Publications by authors named "Shweta Yellapurkar"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Development of Modified Dental Beliefs Scale Among an Adolescent Rural Population.

J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2021 Mar-Apr;11(2):132-137. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Objective: Modified dental beliefs scale (MDBS), the shortened form of the R-DBS, was developed in a multicultural population. The factor structure of MDBS is not explored in an Indian context. The study explores psychometric properties and tests the fit of MDBS in a rural costal adolescent population in a vernacular language.

Materials And Methods: The cross-sectional analysis was carried out at two randomly selected rural Institutes in Costal Karnataka. Psychometric properties using a questionnaire were assessed. Validity and reliability were assessed by Cronbach's α, split-half reliability, and test-retest analysis. Statistical analysis: Factor analysis with varimax rotation was employed to add a level of statistical precision and assist in the development the instrument. Two models were developed and tested for goodness of fit, root mean square error of approximation, and comparative fit.

Results: The MDBS revealed a Cronbach's α value of 0.76. Split-half reliability and Guttman split-half reliability were found to be 0.86 and 0.86, respectively. Test-retest reliability was found to be 0.74 ( < 0.01). Factor analysis revealed a five-factor solution explaining 67.8% of the variation in the scale. CFA revealed an appropriate goodness of fit for both models with better values for model two with chi-square value was statistically significant and the ratio value (χ/df = 7.8).

Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the MDBS is a reliable and valid tool for the present population subset, with good fit for the second model with two separate latent variables.
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April 2021

Tooth shade variation in Indian population: An objective guide to age estimation.

Heliyon 2021 Feb 5;7(2):e06164. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Periodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

Introduction: The color of the teeth is affected by chronological age due to the variations of the hard and soft tissue structure of the teeth. There are very few studies have assessed the shade of the Enamel and correlated it with the age changes. Hence the study aimed to assess the enamel shade with the aging in the individual.

Materials And Methods: The central incisors of 388 individuals (5-78 years) were assessed for tooth color using a VITA 3D master shade guide and the Hue, Value and Chroma were noted. Mean grey values of the teeth were obtained by image manipulation using Image J software and normalized using the values obtained from the 18% contrast grey card. Chi square tests and linear regression analysis is used to find associations with age and tooth shade variations.Results: The teeth had higher score of Hue, Value and Chroma in older individuals. The tooth shade tended to shift towards redder hue with older age group. Simple linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation of age with normalized grey value in association with the shade parameters. (r = 0.717, SEE = 12.322 years)Conclusion: Tooth color changes with age and the mean age in grey values and shade guides can be a useful tool for age estimation.
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February 2021

Efficiency of Mobile Video Sharing Application (WhatsApp®) in Live Field Image Transmission for Telepathology.

J Med Syst 2020 May 2;44(6):109. Epub 2020 May 2.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India.

Telepathology is in its nascent stages in India. Video calling applications in mobile phones can be efficiently used to transmit static and live field microscopic images hastening low cost telepathology. To evaluate the efficiency of WhatsApp® Video Calling for dynamic microscopy in distant diagnosis. Thirty haematoxylin and eosin stained slides of common pathologies were retrieved from the archives of Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, coded with relevant history and given to three untrained investigators. The investigators then connected a mobile phone with VOIP facility to a microscope using a custom adaptor. Dynamic fields were transferred to three independent pathologists via WhatsApp® video call. The pathologists attempted to diagnose the lesion based on the live field video over their display screen (phone). Audio quality was found to be better than that of video. In 70% of the cases, pathologists could render a diagnosis (13% gave a confirmed diagnosis, 57.7% gave a probable diagnosis). The average time taken for connecting the adaptor, connecting the call to the pathologist and then receiving the diagnosis was 9:30 min. In addition, proper history taking and staining of the tissue slides were critical to arrive at the diagnosis. WhatsApp® free VOIP facility helped untrained investigators to send the live-field pathologic fields to a specialist rendering histopathological diagnosis. The factors affecting the diagnosis included network stability, clarity of images transmitted, staining quality and contrast of nuclear details of the stain. The history, clinico-pathologic correlation, transmission of static images, training of the person transmitting the images plays a vital role in rendering accurate diagnosis. Telepathology over WhatsApp® video calling could be used as an efficient screening tool to identify suspicious lesions and follow-up critical cases.
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May 2020

Expression of Laminin in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Feb 26;19(2):407-413. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, India. Email:

Background and objectives: Laminin is a significant basement membrane (BM) glycoprotein, the expression of which reflects BM integrity more precisely than do other ECM proteins. The present study aimed to evaluate laminin expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas OSCC and to determine any associations with clinico-pathological parameters (surgical margin status, lymph node involvement, survival and recurrence). Methods: Laminin expression was evaluated in 31 cases of biopsy-proven OSCC by immunohistochemical staining and its association with prognosticators and the Brynes grading system was determined by appropriate statistical analysis. Results: We observed a significant increase in linear staining pattern (p<0.001) at the tumour-host interface in well-differentiated OSCC cases, in contrast to poorly differentiated lesions which exhibited intense cytoplasmic expression within tumour cells. Higher cytoplasmic laminin expression was seen in 33.3% of cases with involved surgical margins and 69.2% of cases with lymph node metastasis (along with weak/absent staining of laminin around the tumour-host interface – Basement membrane around tumour islands). Similarly, in 60% of the cases who died and in 81.8% of cases with tumour recurrence, moderately intense cytoplasmic laminin expression was seen within tumour cells. On comparing variables of the Brynes grading system, significant cytoplasmic expression of laminin was linked with mild inflammation (p<0.0016) and increased mitotic activity (p<0.008). Conclusion: Based on these observations, immunohistochemical expression of laminin might be useful to evaluate histological differentiation and aggressiveness of OSCCs.
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February 2018

Dysgenetic Polycystic Disease of Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Case Rep Pathol 2017 19;2017:5279025. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University, Manipal, India.

Polycystic (dysgenetic) disease of the salivary glands is a rare entity that has only recently been described in the literature. The disease is more commonly seen in females and majority of the cases have presented as bilateral parotid gland swellings. This case presenting in a 21-year-old male is the first of this unusual entity involving solely the minor salivary gland on the lower lip. This case report highlights the importance for the clinician to be aware of this differential diagnosis, when treating an innocuous lesion like a mucocele.
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January 2017

Tumour-Associated Tissue Eosinophilia in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma- A Boon or a Bane?

J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Apr 1;10(4):ZC65-8. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Postgraduate Student, Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University , Mangalore, India .

Introduction: The infiltration of tumour stroma by eosinophils, Tumour-Associated Tissue Eosinophilia (TATE) is known to modulate the evolution of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). Identification of eosinophils in the inflammatory stroma has been proven to be an important factor in prognostication of malignant tumours including cancers of mouth, oesophagus, larynx, pharynx, breast, lung, intestine and genitourinary tract.

Aim: Our study aimed to assess the role of TATE as a prognosticator in OSCC as visualized by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and congo red staining.

Materials And Methods: Thirty histologically-proven cases of OSCC were retrieved from the archives of Department of Oral Pathology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India. Two serial sections of 4μm thickness were made and subjected to routine staining with H&E and modified congo red staining, where eosinophil granules stained red and nuclei stained blue. In 40x magnification, 10 HPF at invasive tumour front were assessed for counting eosinophils by placing a 49 square grid (measuring 0.0289 sq mm).

Statistical Analysis: The TATE was compared with the prognosticators using Mann-Whitney U-test. The grades of carcinoma were correlated with TATE using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Post-hoc Bonferronis correction. Agreement of the number of eosinophils counted in the two staining techniques (H&E and Congo red) in OSCC was achieved using interclass correlation coefficient, and Friedman's test. A value of p< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Our results showed that tissue eosinophil counts were higher in well-differentiated cases of OSCC, cases with lymph node involvement, decreased survival, without margin involvement and in cases that did not recur. H&E stain showed significantly better visualization of eosinophils resulting in higher eosinophil counts than when seen with Congo red (p=0.008).

Conclusion: Thus, TATE can be used as a surrogate marker in prediction of survival and recurrence in OSCC. H&E proved to be a better stain for evaluation of eosinophils.
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April 2016