Publications by authors named "Shutao Gao"

52 Publications

Preliminary screening of fluorine-stained osteoblastic apoptosis-related microRNA.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

The Fifth Teaching Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang, Urumqi, China.

Endemic fluorosis is a chronic systemic disease that seriously endangers human health. In high fluoride areas, people consume excessive fluoride for a long time through drinking water or food, which leads to chronic cumulative fluorosis in the body. Fluorosis can cause changes in the expression of some miRNA in cells, and the miRNA can participate in fluoride-induced osteoblast activation through various signal pathways. To observe the differential expression of apoptosis-related microRNA (miRNA) in mouse osteoblasts under the action of excessive fluoride. Primary cultured mouse osteoblasts, identified by osteocalcin (OC) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, were treated with 20 mg/L sodium fluoride and 40 mg/L sodium fluoride for 12/24 hr, respectively, to establish the fluoride staining model for comparing and analyzing the sequence of miRNA among groups by bioinformatics methods; four miRNA chains were verified by fluorescence quantitative PCR. After treatment with 20 mg/L sodium fluoride for 12 hr and 24 hr, 128 miRNA expressions were up-regulated while 36 miRNA expressions were down-regulated. In Group 40 mg/L, 130 miRNA expressions were up-regulated while 29 miRNA expressions were down-regulated after 12 hr and 24 hr; 72 miRNA were up-regulated and 2 miRNA were down-regulated at the two time points. 10 up-regulated miRNA and 2 down-regulated miRNA with higher scores in Bioinformatics software were analyzed the target genes. Fluorescence quantitative PCR verified that the expressions of four miRNA were up-regulated. Target gene analysis of the 10 selected mouse osteoblastic apoptosis-related miRNA reveals their involvement of the functions of inhibiting or promoting apoptosis, which has certain theoretical significance for early identification of skeletal fluorosis. The involved signaling pathways include the Wnt signaling pathway, ubiquitin-regulated proteolysis, Toll signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, pluripotent stem cell signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositide metabolism, FoxO signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, autophagy, and so forth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24709DOI Listing
July 2021

Long Noncoding RNA Expression Profiles of Rat Extrasynaptic and Synaptic Neurons Expressing the N-methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Revealed by Microarray Analysis.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To study the 24-hour expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in synaptic and extrasynaptic neurons expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), and normal neuronal cultures, via microarray analysis.

Materials And Methods: Cortical neurons from embryonic (day E18) Sprague-Dawley rats were used for primary neuronal culture. NMDAR activation was blocked and the cells were then incubated for 6 hours. Total RNA was extracted, quantified, and analyzed for purity and integrity. Double-stranded cDNA was synthesized, followed by quantile normalization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation, and data analysis. The interactions between transcription factors and lncRNAs were analyzed by Pearson correlation.

Results: The lncRNA profiles were obtained after synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR activation of rat cortical neuron cultures for 24 hours. In total, 251 lncRNAs were consistently upregulated, and 335 were downregulated, after extrasynaptic NMDAR activation compared with normal neurons. After synaptic NMDAR activation, only 9 lncRNAs were upregulated and 2 were downregulated.

Conclusions: Differential expression of lncRNAs after synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR activation suggests that lncRNAs may be responsible for extrasynaptic NMDAR-induced neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.06.070DOI Listing
June 2021

Mechanistic Aspects Regarding the Ultraviolet Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Different Media: Insights from Carbon and Chlorine Isotope Fractionation.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 06 18;55(11):7731-7740. Epub 2021 May 18.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China.

In this study, the carbon and chlorine isotope fractionation during ultraviolet-photolysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, including PCB18, PCB77, PCB110, and PCB138) in n-hexane (Hex), methanol/water (MeOH/HO), and silica gel was first investigated to explore their mechanistic processes. We observed a significant variation in Λ (ε/ε) for the same PCBs in different photochemical systems, implying that PCB degradation processes in various photoreaction systems could differ. Although all substrates showed normal apparent carbon/chlorine kinetic isotope effects (C-/Cl-AKIE >1), the putative inverse C-AKIE of nondechlorinated pathways was suggested by C depletion of the average carbon isotope composition of PCB138 and corresponding dechlorinated products in MeOH/HO, which might originate from the magnetic isotope effect. Significant negative correlations were found between C-AKIE and relative disappearance quantum yields ("Φ") of ortho-dechlorinated substrates (PCB18, PCB110, and PCB138) in Hex and MeOH/HO. However, the C-AKIE and "Φ" of PCB77 (meta/para-dechlorinated congener) obviously deviated from the above correlations. Furthermore, significantly different product-related carbon isotope enrichment factors of PCB77 in Hex were found. These results demonstrated the existence of dechlorination position-specific and masking effects in carbon isotope fractionations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00726DOI Listing
June 2021

Associations of Gene Polymorphisms and Ankylosing Spondylitis Susceptibility: A Meta-analysis Based on 35 Case-control Studies.

Immunol Invest 2021 Feb 9:1-24. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Spine Surgery, Xinjiang Medical University First Affiliated Hospital, Xinjiang China.

: Scores of studies on () gene polymorphisms and AS have been performed with inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to provide some more convincing evidence on the associations of polymorphisms and AS by using a meta-analysis approach.: Potentially relevant studies were identified from Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang, and CNKI from inception to March 5, 2020. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was utilized to appraise the quality of included studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the associations under five genetic models.: Thirty-five studies with 37 independent cohorts in total were included in the meta-analysis. Based upon NOS, eligible studies were in moderate- to high quality. The merged data suggested polymorphisms were significantly correlated with a reduced risk of AS (C vs. T, OR = 0.55, 95%CI 0.38-0.79, < .001,  = 0.005,  = 0.003). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that polymorphism significantly increased the risk of AS in Caucasians and decreased the risk of AS in mixed populations. Besides, and polymorphisms conferred to an elevated risk of AS, and conferred to a reduced risk of AS in Asians.: This study suggests that polymorphism is associated with an increased AS risk in Caucasians, and polymorphisms are linked to an elevated AS susceptibility in Asians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2021.1882485DOI Listing
February 2021

Lack of Associations between Gene Polymorphisms and Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Meta-analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis.

Immunol Invest 2021 Jan 6:1-12. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Spine Surgery, Xinjiang Medical University First Affiliated Hospital, Urumqi, China.

: ( gene is reported to be associated with inflammation-related diseases. Several studies have investigated the associations of gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, the findings of those studies were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to elucidate the associations by a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA).: Online databases of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, and CNKI were searched to identify eligible studies on the associations of gene polymorphisms and AS. Study quality was judged based on the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Strengths of associations were presented by -value, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). TSA was employed to evaluate the information size and statistical power.: A total of six studies encompassing 2774 AS patients and 4119 disease-free controls were eligible for this meta-analysis. Five studies reported polymorphism and three studies reported polymorphism. The pooled data suggested that the two polymorphisms were not significantly associated with AS susceptibility: , A vs. G, OR = 0.94, 95%CI 0.86-1.02, = .14; , T vs. G, OR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.95-1.12, = .45. TSA indicated that the sample sizes appeared to be inadequate to obtain a positive outcome.: The present findings of this study do not support any evidence on the associations of and polymorphisms in gene and susceptibility to AS. Additional well-designed and large-sample studies in diverse ethnicities are encouraged to validate the current findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2020.1869253DOI Listing
January 2021

Associations of toll-like receptor 4 and 2 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis: A meta-analysis.

Int J Immunogenet 2021 Apr 23;48(2):219-228. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Spine Surgery, Xinjiang Medical University First Affiliated Hospital, Urumqi, China.

Background: The published evidences on the correlations of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR9 gene polymorphisms and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were conflicting. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether TLR4 and TLR9 gene polymorphisms conferred susceptibility to AS through a meta-analysis approach.

Methods: Databases of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI and Wanfang were retrieved for relevant publications up to 20 June 2020. Study quality was assessed based on Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to judge the associations.

Results: Totally, 13 articles with 3,055 AS cases and 4,238 controls were incorporated into this meta-analysis, and four most widely reported polymorphisms (TLR4-rs4986790, TLR4-rs4986791, TLR9-rs55704465 and TLR9-rs187084) were analysed. All included studies were in high quality. The pooled data did not support any significant association between the four studied polymorphisms and AS susceptibility.

Conclusions: The present meta-analysis suggests there is no significant association between TLR4-rs4986790, TLR4-rs4986791, TLR9-rs55704465 and TLR9-rs187084 polymorphisms and AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iji.12524DOI Listing
April 2021

Carnosic acid protects against ferroptosis in PC12 cells exposed to erastin through activation of Nrf2 pathway.

Life Sci 2021 Feb 14;266:118905. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Spine Surgery, Xinjiang Medical University Affiliated First Hospital, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Ferroptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI). Carnosic acid (CA) is a natural phenolic diterpene, which possesses diversiform activities. However, whether the protective effect of CA on SCI is partly due to inhibition of ferroptosis was seldom investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study aimed to investigate the role of CA on ferroptosis in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanisms.

Main Methods: Cell viability, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, glutathione (GSH) levels, and iron levels were detected to identify the construction of ferroptosis model in PC12 cell induced by erastin. The safe concentrations of CA on PC12 cells were measured via cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays. Then, cellular MDA contents, GSH levels, iron levels, reactive species (RS) generation, and mitochondrial morphology were tested to determine the influence of CA on ferroptosis in erastin-treated PC12 cells. In addition, Western blot and RT-qPCR were utilized to detecteddetect the ferroptosis-related genes and proteins expression levels.

Key Findings: Our study indicated that treatment with CA could reversed the increased MDA, iron, and RS levels, as well as the decreased GSH levels in erastin-treated PC12 cells. The protective effect of CA could be blocked by ML385. The inhibitory effect of CA on ferroptosis probably was partially governed by activation of Nrf2 to regulate the GSH synthesis and metabolism and cellular iron homeostasis.

Significance: CA can inhibit ferroptosis in PC12 cells induced by erastin via activating Nrf2 pathway, indicating that CA could lead to neuroprotective effect by restraining the occurrence of ferroptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118905DOI Listing
February 2021

Observable carbon isotope fractionation in the photodegradation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by simulated sunlight.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 13;266:128950. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, People's Republic of China; Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Environmental Pollution and Control, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, People's Republic of China.

In the present study, carbon isotope effects were investigated during the photodegradation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA). Five PBDE congeners (BDE 85, 99, 100, 153 and 154) in n-hexane were individually exposed to simulated sunlight for as long as 15 h, except for BDE 100 (24 h). Consecutive debromination of PBDE by photolysis in n-hexane was confirmed by the clear C enrichment of mother congeners and successive depletion of δC values for the photodegradation products with decreasing degree of bromination, which can be attributed to mass-dependent isotope fractionation. The observed variation in the isotope fractionation trends for the para-debrominated products might be linked to the different photocatalytic activities of the PBDE congeners. Higher fractionation was observed for penta-BDEs (ε-2.2 ± 0.45‰ and -2.3 ± 0.26‰ for BDE 85 and BDE 99, respectively) compared to that for hexa-BDEs (ε-1.7 ± 0.41‰, and -1.3 ± 0.12‰ for BDE 153 and BDE 154, respectively). Normal isotope effects (AKIE > 1) observed in our study supports the utility of CSIA for the evaluation of the photodegradation of PBDEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128950DOI Listing
March 2021

Associations between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and spinal degenerative disease: evidence from a meta-analysis based on 35 case-control studies.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 01 23;200:106325. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Spine Surgery, Xinjiang Medical University Affiliated First Hospital, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830054, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Dozens of reports on the associations of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to spinal degenerative disease (SDD) were conducted with inconsistent findings. This study aimed to elucidate the associations through a meta-analysis approach.

Methods: Databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CNKI, and Wanfang were searched until July 10, 2020. Study quality was evaluated by using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations under allelic model (1 vs. 2), homozygous model (11 vs. 22), heterozygous model (12 vs. 22), dominant model (11 + 12 vs. 22), and recessive model (11 vs. 12 + 22).

Results: A total of 5021 cases and 5746 controls from 35 studies were eligible to this meta-analysis. According to NOS, the included studies were in excellent quality. In the overall population, the pooled data indicated that ApaI was associated with a reduced SDD susceptibility (AA vs. Aa + aa, OR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.71 - 0.96, P = 0.010). But the association was not observed in FokI, TaqI, and BsmI polymorphisms. Subgroup analysis suggested that TaqI polymorphism was correlated to an elevated SDD risk in Asians (TT + Tt vs. tt, OR = 2.55, 95%CI 1.90 - 3.44, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The present study indicates that ApaI polymorphism may contribute to a reduced risk to SDD in the overall population, and TaqI polymorphism confers an elevated susceptibility to SDD in Asians. While, BsmI and FokI polymorphisms appear to have no significant association with SDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106325DOI Listing
January 2021

Application of a titanium-based metal-organic framework to protein kinase activity detection and inhibitor screening.

Anal Chim Acta 2020 Sep 11;1128:99-106. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, China; College of Public Health, Institute of Life Science and Green Development, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, China. Electronic address:

In this work, we used a titanium-based metal-organic framework (MOF, Ti-MIL125-NH) as a novel enrichment platform to detect protein kinase A (PKA) activity and to screen relevant kinase inhibitors. This method took advantage of the highly specific recognition of phosphate groups by the Ti-MIL125-NH nanoparticle. In the presence of PKA and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), the fluorophore-labeled peptide substrate was phosphorylated, and the generated phosphopeptide could then specifically bind to the titanium sites of Ti-MIL125-NH. This resulted in fluorescence enrichment, which could be efficiently detected by the system. Under optimal conditions, the method presented a linear relationship in the experimental range of 0.00005-0.01 U μL, and the limit of detection was 0.00003 U μL (3σ, n = 11). Furthermore, protein kinase Akt1 was tested to verify the universality of this method. The method was also successfully applied in cell lysates for kinase activity analysis and inhibitor screening. Thus, the new, highly sensitive fluorescence method based on MOF for detecting PKA activity is an excellent tool that has potential applications in kinase-related disease and basic research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2020.06.065DOI Listing
September 2020

Occurrence of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in soils and sediments from Dongguan City, South China.

Environ Pollut 2020 Oct 13;265(Pt A):114181. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China. Electronic address:

As a group of emerging organic pollutants, chlorinated paraffins (CPs) have attracted rising global attention due to their persistence and toxicity. In this study, we have investigated the concentration levels and profiles of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) in soils and sediments from Dongguan City, an industrial area in South China, and have also screened very short-chain chlorinated paraffins (vSCCPs) by means of ultra-high resolution liquid chromatograph coupled with an Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid mass spectrometer. The results indicated that total SCCP concentrations ranged from 6.75 to 993 ng/g (mean 172 ng/g) in soils and from 4.00 to 613 ng/g (mean 153 ng/g) in sediments, respectively. Higher MCCP levels were observed with a range of 23.9-2427 ng/g (mean 369 ng/g) in soils and 14.0-1581 ng/g (mean 493 ng/g) in sediments, respectively. The results indicated that MCCPs dominated over SCCPs in the studied region. The dominant homologues in soils and sediments were CCl and CCl, CCl, and CCl, respectively. Furthermore, six vSCCP homologues (CCl and CCl) in soils and four vSCCPs (CCl) in sediments have been identified. Because of their higher detection frequencies, further studies should focus on the transformation mechanisms and toxicities of these vSCCPs in environmental media and biota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114181DOI Listing
October 2020

Tracing the sources and microbial degradation of PCBs in field sediments by a multiple-line-of-evidence approach including compound-specific stable isotope analysis.

Water Res 2020 Sep 27;182:115977. Epub 2020 May 27.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Comprehensive monitoring is crucial for tracing micropollutants in the natural environment. To better evaluate the sources and natural attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), three composite sediment cores were sampled from a closed pond near e-waste recycling plants, and a multiple-line-of-evidence approach (MLEA) including quantification, enantiomer analysis, microbial community profiling, and compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) was used to investigate the fate of PCBs in sediment cores. The difference in the maximum PCB concentrations and associated depths between sites 1/2 and 3 and the corresponding significant (p < 0.01) difference in δC values strongly indicated two different PCB inputs at sites 1/2 and 3. A significant (p < 0.01) negative correlation between the variation in chlorine per biphenyl (CPB) and Log the abundance of Dehalococcoides/total molar concentration of PCBs (Log Dhc/TPCB) along the cores suggested that different degrees of PCB degradation occurred and that Dehalococcoides likely participated in PCB degradation in these sediments. Nonracemic compositions and pronounced stable carbon isotope fractionation (ΔδC > 1‰) of PCB congeners were observed, confirming that in situ degradation occurred in the sediment cores. The progressive enrichment in C with increasing core depth suggested strengthened microbial degradation of the residual congener pools. The results of this study suggested that MLEA analysis of PCBs can provide reliable information to better monitor the sources and fate of these compounds in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115977DOI Listing
September 2020

Prodrug-Based Nanoreactors with Tumor-Specific Activation for Multisynergistic Cancer Therapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Aug 22;12(31):34667-34677. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, Chemical Biology Key Laboratory of Hebei Province, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China.

Efficient drug delivery into tumor cells while bypassing many biological barriers is still a challenge for cancer therapy. By taking advantage of the palladium (Pd)-mediated activation of a prodrug and the glucose oxidase (GOD)-based β-d-glucose oxidation reaction, we developed a multisynergistic cancer therapeutic platform that combined doxorubicin (DOX)-induced chemotherapy with GOD-mediated cancer-orchestrated oxidation therapy and cancer starvation therapy. In the present work, we first synthesized DOX prodrugs (pDOXs) and temporarily assembled them with β-cyclodextrins to reduce their toxic side effects. Then, a nanoreactor was constructed by synthesizing Pd nanoparticles within the pores of mesoporous silica nanoparticles for the conversion of pDOX into the active anticancer drug. Furthermore, GOD was introduced to decrease the pH of the tumor microenvironment and induce cancer-orchestrated oxidation/starvation therapy by catalyzing β-d-glucose oxidation to form hydrogen peroxide (HO) and gluconic acid. Our study provides a new strategy that employs a cascade chemical reaction to achieve combined orchestrated oxidation/starvation/chemotherapy for the synergistic killing of cancer cells and the suppression of tumor growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c09489DOI Listing
August 2020

Metal-Based Nanocatalyst for Combined Cancer Therapeutics.

Bioconjug Chem 2020 05 6;31(5):1247-1258. Epub 2020 May 6.

College of Chemistry & Environmental Science, Chemical Biology Key Laboratory of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of the Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, P. R. China.

As a classical nanocatalyst-based therapeutic modality, chemodynamic therapy (CDT) has received more and more attention. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of CDT, various metal-based nanocatalysts have been designed and constructed to catalyze the Fenton or Fenton-like reaction in the past few years. However, the therapeutic efficacy of certain CDT is still restricted by the tumor microenvironment, such as limited concentration of intracellular HO, inappropriate pH condition, as well as overexpressed glutathione (GSH). Therefore, many other therapeutic modalities, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), photothermal therapy (PTT), starvation therapy, chemotherapy, and gas therapy, have been utilized to combine with CDT for increasing the tumor treatment performance. In this review, we summarized the development of combinatory therapeutic modalities based on CDT in recent years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.0c00194DOI Listing
May 2020

Ultrasmall gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Theranostics 2020 31;10(11):4944-4957. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

College of Chemistry & Environmental Science, Chemical Biology Key Laboratory of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of the Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, P. R. China.

Due to their lower systemic toxicity, faster kidney clearance and higher tumor accumulation, ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (less than 10 nm in diameter) have been proved to be promising in biomedical applications. However, their potential applications in cancer imaging and treatment have not been reviewed yet. This review summarizes the efforts to develop systems based on ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for use in cancer diagnosis and therapy. First, we describe the methods for controlling the size and surface functionalization of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles. Second, we review the research on ultrasmall gold nanoparticles in cancer imaging and treatment. Specifically, we focus on the applications of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles in tumor visualization and bioimaging in different fields such as magnetic resonance imaging, photoacoustic imaging, fluorescence imaging, and X-ray scatter imaging. We also highlight the applications of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles in tumor chemotherapy, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy and gene therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.42471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163431PMC
April 2021

Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis for mechanistic characterization of debromination of decabrominated diphenyl ether.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2020 Jun;34(11):e8758

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Rationale: Decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) is a notorious persistent organic pollutant widely found in the environment. Developing a compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) method is much needed in order to trace its transport and degradation processes and to evaluate the effectiveness of the remediation of BDE-209 in the environment. However, the conventional CSIA method, i.e. gas chromatography (GC) combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry, is not appropriate for BDE-209 because of its high thermal instability and incomplete combustion.

Methods: We developed a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the separation and purification of BDE-209 that prevents its thermal reactivity as occurred in prior GC-based methods. The δ C value of the purified BDE-209 was determined using offline elemental analyzer isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS). This two-step method was applied to determine the δ C values of BDE-209 in two commercial samples and to characterize carbon isotope fractionation associated with the debromination of BDE-209 via nanoscale zero-valent iron.

Results: The mean values of daily δ C analyses of six replicates of a BDE-209 standard varied from -27.66‰ to -27.92‰, with a standard deviation ranging from 0.07‰ to 0.16‰, indicating a good reproducibility of EA/IRMS. The EA/IRMS analysis of the purified BDE-209 standard indicated no obvious isotope fractionation during the sample purification. The impurity content in commercial BDE-209 samples may contribute additional variation of the δ C values of BDE-209. The δ C values of BDE-209 gradually changed from -27.47 ± 0.37‰ to -24.59 ± 0.19‰ when 74% of the BDE-209 standard was degraded within 36 h. The estimated carbon isotope enrichment factor was -1.72 ± 0.18‰.

Conclusions: The two-step method based on HPLC and EA/IRMS avoids the thermal instability of BDE-209 in the traditional CSIA method. It offers a novel approach for elucidating the degradation mechanisms of BDE-209 in the environment and for source identification in contaminated sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8758DOI Listing
June 2020

Association of rs27044 and rs30187 polymorphisms in endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 gene and ankylosing spondylitis susceptibility: A meta-analysis.

Int J Rheum Dis 2020 Apr 26;23(4):499-510. Epub 2020 Jan 26.

Department of Spine Surgery, Xinjiang Medical University First Affiliated Hospital, Urumqi, China.

Background: The findings regarding association of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) gene polymorphisms and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) susceptibility are inconsistent. Our aim is to appraise and merge the existing evidence on the relationship of rs27044 and rs30187 polymorphisms in ERAP1 gene and susceptibility to AS.

Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, and CNKI were retrieved for relevant publications. The search was conducted from inception to 10 June, 2019. Studies on the association of rs27044 and rs30187 polymorphisms and risk of AS were included. Quality evaluation was carried out using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to appraise the associations under allelic and genotypic models.

Results: In total, 26 case-control studies with 31 cohorts containing 17 223 AS patients and 36 915 controls were eligible for this meta-analysis. According to NOS, each study received ≥ 5 scores. The pooled data indicated that rs27044 and rs30187 polymorphisms were significantly associated with AS susceptibility in the overall population: rs27044, G versus C, OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.16-1.33, P<.001; rs30187, T versus C, OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.17-1.33, P<.001. When stratified by ethnicity, rs27044 appeared to be significantly correlated with AS in both Asians and Caucasians. For rs30187, despite positive association being observed under the allelic model in both Asians and Caucasians, the findings of genotypic comparisons supported the association only existed in Caucasians but not Asians.

Conclusion: This study suggests that rs27044 and rs30187 polymorphisms are significantly associated with increased risk of AS, especially in Caucasians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.13795DOI Listing
April 2020

Self-Supply of O and HO by a Nanocatalytic Medicine to Enhance Combined Chemo/Chemodynamic Therapy.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2019 Dec 24;6(24):1902137. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

College of Chemistry & Environmental Science Analytical Chemistry Key Laboratory of Hebei Province Chemical Biology Key Laboratory of Hebei Province Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of the Ministry of Education Hebei University Baoding 071002 P. R. China.

Combined chemo/chemodynamic therapy is a promising strategy to achieve an improved anticancer effect. However, the hypoxic microenvironment and limited amount of HO in most solid tumors severely restrict the efficacy of this treatment. Herein, the construction of a nanocatalytic medicine, [email protected]@ZIF-67, via a bottom-up approach is described. [email protected]@ZIF-67 simultaneously supplies O and HO to achieve improved chemo/chemodynamic therapy. In the weakly acidic environment within tumors, [email protected]@ZIF-67 is broken down to rapidly release the Fenton-like catalyst Co and the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX). The unprotected CaO reacts with HO to generate both O and HO. The generated O relieves the hypoxia in the tumor and further improve the efficacy of DOX. Meanwhile, the generated HO reacts with Co ions to produce highly toxic •OH through a Fenton-like reaction, resulting in improved chemodynamic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201902137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6918120PMC
December 2019

Smart calcium peroxide with self-sufficience for biomedicine.

Sci China Life Sci 2020 01 28;63(1):152-156. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

College of Chemistry & Environmental Science, Chemical Biology Key Laboratory of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of the Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-019-1578-9DOI Listing
January 2020

Association of IL-17A-197G/A and IL-17F-7488T/C polymorphisms and osteoarthritis susceptibility: A meta-analysis.

Int J Rheum Dis 2020 Jan 31;23(1):37-46. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Spine Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Aim: This meta-analysis was conducted with the aim of collecting and synthesizing the existing evidence on the association of interleukin-17A (IL-17A)-197G/A and IL-17F-7488T/C gene polymorphisms and osteoarthritis (OA) susceptibility.

Methods: Six electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Wanfang were systematically searched for potentially relevant studies previous to June 2019. The strengths of association were estimated by summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) in a model-free approach. Heterogeneity test and sensitivity analysis were also conducted to guarantee the reliability of this study.

Results: Six eligible case-control studies comprising 1989 OA patients and 2116 healthy controls were obtained for the meta-analysis. Dominant model was confirmed to be the optimal genetic model (MM + Mm vs mm). The pooled estimate supported that IL-17A-197G/A and IL-17F-7488T/C polymorphisms were significantly associated with OA susceptibility in the overall population (IL-17A-197G/A: GG + GA vs AA, OR = 0.69, 95%CI 0.57-0.80; P < .001; IL-17F-7488T/C, TT + TC vs CC, OR = 0.46, 95%CI 0.29-0.71, P < .001). However, subgroup analyses suggested the association only existed in Asians and knee OA.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate that IL-17A-197G/A and IL-17F-7488T/C polymorphisms are positively associated to reduced risk of knee OA, especially in Asian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.13737DOI Listing
January 2020

Ameliorative effects of echinacoside against spinal cord injury via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway.

Life Sci 2019 Nov 20;237:116978. Epub 2019 Oct 20.

Department of Spine Surgery, Xinjiang Medical University Affiliated First Hospital, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830054, China. Electronic address:

Aims: The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, which initiates an inflammatory cascade and triggers inflammatory death, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI). Echinacoside (ECH) is a phenylethanoid glycoside possessing prominent anti-inflammatory effects and various neuroprotective properties in the central nervous system, but the effect of ECH on SCI was rarely studied. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to look into the therapeutic effects of ECH on SCI and the underlying mechanisms.

Main Methods: Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotion scale, Nissl staining, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was employed to examine the therapeutic effects of ECH on SCI. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in BV-2 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharides and adenosine 5'-triphosphate were examined. The expression levels of proteins involving NLRP3 inflammasome-related pathway were measured.

Key Findings: The in vivo experiment indicated that administration of ECH significantly enhanced the BBB scores, reduced the neuron loss, and ameliorated the tissue architecture after SCI. Additionally, ECH dramatically inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the rat SCI model. In vitro study indicated that ECH significantly reduced ROS level, improved the MMP, blocked activation of NF-κB, and inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway. The effect of ECH on inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway was partially governed by suppression of the generation of ROS and activation of NF-κB.

Significance: ECH can accelerate motor function recovery in rats following SCI by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome-related signaling pathway, suggesting that ECH may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for treating SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116978DOI Listing
November 2019

Ultrafine Pd Nanoparticles Anchored on Nitrogen-Doping Carbon for Boosting Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes.

ACS Omega 2018 Sep 7;3(9):10843-10850. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

College of Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, China.

The catalytic performance of metal particles is closely related to the particle size. In this article, ultrafine palladium nanoparticles anchored on nitrogen-doping carbon support (Pd/N-XC72R) were fabricated, wherein the N-XC72R was prepared through low-temperature annealing of Vulcan XC72R carbon with urea at 300 °C. Nitrogen dopant on the surface of carbon support can remarkably strengthen the affinity of the metal nanoparticles onto the support. Compared with the Vulcan XC-72R-supported Pd catalyst, the prepared Pd/N-XC72R delivered superior catalytic activity for the transfer hydrogenation of nitroarenes with formic acid as the hydrogen donor at ambient temperature. Our strategy may provide an effective and feasible approach to fabricate N-functionalized carbon materials and construct high-performance ultrasmall metal nanoparticle heterogeneous catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b01141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6645512PMC
September 2018

Compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2019 Aug;33(16):1318-1323

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment Protection and Resource Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Rationale: Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is a powerful tool for the source apportionment and characterization of environmental transformation processes, especially for new emerging contaminants. In this study, we have developed an effective method for determination of the stable carbon isotope ratios of hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers.

Methods: Three diastereoisomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), α-, β-, and γ-HBCD, were separated on a preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Their carbon isotope ratios were determined using gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS), and compared with data obtained by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS).

Results: α-, β-, and γ-HBCD were well separated by the preparative HPLC system. Method validation results indicated excellent precision and reproducibility. For a series of injection volumes (0.5 to 3 μL), the average carbon isotope ratios for α-HBCD, β-HBCD, and γ-HBCD were -26.42‰, -26.88‰, and -26.43‰, respectively, and their deviations from those of the HBCD standard (-26.52‰) were all lower than the analytical uncertainty of 0.5‰. Relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day injections of HBCD were in the ranges 0.35-0.64% and 0.37-0.76%, respectively. Comparison with EA/IRMS further verified the accuracy of the HBCD stable carbon isotope ratio measured by GC/IRMS.

Conclusions: This work offers a novel approach to separate and concentrate the three major isomers of HBCD and to determine their stable carbon isotope ratios. This permits analysis of their carbon isotope ratios in environmental samples in order to elucidate the sources and abiotic or biological transformation processes of HBCD in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8472DOI Listing
August 2019

The quantification of chlorinated paraffins in environmental samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2019 May 31;1593:102-109. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China. Electronic address:

As high-production-volume chemicals, chlorinated paraffins (CPs) have raised an increasing environmental concern in recent years. However, their accurate analysis and quantification is still a huge challenge due to the high complexity of their technical formulations and the interference from CPs congeners and other polychlorinated products. In this study, a novel method for the simultaneous analysis of short-chain (SC) and medium-chain (MC) CPs in a single injection has been developed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap Fusion TMS). Compared with other analytical methods for CPs, this novel method can greatly shorten the measurement time and provides a lower limit of detection. A high resolution of 120,000 FWHM was set to avoid the self-interference of CPs congeners and to eliminate interferences from chlorinated olefins (COs). Accuracies for SCCPs and MCCPs standards were evaluated at 75-103% and 83-118%, respectively. The developed method was further validated by determining CPs in sediment, soil, and indoor dust samples. This novel method gives higher CPs concentrations than those achieved by gas chromatography-electron capture negative ionization low-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-LRMS), with factors of 1.1-12.5 for SCCPs and 0.7-2.7 for MCCPs, respectively. Some new CPs, such as CCl and CCl, have been determined in soil samples for the first time, indicating great potential of this novel method for routine CP analysis in various environmental samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.01.077DOI Listing
May 2019

Enantiomeric analysis of polycyclic musks AHTN and HHCB and HHCB-lactone in sewage sludge by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2019 Mar;33(6):607-612

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment Protection and Resource Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Rationale: Enantioselective analysis of chiral compounds is an interesting and challenging technique used to elucidate the degradation/transformation mechanisms of these compounds or understand their environmental processes. In this study, we have developed an effective separation and detection approach for the enantiomeric analysis of AHTN and HHCB, as well as a transformation product of HHCB (HHCB-lactone), in sludge samples.

Methods: The analytical method was developed using a cyclodextrin-based enantioselective gas chromatography column combined with tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). The GC oven temperature gradients, the linear velocity of the helium carrier gas, as well as the MS/MS parameters, including quantitative and qualitative ion pairs, dwell times, and collision energies, were optimized to achieve good separation and high sensitivity for all target enantiomers.

Results: Baseline separations of all target enantiomers were observed. Limits of quantification (LOQs) for all enantiomers ranged from 0.010 to 0.045 μg/L, and calibration linearity for all single enantiomers was higher than 0.99. The intra-day and inter-day precisions for all single enantiomers of AHTN, HHCB, and HHCB-lactone ranged from 0.8 to 3.8% and from 4.2 to 8.3%, respectively.

Conclusions: The developed method was fully validated through enantioselective analyses of AHTN, HHCB, and HHCB-lactone in sludge samples collected from 17 WWTPs. The enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of HHCB and HHCB-lactone in sludge samples distinctly deviated from 0.50, indicating a significant enantioselective transformation of HHCB with preferential degradation of the 4S enantiomers. Significant positive correlations were found between the EF values of cis-HHCB enantiomers and cis-HHCB-lactone enantiomers in the sludge samples, implying that further efforts are still needed to clarify the degradation/transformation mechanism from HHCB to HHCB-lactone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8390DOI Listing
March 2019

In Situ Microbial Degradation of PBDEs in Sediments from an E-Waste Site as Revealed by Positive Matrix Factorization and Compound-Specific Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 02 29;53(4):1928-1936. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization , Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Guangzhou 510640 , China.

In the present study, positive matrix factorization (PMF) and compound-specific isotope analysis were used to investigate the in situ biodegradation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment cores collected from a pond at an e-waste recycling site in South China. The potential microorganisms relevant to the degradation of PBDEs were also assessed to aid in the understanding of in situ biodegradation. The PMF results suggested that reductive debromination took place in the sediments. The debromination signal (ratio of the concentration of factor 5 (PMF result) to the total PBDE content) was positively correlated with the relative abundance of Dehalococcoidetes at different core depths. The clear C enrichment of five PBDE congeners (BDE 28, 47, 49, 99, and 153) with increasing core depth indicated that a measurable change in isotope fractionation might have occurred during PBDE biodegradation. The in situ biodegradation was further validated by the widespread detection of mono-BDE congeners (BDE 2, BDE 3) and diphenyl ether in the sediments. This study provides new evidence to enhance our understanding of the in situ biodegradation of PBDEs and suggests that the extensive removal of bromine from PBDEs was mediated by indigenous microorganisms at the e-waste site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b06110DOI Listing
February 2019

Association of rs4552569 and rs17095830 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis in east Asian population: a meta-analysis.

J Genet 2018 Sep;97(4):825-833

Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095#, Jiefang Ave, Wuhan 430000, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Several studies have been conducted in east Asian population to evaluate the association between rs4552569 and rs17095830 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but the outcomes are inconsistent. A summary evaluation of the evidence supporting the associations has not been performed. Therefore,we performed this meta-analysis to access whether the two SNPs are related to ankylosing spondylitis. We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for papers published up until 3 February 2017, to obtain relevant studies using our research strategy. The allele/genotype frequencies were extracted from each study. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the associations between the two SNPs and AS risk. Four papers including five studies were obtained for this meta-analysis. The included studies suggested that there was no significant association between rs4552569 SNP and AS (C vs T, OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.96-1.22, = 0.20).With regard to rs17095830 SNP, significant association was observed (G vs A, OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.06-1.33, = 0.002). Based on a comprehensive analysis of the currently available evidence, rs4552569 SNP is not significantly associated with the predisposition of AS, while rs17095830 SNP is likely a susceptibility variant for AS in east Asian population. Further studies with different population groups are needed to confirm these potential associations.
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September 2018

A simple analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multiple organic pollutants in sediment samples.

MethodsX 2018 10;5:1089-1094. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Due to the extensive application of synthetic organic chemicals, the resulting environmental contamination with such chemicals is of great concern. Herein, we describe the development of a simple analytical method to determine several groups of organic compounds in sediment samples. Samples were soxhlet-extracted with dichloromethane, separated, and cleaned-up by passage through a combined column of neutral alumina/silica gel, then identified and determined by GC-MS analysis. Four sediment samples were analyzed to validate the efficiency, and acceptable recoveries and good repeatability were obtained. •Combined chromatographic columns of silica gel and alumina have been used for separation and clean-up.•Five groups of organic compounds have been simultaneously analyzed.•Acceptable recoveries with good reproducibility have been achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2018.08.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153379PMC
September 2018

Lactate transport facilitates neurite outgrowth.

Biosci Rep 2018 10 2;38(5). Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Biological Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China

How glia affect neurite outgrowth during neural development has not been well elucidated. In the present study, we found that disruption of lactate production using 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB) and isofagomine significantly interfered with neurite outgrowth and that exogenous application of L-lactate rescued neurite growth failure. Monocarboxylate transporter-2-knockout, which blocked the lactate shuttle in neurons, showed a remarkable decrease in the length of axons and dendrites. We further demonstrated that Akt activity was decreased while glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity was increased after astrocytic glycogen phosphorylase blockade. Additionally, GSK3βSer9 mutation reversed neurite growth failure caused by DAB and isofagomine. Our results suggested that lactate transportation played a critical role in neural development and disruption of the lactate shuttle in quiescent condition also affected neurite outgrowth in the central nervous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20180157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6167502PMC
October 2018

Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the atmosphere of the Pearl River Delta region, South China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Sep 16;25(27):27013-27020. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environment and Resources, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Air samples were collected from 26 air-monitoring stations located in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and two in Shaoguan, South China, to investigate the spatial distribution and temporal changes in polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) after the production and use of PBDE commercial formulations was restricted in China and the "dual transfer strategy" implemented by Guangdong Province. The spatial distribution of PBDEs was inhomogeneous in the PRD region, with concentrations ranging from 26.3 to 634 pg/m and a mean value of 105 pg/m. The PBDE levels in the five western cities (Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhaoqing, Zhongshan, and Jiangmen) were markedly higher than those in the four eastern cities (Dongguan, Huizhou, Shenzhen, and Zhuhai). BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 57.3-89.8% of the total measured PBDEs in this study. The proportion of penta- and nona-BDE congeners in the four eastern cities was markedly higher than those in five western cities. Principal component analysis showed that this elevation might be related to the debromination of BDE-209 during the thermal treatment process of products when PBDEs are used as flame retardants. Although the PBDE levels found in this study were markedly lower than those reported in previous studies, further efforts are still needed to clarify if there was a decreasing trend for PBDEs in the atmosphere of the PRD, in view of the increasing trends of PBDEs found by other researchers in mangrove sediments from Hong Kong and the Pearl River estuary in 2014 and 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2743-2DOI Listing
September 2018