate adjustment. Among 1485 eligible girls with complete information, 445 had experienced menarche, with an overall menarche rate of 30%. The mean age at menarche was 12.9 years (95% confidence interval 12.8-13.0). Urban girls experienced menarche earlier than rural girls did (12.1 years vs. 13.5 years). Univariate analysis showed that urban residence and higher parental education were associated with earlier onset of menarche. After covariate adjustment, the significance still existed. However, after adjusting further for residence, the significant association with the parental education disappeared. Only urban residence was still significantly associated, even after further adjustment for parental education and family income, with adjusted regression coefficients (95% confidence interval) of - 1.087 (- 1.340,-0.834), indicating that the onset age of menarche among urban girls was 1.087 years (0.834, 1.340) younger than that among rural girls. Family income was not related to the onset age of menarche in any analyses.Conclusion: Urban-rural differences played a more important role in the early onset of menarche than socioeconomic differences between families. What is Known: • The age at menarche varies by race and country, but the global trend is towards earlier onset as a result of changes in nutrition, family structure, socioeconomic status, and physical condition. What is New: • Urban girls experienced menarche earlier than rural girls, but this urban-rural difference could not be explained by family income, parental education, weight status of the participants and their parents, participants' physical exercise and sleeping hours. • Higher parental education was associated with earlier onset of menarche, but this association disappeared after adjustment for living residence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-020-03803-4DOI Listing
March 2021

A Concentrated AlCl-Diglyme Electrolyte for Hard and Corrosion-Resistant Aluminum Electrodeposits.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Sep 11;12(38):43289-43298. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

A concentrated aluminum chloride (AlCl)-diglyme (G2) electrolyte is used to prepare hard and corrosion-resistant aluminum (Al) electrodeposited films. The Al electrodeposits obtained from the electrolyte with an AlCl/G2 molar ratio = 0.4 showed a void-free microstructure composed of spherical particles, in stark contrast to flake-like morphologies with micro-voids for lower . Neutral complexes rarely exist in the = 0.4 electrolyte, resulting in a relatively high conductivity despite the high concentration and high viscosity. Nanoindentation measurements for the Al deposits with >99% purity revealed that the nanohardness was 2.86 GPa, three times higher than that for Al materials produced through electrodeposition from a well-known ionic liquid bath or through severe plastic deformation. Additionally, the void-free Al deposits had a <100> preferential crystal orientation, which accounted for better resistance to free corrosion and pitting corrosion. Discussions about the compact microstructure and <100> crystal orientation of deposits obtained only from the = 0.4 concentrated electrolyte are also presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c12602DOI Listing
September 2020

Effectiveness of Scutellaria barbata water extract on inhibiting colon tumor growth and metastasis in tumor-bearing mice.

Phytother Res 2021 Jan 1;35(1):361-373. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.

The plant Scutellaria barbata (SB) is commonly used as herbal medicines for treating cancer. The present pre-clinical study aimed to validate the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CP) recommended dosages of SB water extract (SBW) in treating colon tumors. The content of chemical marker scutellarin in SBW was quantified using UPLC. Mice bearing human HCT116 xenografts or murine colon26 tumors received oral administration of SBW or scutellarin for 4 weeks. Results showed that SBW (615 and 1,230 mg/kg) and scutellarin (7 mg/kg) treatments significantly reduced human xenograft weights by 28.7, 36.9 and 28.8%, respectively. Lung metastasis area could be ameliorated after SBW (615 mg/kg) and scutellarin (7 mg/kg) treatments by 23.4 and 29.5%, respectively. Expressions of colon cancer metastasis-related proteins E-cadherin, Tspan 8 and CXCR4, as well as Src kinase in tumors were first shown to be regulated by SBW. Furthermore, in murine colon26 tumor-bearing mice, SBW (615 mg/kg) and scutellarin (7 mg/kg) treatments reduced the orthotopic tumor burden by 94.7% and lung metastatic tumor burden by 94.1%, respectively. Our findings provided evidences that SBW (at the mouse equivalent dosages to clinical dosages recommended by CP) could exert anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects in colon cancer animal models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6808DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of a Multi-Carbohydrase and Phytase Complex on the Ileal and Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Cannulated Growing Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Aug 17;10(8). Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

The current study evaluated the influence of a multi-carbohydrase and phytase complex (MCPC) on the ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients in growing pigs. A total of eight barrows (initial BW = 30.7 ± 1.1 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum and randomly allotted to four groups. The experiment was conducted according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, each period lasting 10 days. Pigs were fed four experimental diets, which consisted of two basal diets (BD1, low phytate; BD2, high phytate) with or without MCPC containing at least 1800 U xylanase, 6600 U α-arabinofuranosidase, 1244 U β-glucanase, and 1000 U phytase per/kg corn-soybean meal with 15% corn distillers based diet. The high phytate diet reduced ( < 0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein by 1.4% and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of organic matter, crude protein, and gross energy by 1.7, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively, and tended to decrease ( = 0.10) the ATTD of Ca by 17.3%, relative to the low phytate diet. The dietary supplementation of the MCPC increased ( < 0.05) the AID of phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) by 34.2% and 31.1% for BD1 and 26.7% and 41.3% for BD2, respectively, and increased ( < 0.05) ATTD of crude fat, P, and Ca by 1.4%, 45.6%, and 9.6% for BD1 and 3.1%, 66.0%, and 52.7% for BD2, respectively. The MCPC supplementation did not significantly increase the AID and (or) ATTD of crude protein, organic matter, and starch. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of the MCPC could improve the AID of P and Ca and the ATTD of crude fat, P, and Ca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10081434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460083PMC
August 2020

A Natural Flavone Tricin from Grains Can Alleviate Tumor Growth and Lung Metastasis in Colorectal Tumor Mice.

Molecules 2020 Aug 15;25(16). Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.

Tricin, a flavone isolated from rice bran, has been shown to be chemopreventive in a colorectal cancer (CRC) mouse model. This study aimed to illustrate the inhibitory activities of tricin in colon cancer cells and in a metastatic CRC mouse model. BALB/c mice injected with mouse Colon26-Luc cells into the rectum wall were treated with tricin (37.5 mg/kg) daily for 18 days. Orthotopic colon tumor growth and metastasis to lungs were assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Results showed that tricin suppressed Colon-Luc cells motility and downregulated phosphorylated Akt, Erk1/2 and NF-κB expressions of human colon cancer HT-29 cells. While tricin treatment suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis as well as altered the populations of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells in spleens. In summary, the tumor microenvironment modulatory and anti-metastatic effects of tricin in colon cancer mouse model were shown for the first time, suggesting the potential development of tricin-containing food supplements for CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463810PMC
August 2020

Immunomodulatory and antitumour bioactive labdane diterpenoids from Leonurus japonicus.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2020 Nov 5;72(11):1657-1665. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education and Yunnan Province, School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming, China.

Objectives: Two labdane diterpenoids, leojapone B and heteronone B, were isolated from Leonurus japonicus Houtt., and their biological activity were evaluated in this study.

Methods: Human and mouse cancer cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and mouse macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) were used to evaluate the activity of leojapone B and heteronone B, while the in vivo effects of leojapone B were further examined in Lewis Lung Cancer tumour-bearing mice.

Key Findings: In vitro studies showed that leojapone B selectively inhibited the proliferation of lung cancer cells, and both leojapone B and heteronone B inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in activated PBMCs. In tumour-bearing mice model, lung tumours were reduced in size in mice treated with intraperitoneal injections of leojapone B at 20 and 30 mg/kg for 14 days. The population ratio of CD4 /CD8 T cells in mouse spleens was found to be increased, while regulatory T cells were decreased after leojapone B treatment.

Conclusions: The inhibitory effects of leojapone B in mouse lung tumours were demonstrated for the first time in this study. The immunomodulatory activity of heteronone B were also demonstrated. Our findings indicated that both leojapone B and heteronone B may act as active components in L. japonicus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.13348DOI Listing
November 2020

Minimally invasive surgery versus standard posterior approach for Lenke Type 1-4 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a multicenter, retrospective study.

Eur Spine J 2021 Mar 27;30(3):706-713. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuan North Road, Haidian District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To compare the safety and efficacy of posterior minimally invasive surgery (MIS) to standard posterior spinal fusion (PSF) surgery for Lenke Type 1-4 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).

Methods: This multicenter retrospective study enrolled 112 patients with Lenke Type 1-4 AIS who treated with MIS (n = 64) or PSF (n = 48) between March 2007 and January 2015. Coronal and sagittal parameters were evaluated before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at the last follow-up. Operative time, level of fusion, intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion, and intraoperative radiation exposure were recorded. 22-item Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-22) was applied for assessment of life quality. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was assessed according to postoperative computed tomography images, and the complications were collected in follow-up period.

Results: The baseline characteristics of 2 groups were matched. There was no significant difference between 2 groups in terms of radiographic parameters immediately after surgery and at the last follow-up. The MIS group had significantly longer operative time, more level of fusion, less intraoperative blood loss, and lower blood transfusion rate (p < 0.001). The evaluation of pain using SRS-22 showed significantly lower score in MIS group (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found between 2 groups in terms of accuracy of pedicle screw placement and complications.

Conclusion: Posterior MIS is a safe and effective alternative to standard open approach for Lenke Type 1-4 AIS patients with curves < 70° and reasonable flexibility. Mid-term results showed MIS had the advantages of less blood loss and pain with more fusion segments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-020-06546-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of updated pediatric hypertension criteria on prevalence estimates of hypertension among Chinese children.

J Hum Hypertens 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environment, Nutrition & Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of updated pediatric hypertension (HTN) criteria (the 2017 AAP Guidelines) on prevalence estimates of HTN and prehypertension among Chinese children compared to the 2004 Fourth Report. A total of 2093 children aged 7-15 years from five schools in Tianjin, China were selected using a multistage random cluster sampling method. The prevalence of HTN per the 2017 AAP Guidelines (10.1%) was significantly higher than that per the Fourth Report (6.6%), whereas the prevalence of prehypertension per the 2017 AAP Guidelines (6.3%) was significantly lower than that per the Fourth Report (8.8%). From the 2004 Fourth Report to the 2017 AAP Guidelines, a total of 117 (5.6%) children were reclassified to have higher blood pressure. The two criteria had better consistency in the diagnosis of systolic abnormalities than in the diagnosis of diastolic abnormalities. The updated definitions for pediatric HTN have a substantive impact on the prevalence estimation among Chinese children, especially among boys, overweight children, and older children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-020-0370-0DOI Listing
June 2020

Chest lesion CT radiological features and quantitative analysis in RT-PCR turned negative and clinical symptoms resolved COVID-19 patients.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2020 Jun;10(6):1307-1317

Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China.

Background: Many studies have described lung lesion computed tomography (CT) features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at the early and progressive stages. In this study, we aim to evaluate lung lesion CT radiological features along with quantitative analysis for the COVID-19 patients ready for discharge.

Methods: From February 10 to March 10, 2020, 125 COVID-19 patients (age: 16-67 years, 63 males) ready for discharge, with two consecutive negative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and no clinical symptoms for more than 3 days, were included. The pre-discharge CT was performed on all patients 1-3 days after the second negative RT-PCR test, and the follow-up CTs were performed on 44 patients 2-13 days later. The imaging features and quantitative analysis were evaluated on both the pre-discharge and the follow-up CTs, by both radiologists and an artificial intelligence (AI) software.

Results: On the pre-discharge CT, the most common CT findings included ground-glass opacity (GGO) (99/125, 79.2%) with bilateral mixed distribution, and fibrosis (56/125, 44.8%) with bilateral subpleural distribution. Enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes were also commonly observed (45/125, 36.0%). AI enabled quantitative analysis showed the right lower lobe was mostly involved, and lesions most commonly had CT value of -570 to -470 HU consistent with GGO. Follow-up CT showed GGO decrease in size and density (40/40, 100%) and fibrosis reduction (17/26, 65.4%). Compared with the pre-discharge CT results, quantitative analysis shows the lung lesion volume regressed significantly at follow-up.

Conclusions: For COVID-19 patients ready for discharge, GGO and fibrosis are the main CT features and they further regress at follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276361PMC
June 2020

Basin-wide responses of the South China Sea environment to Super Typhoon Mangkhut (2018).

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 4;731:139093. Epub 2020 May 4.

School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China; Guangdong Key Laboratory of Ocean Remote Sensing, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China; State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Relative to the open Northwest Pacific, the basin-scale South China Sea (SCS) is smaller and semi-enclosed, and the impacts of frequent super typhoons on the entire SCS basin have yet to be fully understood. Using multi-satellite observations and reanalysis data, this study explored biophysical responses of the upper ocean of the SCS induced by a typical super typhoon, Mangkhut (2018), and their regional differences with potential mechanisms. There were three different significant-response regions in the whole SCS, as follows: (1) In the ocean area around the typhoon path, strong vertical mixing, upwelling and cooling were induced, resulting in the surface chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration enhancing markedly (three-fold). Particularly, asymmetric distribution of typhoon rainfall induced asymmetric sea surface salinity change over along the path the nearshore. Diurnal peak of chl-a concentration increased obviously, and the daily growth rate of chl-a sped up considerably in non-shore areas after Mangkhut's passage. (2) In the Beibu Gulf (BBG), the peripheral winds of Mangkhut caused a change in direction of the sea surface flow field, transporting the high-temperature and high-salinity surface seawater from the southeastern area to the BBG. This induced dramatic increases in sea surface temperature, salinity and height, and a decrease in chl-a, in most areas of BBG. (3) In the southwest SCS, the southwest monsoon-induced eastward offshore upwelling jet was weakened by the opposite large-scale peripheral wind vector of Mangkhut and gradually disappeared, resulting in accumulation and enhancement of chl-a in the nearshore. In addition, Mangkhut peripheral winds also intensified (weakened), shifting the cold (warm) eddy to the north (south) and blocking the horizontal eastward transport belt of the high-concentration chl-a. In general, our present work sheds light on the new evidence that a supper typhoon can cause basin-wide anomalies in the SCS, which has broad implications for marine biophysical environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139093DOI Listing
August 2020

Diamond optical vortex generator processed by ultraviolet femtosecond laser.

Opt Lett 2020 May;45(9):2684-2687

We propose a precise diamond micromachining method based on ultraviolet femtosecond laser direct writing and a mixed acid heating chemical treatment. The chemical composition of the attached clusters generated during laser ablation and their effects on morphologies were investigated in experiments. The averaged roughness of pristine and processed regions reduced to 0.64 nm and 9.4 nm from 20.5 nm and 37.4 nm, respectively. With this method, spiral zone plates (SZPs) were inscribed on a high-pressure high-temperature diamond surface as micro-optical vortex generators. The optical performances of the diamond SZPs were characterized in both experiments and simulations, which were very consistent with each other. This chemical auxiliary processing method will contribute greatly to the wide application of integration and miniaturization of diamond surface optical components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.391598DOI Listing
May 2020

Development and validation of an early pregnancy risk score for the prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese pregnant women.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 04;8(1)

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Objective: To develop and validate a set of risk scores for the prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) before the 15th gestational week using an established population-based prospective cohort.

Methods: From October 2010 to August 2012, 19 331 eligible pregnant women were registered in the three-tiered antenatal care network in Tianjin, China, to receive their antenatal care and a two-step GDM screening. The whole dataset was randomly divided into a training dataset (for development of the risk score) and a test dataset (for validation of performance of the risk score). Logistic regression was performed to obtain coefficients of selected predictors for GDM in the training dataset. Calibration was estimated using Hosmer-Lemeshow test, while discrimination was checked using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in the test dataset.

Results: In the training dataset (total=12 887, GDM=979 or 7.6%), two risk scores were developed, one only including predictors collected at the first antenatal care visit for early prediction of GDM, like maternal age, body mass index, height, family history of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and alanine aminotransferase; and the other also including predictors collected during pregnancy, that is, at the time of GDM screening, like physical activity, sitting time at home, passive smoking, and weight gain, for maximum performance. In the test dataset (total=6444, GDM=506 or 7.9%), the calibrations of both risk scores were acceptable (both p for Hosmer-Lemeshow test >0.25). The AUCs of the first and second risk scores were 0.710 (95% CI: 0.680 to 0.741) and 0.712 (95% CI: 0.682 to 0.743), respectively (p for difference: 0.9273).

Conclusion: Both developed risk scores had adequate performance for the prediction of GDM in Chinese pregnant women in Tianjin, China. Further validations are needed to evaluate their performance in other populations and using different methods to identify GDM cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202751PMC
April 2020

Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Activity in 2018: A Season of Extremes.

Sci Rep 2020 03 27;10(1):5610. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai, China.

The 2018 tropical cyclone (TC) season over the western North Pacific (WNP) underwent two extreme situations: 18 TCs observed during June-August (JJA) and ranked the second most active summer in the satellite era; only 5 TCs that occurred during September-October (SO), making it the most inactive period since the late 1970s. Here we attribute the two extreme situations based on observational analyses and numerical experiments. The extremely active TC activity and northward shift of TC genesis during JJA of 2018 can be attributed to the WNP anomalous low-level cyclone, which is due primarily to El Niño Modoki and secondarily to the positive phase of the Pacific Meridional Mode (PMM). Overall, the extremely inactive TC activity during SO of 2018 is due to the absence of TC formation over the South China Sea and Philippine Sea, which can be attributed to the in-situ anomalous low-level anticyclone associated with the positive phase of the Indian Ocean Dipole, although the positive PMM phase and El Niño Modoki still hold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62632-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101427PMC
March 2020

Correlation analysis between postoperative hip pain and spino-pelvic/hip parameters in adult scoliosis patients after long-segment spinal fusion.

Eur Spine J 2020 12 31;29(12):2990-2997. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuan North Road, Haidian District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To explore the correlations between postoperative hip pain and spino-pelvic/hip parameters in adult scoliosis patients after long-segment spinal fusion.

Methods: We retrospectively identified adult scoliosis patients who underwent long-segment spinal fusions between December 2009 and August 2015. The patients were divided into a pain group (PG) and a control group (CG) based on whether hip pain was reported at the end of follow-up. There were 34 cases in the PG and 42 in the CG. The visual analogue scale was employed to assess the postoperative hip pain in PG patients. Two sets of parameters were recorded: one before and one after the surgery.

Results: There were statistically significant differences in the variations in acetabular coverage and centre-edge (CE) angle between the two groups (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference in the Tönnis angle, acetabular angle of Sharp, neck-shaft angle, lumbar lordosis (LL), sacral slope, pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, coronal vertical axis, sagittal vertical axis or Cobb angle. The variation in acetabular coverage before and after operation in the PG was significantly correlated with that of LL (p < 0.05), while the changes in the CE angle and Tönnis angle were not significantly correlated with those in spino-pelvic parameters (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Postoperative hip pain among adult scoliosis patients after long-segment spinal fusion is significantly associated with the variation in acetabular coverage and CE angle, and the change in acetabular coverage is correlated with that in LL for those who develop hip pain after the surgery. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-020-06316-8DOI Listing
December 2020

Impact of yeast and lactic acid bacteria on mastitis and milk microbiota composition of dairy cows.

AMB Express 2020 Jan 29;10(1):22. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on mastitis and milk microbiota composition of dairy cows. Thirty lactating Holstein cows with similar parity, days in milk were randomly assigned to five treatments, including: (1) Health cows with milk SCC < 500,000 cells/mL, no clinical signs of mastitis were found, fed basal total mixed ration (TMR) without supplementation (H); (2) Mastitis cows with milk SCC > 500,000 cells/mL, fed basal TMR without supplementation (M); (3) Mastitis cows fed basal TMR supplemented with 8 g day yeast (M + Y); (4) Mastitis cows fed basal TMR supplemented with 8 g day LAB (M + L); (5) Mastitis cows (milk SCC > 500,000 cells/mL) fed basal TMR supplemented with 4 g day yeast and 4 g day LAB (M + Y + L). Blood and milk sample were collected at day 0, day 20 and day 40. The results showed efficacy of probiotic: On day 20 and day 40, milk SCC in H, M + Y, M + L, M + Y + L was significantly lower than that of M (P < 0.05). Milk concentration of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in M + Y + L were significantly reduced compared with that of M on day 40 (P < 0.05). Milk Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-Acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase (NAG) activity of M + Y, M + L, M + L + Y were lower than that of M on day 40 (P < 0.05). At genus level, Staphylococcus, Chryseobacterium and Lactococcus were dominant. Supplementation of LAB decreased abundance of Enterococcus and Streptococcus, identified as mastitis-causing pathogen. The results suggested the potential of LAB to prevent mastitis by relieving mammary gland inflammation and regulating milk microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-020-0953-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6987887PMC
January 2020

Age-specific differences in non-cardiac comorbidities among elderly patients hospitalized with heart failure: a special focus on young-old, old-old, and oldest-old.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2019 Dec;132(24):2905-2913

Department of Cardiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

Background: Despite the growing epidemic of heart failure (HF), there is limited data available to systematically compare non-cardiac comorbidities in the young-old, old-old, and oldest-old patients hospitalized for HF. The precise differences will add valuable information for better management of HF in elderly patients.

Methods: A total of 1053 patients aged 65 years or older hospitalized with HF were included in this study. Patients were compared among three age groups: (1) young-old: 65 to 74 years, (2) old-old: 75 to 84 years, and (3) oldest-old: ≥85 years. Clinical details of presentation, comorbidities, and prescribed medications were recorded.

Results: The mean age was 76.7 years and 12.7% were 85 years or older. Most elderly patients with HF (97.5%) had at least one of the non-cardiac comorbidities. The patterns of common non-cardiac comorbidities were different between the young-old and oldest-old group. The three most common non-cardiac comorbidities were anemia (53.6%), hyperlipidemia (45.9%), and diabetes (42.4%) in the young-old group, while anemia (73.1%), infection (58.2%), and chronic kidney disease (44.0%) in the oldest-old group. Polypharmacy was observed in 93.0% elderly patients with HF. Additionally, 29.2% patients were diagnosed with infection, and 67.0% patients were prescribed antibiotics. However, 60.4% patients were diagnosed with anemia with only 8.9% of them receiving iron repletion.

Conclusions: Non-cardiac comorbidities are nearly universal in three groups but obviously differ by age, and inappropriate medications are very common in elderly patients with HF. Further treatment strategies should be focused on providing optimal medications for age-specific non-cardiac conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6964950PMC
December 2019

Electrochemical and Structural Analysis in All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries by Analytical Electron Microscopy: Progress and Perspectives.

Adv Mater 2020 Jul 29;32(27):e1903747. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Artificial Functional Materials, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China.

Advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and its associated instruments have made significant contributions to the characterization of all-solid-state (ASS) Li batteries, as these tools provide localized information on the structure, morphology, chemistry, and electronic state of electrodes, electrolytes, and their interfaces at the nano- and atomic scale. Furthermore, the rapid development of in situ techniques has enabled a deep understanding of interfacial dynamic behavior and heterogeneous characteristics during the cycling process. However, due to the beam-sensitive nature of light elements in the interphases, e.g., Li and O, thorough and reliable studies of the interfacial structure and chemistry at an ultrahigh spatial resolution without beam damage is still a formidable challenge. Herein, the following points are discussed: (1) the recent contributions of advanced STEM to the study of ASS Li batteries; (2) current challenges associated with using this method; and (3) potential opportunities for combining cryo-electron microscopy and the STEM phase contrast imaging techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201903747DOI Listing
July 2020

Multiparametric PET/MR (PET and MR-IVIM) for the evaluation of early treatment response and prediction of tumor recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.

Eur Radiol 2020 Feb 6;30(2):1191-1201. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Sanhao Street No. 36, Heping District, Shenyang, 110004, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: To assess the value of F-FDG PET and MR-IVIM parameters before and during concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for evaluating early treatment response and predicting tumor recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) using a hybrid PET/MR scanner.

Methods: Fifty-one patients with LACC underwent pelvic PET/MR scans with an IVIM sequence at two time-points (pretreatment [pre] and midtreatment [mid]). Pre- and mid-PET parameters (SUV, MTV, TLG) and IVIM parameters (D, F, D*) and their percentage changes (Δ%SUV, Δ%MTV, Δ%TLG, Δ%D, Δ%F, Δ%D*) were calculated. We selected independent imaging parameters and built a combined prediction model incorporating imaging parameters and clinicopathological risk factors. The performance of the combinative evaluation for tumor early shrinkage rates (TESR) and the prediction model for tumor recurrence was assessed.

Results: Thirty-two patients were classified into the good response (GR) group with TESR ≥ 50%, and 19 patients were categorized into the poor response (PR) group with TESR < 50%. Δ%D (p = 0.013) and Δ%F (p = 0.006) are independently related to TESR with superior combined diagnostic ability (AUC = 0.901). Pre-TLG, Δ%D, and suspicious lymph node metastasis (SLNM) were selected for the construction of the combined prediction model. The model for identifying the patients with high risk of tumor recurrence reached a moderate predictive ability and good stability with c-index of 0.764 (95% CI, 0.672-0.855).

Conclusion: The combined prediction model based on pretreatment PET metabolic parameter (pre-TLG), IVIM-D percentage changes, and LNs status provides great potential to identify the LACC patients with high risk of recurrence at early stage of CCRT.

Key Points: • PET/MR plus IVIM offers various complementary information for LACC. • IVIM-D and IVIM-F percentage changes are independently related to tumor early shrinkage rates. • The combined prediction model can help identify the LACC patients with high risk of tumor recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06428-wDOI Listing
February 2020

[Microbial characteristics and eco-health implication of mineral spring water in Wudalianchi, Northeast China].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Aug;30(8):2865-2874

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Regional Contaminated Environment and Eco-restoration, Shenyang University, Shenyang 110044, China.

Mineral spring water is a top quality potable groundwater resource formed by long-term groundwater-rock interaction in aquifer. Mineral spring water is rich in minerals and trace elements which are beneficial for human health. Given the current serious water pollution and environment deterioration, it is of great significance to re-recognize the ecological and health effects of mineral water based on new scientific and technological achievement. The Wudalianchi scenic area in Heilongjiang Province has abundant mineral water and peloid resources, which supported the development of tourism and convalescence and have been used in medical and health care for more than 100 years. However, it is threatened by resource reduction, environmental pollution, and other problems. Here, we reviewed the formation process, distribution, hydro-biochemical characteristics and health effects of the Wudalianchi mineral springs, with particular focus on the advances of microbial studies in this area. We also proposed the future research prospective for the Wudalianchi mineral water. To better protect and utilize the Wudalianchi mineral water, it was recommended that a green eco-agriculture practice in reducing chemical fertilizers should be adapted in the surrounding farms of Wudalianchi. Along with the development of tourism and recuperation resources, it is necessary to establish a framework of pollution risk assessment and control, and strictly reduce potential emerging pollutants to eco-geological environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201908.036DOI Listing
August 2019

Change of Deformation Mechanisms Leading to High Strength and Large Ductility in Mg-Zn-Zr-Ca Alloy with Fully Recrystallized Ultrafine Grained Microstructures.

Sci Rep 2019 Aug 12;9(1):11702. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.

Recently, we have found that fully recrystallized ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructures could be realized in a commercial precipitation-hardened Magnesium (Mg) alloy. The UFG specimens exhibited high strength and large ductility under tensile test, but underlying mechanisms for good mechanical properties remained unclear. In this study, we have carried out systematic observations of deformation microstructures for revealing the influence of grain size on the change of dominant deformation modes. We found that plastic deformation of conventionally coarse-grained specimen was predominated by {0001} <11-20> slip and {10-12} <10-11> twinning, and the quick decrease of work-hardening rate was mainly due to the early saturation of deformation twins. For the UFG specimens, {10-12} <10-11> twinning was dramatically suppressed, while non-basal slip systems containing component of Burgers vector were activated, which contributed significantly to the enhanced work-hardening rate leading to high strength and large ductility. It was clarified by this study that limited ductility of hexagonal Mg alloys could be overcome by activating unusual slip systems ( dislocations) in fully recrystallized UFG microstructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48271-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691010PMC
August 2019

A review on the immunomodulatory activity of and its active components.

Chin Med 2019 31;14:25. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

1Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories Hong Kong.

Acanthopanacis Senticosi Radix et Rhizoma seu Caulis, the dried root and rhizome or stem of , is commonly known as Siberian ginseng or Ciwujia in Chinese. It is used all over the world as an adaptogen to enhance physical and mental performance for the sake of normal physiological functioning of human bodies under stress. In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, Ciwujia can strengthen the spleen that is an essential organ for immunological response. Its traditional applications include inflammation, fatigue and cancer in which the immune-regulating function is always involved. In this article, the immunomodulatory activities of Ciwujia extracts, fractions and pure compounds were extensively reviewed first. Then, the possibility of upgrading the chemical markers to bioactive markers was explored. Finally, the potency of aqueous extract and ethanol extract in regulating cytokines production from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was compared. We conclude that although various phytochemicals such as isofraxidin, syringin and eleutheroside E from Ciwujia have been shown to modulate immunological functions, the aqueous extract of Ciwujia as a whole possesses the most potent efficacy. Therefore, aqueous (rather than ethanol) extract of Ciwujia should be used in order to benefit from its immunomodulatory properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-019-0250-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6670126PMC
July 2019

Chrysophanol protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by suppressing cellular PARylation.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2019 Jul 1;9(4):782-793. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

The clinical application of doxorubicin (DOX) in cancer chemotherapy is limited by its life-threatening cardiotoxic effects. Chrysophanol (CHR), an anthraquinone compound isolated from the rhizome of L., is considered to play a broad role in a variety of biological processes. However, the effects of CHR׳s cardioprotection in DOX-induced cardiomyopathy is poorly understood. In this study, we found that the cardiac apoptosis, mitochondrial injury and cellular PARylation levels were significantly increased in H9C2 cells treated by Dox, while these effects were suppressed by CHR. Similar results were observed when PARP1 activity was suppressed by its inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and ABT888. Ectopic expression of PARP1 effectively blocked this CHR׳s cardioprotection against DOX-induced cardiomyocyte injury in H9C2 cells. Furthermore, pre-administration with both CHR and 3AB relieved DOX-induced cardiac apoptosis, mitochondrial impairment and heart dysfunction in Sprague-Dawley rat model. These results revealed that CHR protects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by suppressing cellular PARylation and provided critical evidence that PARylation may be a novel target for DOX-induced cardiomyopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2018.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6663922PMC
July 2019