Publications by authors named "Shuo Liu"

507 Publications

Wetting Mechanism and Experimental Study of Synergistic Wetting of Bituminous Coal with SDS and APG1214.

ACS Omega 2022 Jan 31;7(1):780-785. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

College of Safety Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China.

To solve the problem of poor dust wettability during coal mine dust treatment, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and alkyl glycoside (APG1214) were selected for compounding. An efficient, environmentally friendly, economical wetting agent was prepared. First, through molecular dynamics simulation studies, it was determined that the tail group C of SDS and APG1214 was adsorbed on the surface of bituminous coal, and the head groups S and O were adsorbed on the surface of water. The simulation result is found to be consistent with the surfactant solution dust removal theory, which proves the confidence of simulation. Then, by comparing the interaction of water-SDS and APG1214-bituminous coal and water-bituminous coal systems and the number of hydrogen bonds, the wetting mechanism of the SDS and APG1214 solution on bituminous coal was revealed. Finally, the surface tension, contact angle, and wetting time of different SDS and APG1214 solutions were determined by experiments and they decreased with decreasing mass fraction of SDS at the same concentration. The surface tension of the SDS and APG1214 solution and the number of micelles affected the wettability of bituminous coal. The optimal concentration of the SDS and APG1214 solution was 0.7%, and the optimal ratio was SDS/APG1214 = 1:3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c05422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8757350PMC
January 2022

Aggregation of high-frequency RBD mutations of SARS-CoV-2 with three VOCs did not cause significant antigenic drift.

J Med Virol 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Division of HIV/AIDS and Sex-transmitted Virus Vaccines, Institute for Biological Product Control, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC), No. 31 Huatuo Street, Daxing District, Beijing, China.

Variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to emerge, posing great challenges in outbreak prevention and control. It is important to understand in advance the impact of possible variants of concern (VOCs) on infectivity and antigenicity. Here, we constructed one or more of the 15 high-frequency naturally occurring amino acid changes in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants. Single mutant of A520S, V367F, and S494P in above three VOCs enhanced infectivity in ACE2-overexpressing 293T cells of different species, LLC-MK2 and Vero cells. Aggregation of multiple RBD mutations significantly reduces the infectivity of the possible three VOCs. Regarding neutralization, it is noteworthy that E484K, N501Y, K417N, and N439K predispose to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) protection failure in the 15 high-frequency mutations. Most importantly, almost all possible VOCs (single RBD mutation or aggregation of multiple mutations) showed no more than a 4-fold decrease in neutralizing activity with convalescent sera, vaccine sera, and immune sera of guinea pigs with different immunogens, and no significant antigenic drift was formed. In conclusion, our pseudovirus results could reduce the concern that the aggregation of multiple high-frequency mutations in the RBD of the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 variants does not lead to severe antigenic drift, and this would provide value for vaccine development strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27596DOI Listing
January 2022

Emerging nanomedicines of paclitaxel for cancer treatment.

J Control Release 2022 Jan 10;342:280-294. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Department of Pharmacy, Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, PR China.

Malignant tumor is still a leading threat to human health. Despite the rapid development of targeted therapeutic strategies, any treatment specifically acting on single target would inevitably suffer from tumor resistance, largely due to the genetic instability and variability of tumor cells. Thus, traditional therapies such as broad-spectrum chemotherapy would certainly occupy an important position in clinical cancer therapy. Nevertheless, most chemotherapeutic drugs have long been criticized for unsatisfactory therapeutic efficacy with severe off-target toxicity. Although several chemotherapeutic nanomedicines with improved therapeutic safety have been applied in clinics, the therapeutic outcomes still do not fulfill expectation. To address this challenge, enormous efforts have been devoted to developing novel nano-formulations for efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. Herein, we aim to outline the latest progression in the emerging nanomedicines of paclitaxel (PTX), with special attention to the functional nanocarriers, self-delivering prodrug-nanoassemblies and combination nanotherapeutics of PTX. Finally, the challenges and opportunities of these functional PTX nanomedicines in clinical translation are spotlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2022.01.010DOI Listing
January 2022

Omicron escapes the majority of existing SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies.

Nature 2021 Dec 23. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Biomedical Pioneering Innovation Center (BIOPIC), Peking University, Beijing, P.R. China.

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant (Omicron) contains 15 mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). How Omicron would evade RBD neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) requires immediate investigation. Here, we used high-throughput yeast display screening to determine the RBD escaping mutation profiles for 247 human anti-RBD NAbs and showed that the NAbs could be unsupervised clustered into six epitope groups (A-F), which is highly concordant with knowledge-based structural classifications. Strikingly, various single mutations of Omicron could impair NAbs of different epitope groups. Specifically, NAbs in Group A-D, whose epitope overlap with ACE2-binding motif, are largely escaped by K417N, G446S, E484A, and Q493R. Group E (S309 site) and F (CR3022 site) NAbs, which often exhibit broad sarbecovirus neutralizing activity, are less affected by Omicron, but still, a subset of NAbs are escaped by G339D, N440K, and S371L. Furthermore, Omicron pseudovirus neutralization showed that single mutation tolerating NAbs could also be escaped due to multiple synergetic mutations on their epitopes. In total, over 85% of the tested NAbs are escaped by Omicron. Regarding NAb drugs, the neutralization potency of LY-CoV016/LY-CoV555, REGN10933/REGN10987, AZD1061/AZD8895, and BRII-196 were greatly reduced by Omicron, while VIR-7831 and DXP-604 still function at reduced efficacy. Together, data suggest Omicron would cause significant humoral immune evasion, while NAbs targeting the sarbecovirus conserved region remain most effective. Our results offer instructions for developing NAb drugs and vaccines against Omicron and future variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04385-3DOI Listing
December 2021

Long-term exposure to low ambient air pollution concentrations and mortality among 28 million people: results from seven large European cohorts within the ELAPSE project.

Lancet Planet Health 2022 Jan;6(1):e9-e18

Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with premature mortality, but associations at concentrations lower than current annual limit values are uncertain. We analysed associations between low-level air pollution and mortality within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE).

Methods: In this multicentre longitudinal study, we analysed seven population-based cohorts of adults (age ≥30 years) within ELAPSE, from Belgium, Denmark, England, the Netherlands, Norway, Rome (Italy), and Switzerland (enrolled in 2000-11; follow-up until 2011-17). Mortality registries were used to extract the underlying cause of death for deceased individuals. Annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO), black carbon, and tropospheric warm-season ozone (O) from Europe-wide land use regression models at 100 m spatial resolution were assigned to baseline residential addresses. We applied cohort-specific Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for area-level and individual-level covariates to evaluate associations with non-accidental mortality, as the main outcome, and with cardiovascular, non-malignant respiratory, and lung cancer mortality. Subset analyses of participants living at low pollutant concentrations (as per predefined values) and natural splines were used to investigate the concentration-response function. Cohort-specific effect estimates were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis.

Findings: We analysed 28 153 138 participants contributing 257 859 621 person-years of observation, during which 3 593 741 deaths from non-accidental causes occurred. We found significant positive associations between non-accidental mortality and PM, NO, and black carbon, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·053 (95% CI 1·021-1·085) per 5 μg/m increment in PM, 1·044 (1·019-1·069) per 10 μg/m NO, and 1·039 (1·018-1·059) per 0·5 × 10/m black carbon. Associations with PM, NO, and black carbon were slightly weaker for cardiovascular mortality, similar for non-malignant respiratory mortality, and stronger for lung cancer mortality. Warm-season O was negatively associated with both non-accidental and cause-specific mortality. Associations were stronger at low concentrations: HRs for non-accidental mortality at concentrations lower than the WHO 2005 air quality guideline values for PM (10 μg/m) and NO (40 μg/m) were 1·078 (1·046-1·111) per 5 μg/m PM and 1·049 (1·024-1·075) per 10 μg/m NO. Similarly, the association between black carbon and non-accidental mortality was highest at low concentrations, with a HR of 1·061 (1·032-1·092) for exposure lower than 1·5× 10/m, and 1·081 (0·966-1·210) for exposure lower than 1·0× 10/m.

Interpretation: Long-term exposure to concentrations of PM and NO lower than current annual limit values was associated with non-accidental, cardiovascular, non-malignant respiratory, and lung cancer mortality in seven large European cohorts. Continuing research on the effects of low concentrations of air pollutants is expected to further inform the process of setting air quality standards in Europe and other global regions.

Funding: Health Effects Institute.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(21)00277-1DOI Listing
January 2022

Improved intergranular corrosion resistance of Al-Mg-Mn alloys with Sc and Zr additions.

Micron 2021 Dec 31;154:103202. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

College of Engineering and Computer Science, Australian National University, Acton, 2601, ACT, Australia.

Al-5.8Mg-0.4Mn with minor alloying additions of Sc and Zr was investigated via electrochemical testing and nitric acid mass loss testing (NAMLT) in order to reveal the influence of Sc and Zr upon sensitization and intergranular corrosion. The Al-Mg-Mn alloys were also analysed using an electron probe microanalyzer, indicating that β-phase (AlMg) was more likely to precipitate around rectangular or cubic AlMn particles. Results reveal that the strength and intergranular corrosion resistance of Al-5.8Mg-0.4Mn was improved by the combined addition of Sc and Zr. The Al(ScZr) dispersoids can lead to an alteration of the relative proportion of low angle grain boundaries, and lower volume fraction of β-phase was observed for Al-5.8Mg-0.4Mn-xSc-yZr relative to the Sc and Zr free alloy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2021.103202DOI Listing
December 2021

The effect of using personal-level indoor air cleaners and respirators on biomarkers of cardiorespiratory health: a systematic review.

Environ Int 2022 01 16;158:106981. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Peking University School of Public Health, and Peking University Institute of Environmental Medicine, Beijing, China; Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging studies have investigated potential cardiovascular and respiratory health impacts from the use of personal-level intervention equipment against air pollution exposure. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy of personal-level air pollution intervention on mitigating adverse health effects from air pollution exposure by using portable air cleaner or wearing respirator.

Methods: In this systematic review, we searched PubMed and Web of Science for published literatures up to May 31, 2020, focusing on personal-level air pollution intervention studies. Among these studies, we investigated the impacts on cardio-respiratory responses to the use of these interventions. The intervention of review interest was the use of personal-level equipment against air pollution, including using portable air cleaner indoors or wearing respirator outdoors. The outcome of review interest was impacts on cardio-respiratory health endpoints following interventions, including level changes in blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV), lung function, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Weighted mean differences or percent changes were pooled in meta-analyses for these health endpoints. The heterogeneity across studies was assessed using the Cochran's Q-statistic test, and the individual study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool version 2 (RoB 2). We further applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method to evaluate the certainty of evidence.

Results: From systematic literature search and screening, we identified 29 related eligible intervention studies, including 21 studies on indoor portable air cleaner use and 8 studies on respirator use. For portable air cleaner intervention, we observed suggestive evidence of beneficial changes on cardio-respiratory health endpoints. Collectively in these studies, we found significantly beneficial changes of 2.01% decreases (95% CI: 0.50%, 3.52%) in systolic blood pressure, as well as non-significantly beneficial changes of 3.04% increases (95% CI: -2.65%, 8.74%) in reactive hyperemia index and 0.24% increases (95% CI: -0.82%, 1.31%) in forced expiratory volume in 1 s. We also observed non-significant reductions in levels of inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers, including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, fibrinogen, fractional exhaled nitric oxide and malondialdehyde. For respirator intervention, we observed some beneficial changes on cardiovascular health endpoints, such as significant increases in HRV parameters [SDNN (2.20%, 95% CI: 0.54%, 3.86%)], as well as non-significant decreases in blood pressure [SBP (0.63 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.39, 1.66)]; however, no sufficient data were available for meta-analyses on lung function and biomarkers. RoB 2 assessments suggested that most intervention studies were with a moderate to high overall risk of bias. The certainty of evidence for intervention outcome pairs was graded very low for either portable air cleaner or respirator intervention. The common reasons to downgrade study evidence included loss to follow-up, lack of blinding, lack of washout period, small sample size, and high heterogeneity across studies.

Conclusions: The uses of indoor portable air cleaner and respirator could contribute to some beneficial changes on cardiovascular health, but with much limited evidence on respiratory health. Low certainty of the overall study evidence shed light on future research for larger sample size trials with more rigorous study design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106981DOI Listing
January 2022

Feibi decoction-medicated serum inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells and BMDMs.

Exp Ther Med 2022 Jan 2;23(1):110. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Dongfang Hospital Affiliated to Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100078, P.R. China.

Feibi decoction (FBD) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and has been clinically used in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis (PF), which is characterized by diffuse interstitial inflammation and exaggerated collagen accumulation. However, the potential mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of FBD-medicated serum (FBDS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in macrophages. In RAW264.7 macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), FBDS treatment significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS. In addition, it was indicated that FBDS treatment suppressed the activation of NF-κB and Smad2/Smad3 following LPS treatment. Furthermore, FBDS treatment decreased the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and chitinase-3-like protein 1. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that treatment with FBDS inhibited LPS-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 and BMDM cells. These data may improve understanding of the effect of FBD on anti-inflammation and help determine the mechanisms underlying the alleviation of PF via FBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.11033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8674952PMC
January 2022

Facile Separator Modification Strategy for Trapping Soluble Polyphosphides and Enhancing the Electrochemical Performance of Phosphorus Anode.

Nano Lett 2021 Dec 29. Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, P. R. China.

Phosphorus anode is one of the most promising candidates for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. Recent studies found the lithiation process of phosphorus is accompanied by the soluble intermediates of lithium polyphosphides. The trans-separator diffusion of polyphosphides is responsible for the capacity decay. Herein, a facile separator modification strategy is proposed for improving the performance of phosphorus anode. The lightweight CNT-modified layer that has a continuous conductive skeleton, a dense structure, and a strong interaction with the soluble lithium polyphosphides can trap, stabilize, and reactivate the active material. Without sophisticated electrode structure design, the cyclability and high-rate performance of the phosphorus anode has been significantly improved, leading to a higher specific capacity of 1505 mAh/g at 250 mA/g (200th cycle) and 1312 mAh/g at 2 A/g. With the advantages of simplicity and low cost, the separator modification strategy provides a new feasible way for further improvement of the phosphorus-based anode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c04238DOI Listing
December 2021

Characterization of Root System Architecture Traits in Diverse Soybean Genotypes Using a Semi-Hydroponic System.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Dec 16;10(12). Epub 2021 Dec 16.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, and State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Northwest A&F University, Xi'an 712100, China.

Phenotypic variation and correlations among root traits form the basis for selecting and breeding soybean varieties with efficient access to water and nutrients and better adaptation to abiotic stresses. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple and consistent system to study root traits in soybean. In this study, we adopted the semi-hydroponic system to investigate the variability in root morphological traits of 171 soybean genotypes popularized in the Yangtze and Huaihe River regions, eastern China. Highly diverse phenotypes were observed: shoot height (18.7-86.7 cm per plant with a median of 52.3 cm); total root length (208-1663 cm per plant with a median of 885 cm); and root mass (dry weight) (19.4-251 mg per plant with a median of 124 mg). Both total root length and root mass exhibited significant positive correlation with shoot mass ( ≤ 0.05), indicating their relationship with plant growth and adaptation strategies. The nine selected traits contributed to one of the two principal components (eigenvalues > 1), accounting for 78.9% of the total genotypic variation. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis separated the 171 genotypes into five major groups based on these root traits. Three selected genotypes with contrasting root systems were validated in soil-filled rhizoboxes (1.5 m deep) until maturity. Consistent ranking of the genotypes in some important root traits at various growth stages between the two experiments indicates the reliability of the semi-hydroponic system in phenotyping root trait variability at the early growth stage in soybean germplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10122781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8707277PMC
December 2021

Trajectory and Correlation of Intrinsic Capacity and Frailty in a Beijing Elderly Community.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 9;8:751586. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Department of Geriatrics, The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, National Health Commission, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

The World Health Organization proposed intrinsic capacity (IC) model to guide the implementation of person-centered care plan aimed at preserving or reserving functional ability, especially in frail older adults. We aimed to show the trajectory of IC and the overlap between IC impairment and frailty and investigate the correlation between IC domains and frailty status transitions. Longitudinal observational study covering 230 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 84.0 ± 4.5 years) at baseline, and transition information at 2-year follow-up ( = 196). IC was measured by five domains: locomotion, cognition, vitality, psychological, and sensory. Frailty was defined by FRAIL Scale. IC and frailty status transitions were assessed. Logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for the analysis. The prevalence of frailty was 23.0% and increased up to 41.8% over two years. Regarding frailty transitions, 38.3% of older adults progressed to more frailty status, and 8.6% regressed to lesser frailty status. The prevalence of IC impairment was 67.9% and increased to 81.6% over two years. Regarding IC transitions, 49.2% of adults with no IC impairment at baseline kept stable, and 50.8% developed new IC impairment. Among individuals with IC impairment at baseline, 57.9% worsened, and 13.5% improved. Importantly, IC impairment at baseline existed in 42.4% robust adults, 83.3% pre-frail adults, and 93.3% frail adults. 47.1% individuals who kept non-frail status within two years experienced IC worsened transition. Univariable analysis illustrated that new impaired locomotion, vitality, cognition, and sensory domains increased the risk of non-frail progressed to frail status. After adjusting for covariables, new impaired locomotion (OR = 3.625, 95% CI: 1.348-9.747) and vitality domains (OR = 3.034, 95% CI: 1.229-7.487) were associated with a higher possibility of non-frail progressed to frail status. IC impairment and frailty overlap and co-exist in older adults. IC impairment, especially new impairment in locomotion and vitality are associated with the transitions from non-frail to frail status. It is important that geriatricians tightly monitor IC trajectory and find the new impaired domains to take early action to minimize the public health burden of frailty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.751586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8695757PMC
December 2021

Improvement in phenotype homeostasis of macrophages by chitosan nanoparticles and subsequent impacts on liver injury and tumor treatment.

Carbohydr Polym 2022 Feb 18;277:118891. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

When organic polymer-based drug nanocarriers become concentrated in macrophages, their influence on macrophage polarization has been rarely reported. This study prepared chitosan-based nanoparticles (CNs, 181.5 nm, +14.83 mV) and detected their impacts on macrophage reprogram. RT-PCR results showed in M1-like RAW264.7 cells (Mφ1), CNs decreased CD86 and iNOS expressions by 53.8% and 57.1%, and increased Arg-1 and IL-10 by 642.9% and 102.1%; in M2-like cells (Mφ2), CNs reduced Arg-1 and MR expressions by 70.7% and 93.0%, but increased CD86, iNOS and TNF-α by 290.4%, 86.2% and 728.6%; these results, consistent with cytokine secretions and surface CD86/CD206 expressions, showed CNs polarized Mφ1 and Mφ2 toward opposite type so as to improve the macrophage polarization homeostasis. In CCl-induced mouse liver injury model, CNs reduced the hepatic Mφ1/Mφ2 ratio from 1.1 (model group) to 0.3, and then reduced the serum AST and ALT level by 42.3% and 39.0%; in mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma, CNs decreased the number of CD163-positive cells and increased CD86-positive ones in tumor, and subsequently inhibited the tumor growth and metastasis. This study suggests CNs can improve the phenotype homeostasis of macrophages and subsequently promote the treatment of certain diseases such as liver injury and tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118891DOI Listing
February 2022

The Filtering Effect of Face Masks in their Detection from Speech.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2021 11;2021:2079-2082

Face masks alter the speakers' voice, as their intrinsic properties provide them with acoustic absorption capabilities. Hence, face masks act as filters to the human voice. This work focuses on the automatic detection of face masks from speech signals, emphasising on a previous work claiming that face masks attenuate frequencies above 1 kHz. We compare a paralinguistics-based and a spectrograms-based approach for the task at hand. While the former extracts paralinguistic features from filtered versions of the original speech samples, the latter exploits the spectrogram representations of the speech samples containing specific ranges of frequencies. The machine learning techniques investigated for the paralinguistics-based approach include Support Vector Machines (SVM), and a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). For the spectrograms-based approach, we use a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Our experiments are conducted on the Mask Augsburg Speech Corpus (MASC), released for the Interspeech 2020 Computational Paralinguistics Challenge (COMPARE). The best performances on the test set from the paralinguistic analysis are obtained using the high-pass filtered versions of the original speech samples. Nonetheless, the highest Unweighted Average Recall (UAR) on the test set is obtained when exploiting the spectrograms with frequency content below 1 kHz.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC46164.2021.9630634DOI Listing
November 2021

COVID-19 Detection with a Novel Multi-Type Deep Fusion Method using Breathing and Coughing Information.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2021 11;2021:1840-1843

This study explores the use of deep learning-based methods for the automatic detection of COVID-19. Specifically, we aim to investigate the involvement of the virus in the respiratory system by analysing breathing and coughing sounds. Our hypothesis resides in the complementarity of both data types for the task at hand. Therefore, we focus on the analysis of fusion mechanisms to enrich the information available for the diagnosis. In this work, we introduce a novel injection fusion mechanism that considers the embedded representations learned from one data type to extract the embedded representations of the other data type. Our experiments are performed on a crowdsourced database with breathing and coughing sounds recorded using both a web-based application, and a smartphone app. The results obtained support the feasibility of the injection fusion mechanism presented, as the models trained with this mechanism outperform single-type models and multi-type models using conventional fusion mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC46164.2021.9630050DOI Listing
November 2021

The significant immune escape of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2022 Dec;11(1):1-5

Division of HIV/AIDS and Sex-transmitted Virus Vaccines, Institute for Biological Product Control, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC), Beijing, People's Republic of China.

The emergence of Omicron/BA.1 has brought new challenges to fight against SARS-CoV-2. A large number of mutations in the Spike protein suggest that its susceptibility to immune protection elicited by the existing COVID-19 infection and vaccines may be altered. In this study, we constructed the pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron. The sensitivity of 28 serum samples from COVID-19 convalescent patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 original strain was tested against pseudotyped Omicron as well as the other variants of concern (VOCs, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta) and variants of interest (VOIs, Lambda, Mu). Our results indicated that the mean neutralization ED50 of these sera against Omicron decreased to 66, which is about 8.4-folds compared to the D614G reference strain (ED50 = 556), whereas the neutralization activity of other VOC and VOI pseudotyped viruses decreased only about 1.2-4.5-folds. The finding from our in vitro assay suggest that Omicron variant may lead to more significant escape from immune protection elicited by previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and perhaps even by existing COVID-19 vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2021.2017757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8725892PMC
December 2022

A second functional furin site in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2022 Dec;11(1):182-194

Division of HIV/AIDS and Sex-transmitted Virus Vaccines, Institute for Biological Product Control, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC), Beijing, People's Republic of China.

The ubiquitously-expressed proteolytic enzyme furin is closely related to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and therefore represents a key target for antiviral therapy. Based on bioinformatic analysis and pseudovirus tests, we discovered a second functional furin site located in the spike protein. Furin still increased the infectivity of mutated SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in 293T-ACE2 cells when the canonical polybasic cleavage site (682-686) was deleted. However, K814A mutation eliminated the enhancing effect of furin on virus infection. Furin inhibitor prevented infection by 682-686-deleted SARS-CoV-2 in 293T-ACE2-furin cells, but not the K814A mutant. K814A mutation did not affect the activity of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L but did impact the cleavage of S2 into S2' and cell-cell fusion. Additionally, we showed that this functional furin site exists in RaTG13 from bat and PCoV-GD/GX from pangolin. Therefore, we discovered a new functional furin site that is pivotal in promoting SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2021.2014284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8741242PMC
December 2022

Strong histamine torsion Raman spectrum enables direct, rapid, and ultrasensitive detection of allergic diseases.

iScience 2021 Nov 30;24(11):103384. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

National Laboratory of Solid States Microstructures and Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China.

Allergic diseases are closely related to degranulation and release of histamine and difficult to diagnose because non-allergic diseases also exhibit the same clinical symptoms as allergy. Here, we report direct, rapid, and ultrasensitive detection of histamine using low-frequency molecular torsion Raman spectroscopy. We show that the low-frequency (<200 cm) Raman spectral intensities are stronger by one order of magnitude than those of the high-frequency Raman ones. Density functional theory calculation and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy identify the strong spectral feature to be from torsions of carbon-carbon single bonds, which produce large variations of the polarizability densities in the imidazole ring and ethyl amino side chain. Using an omniphobic substrate and surface plasmonic effect of [email protected] nanoparticles, the detection limit (signal-noise ratio >3) of histamine reaches 10 g/L in water and 10 g/L in serum. This scheme thus opens new lines of inquiry regarding the clinical diagnosis of allergic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.103384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8605255PMC
November 2021

Vector optical field with the polarization varying along an arbitrary circular trajectory on the Poincaré sphere.

Opt Express 2021 Nov;29(24):39718-39728

As an inherent feature of vector optical field, the spatial distribution of polarization brings additional degrees of freedom to engineer the optical field and control the interaction between light and matters. Here we focus on the variation of polarization in single vector optical field, which can be defined by the trajectory on the Poincaré sphere. Based on the amplitude-phase-polarization joint modulation method we propose, vector optical field, whose variation of polarization follows arbitrary circular trajectory on the Poincaré sphere, can be generated. Moreover, the tightly focusing behaviors of the vector optical fields with the polarization varying along parallel circles on the Poincaré sphere are compared. Relations between the circular trajectory and the central intensity of the hollow focal field are concluded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.441809DOI Listing
November 2021

The distribution of microplastics in water, sediment, and fish of the Dafeng River, a remote river in China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Nov 19;228:113009. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Marine Environmental Monitoring Center of Guangxi, Beihai 536000, China. Electronic address:

Although rivers are one of the dominant pathways by which microplastics reach the oceans, reports on remote rivers are rare. Dafeng River is located in Guangxi Province, China, is an important water source and a habitat of a coastal dolphin, Sousa chinensis, which is a first-class national protected animal in China. In this study, we determined the distribution and characteristics of microplastics in the surface water, sediment, and fish of the river. During the dry and rainy seasons, the microplastics content of the surface water ranged from 3 × 10-2.5 × 10 items/L (7 × 10-0.12 items/m) and 4 × 10-9 × 10 items/L (2 × 10-2.8 × 10 items/m), while those in the sediment samples ranged from 9.4 to 50.3 items/kg (dry weight) and 0.0-21.3 items/kg, respectively. The pollution level during the dry season was approximately two to three times higher than that during the rainy season (P < 0.05). The estimated annual load of microplastics carried by the Dafeng River flow was 8.3 × 10 particles. The microplastics pollution in the Dafeng River was closely related with residential activities. The contents of microplastics in the digestive tracts and gills of fish ranged from 8 × 10 to 5.7 × 10 items/kg (0.3-6.7 items/individual) and 2 × 10 to 1.7 × 10 items/kg (0.1-3.0 items/individual), respectively. The proportion of blue particles in fish was significantly higher than that in the water and sediment, which may indicate that they prefer blue-colored items. The microplastics pollution levels in the water, sediment, and fish of the Dafeng River decreased in the following order: fish > sediment > surface water in terms of items/kg. The level of microplastics pollution in the Dafeng River was relatively low; however, that in aquatic organisms was more severe. Our work highlights the requirement for concern towards microplastics pollution in the organisms of remote rivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.113009DOI Listing
November 2021

Evaluation of Different Breast Cancer Screening Strategies for High-Risk Women in Beijing, China: A Real-World Population-Based Study.

Front Oncol 2021 4;11:776848. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Beijing Office for Cancer Prevention and Control, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China.

Background: Mammography-based breast cancer screening has been widely implemented in many developed countries. Evidence was needed on participation and diagnostic performance of population-based breast cancer screening using ultrasound in China.

Methods: We used data from the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China in Beijing from 2014 to 2019 and was followed up until July 2020 by matching with the Beijing Cancer Registry database. Eligible women between the ages of 45 and 69 years were recruited from six districts and assessed their risk of breast cancer through an established risk scoring system. Women evaluated to be at high risk of breast cancer were invited to undergo both ultrasound and mammography. Participation rates were calculated, and their associated factors were explored. In addition, the performance of five different breast cancer screening modalities was evaluated in this study.

Results: A total of 49,161 eligible women were recruited in this study. Among them, 15,550 women were assessed as high risk for breast cancer, and 7,500 women underwent ultrasound and/or mammography as recommended, with a participation rate of 48.2%. The sensitivity of mammography alone, ultrasound alone, combined of ultrasound and mammography, ultrasound for primary screening followed by mammography for triage, and mammography for preliminary screening followed by ultrasound for triage were19.2%, 38.5%, 50.0%, 46.2%, and 19.2%, and the specificity were 96.1%, 98.6%, 94.7%, 97.6%, 95.7%, respectively. The sensitivity of combined ultrasound and mammography, ultrasound for primary screening followed by mammography for triage, was significantly higher than mammography alone (p=0.008 and p=0.039). Additionally, ultrasound alone (48,323 RMB ($7,550)) and ultrasound for primary screening followed by mammography for triage (55,927 RMB ($8,739)) were the most cost-effective methods for breast cancer screening than other modalities.

Conclusions: Ultrasound alone and ultrasound for primary screening and mammography are superior to mammography for breast cancer screening in high-risk Chinese women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.776848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8600225PMC
November 2021

Prediction of the degree of pathological differentiation in tongue squamous cell carcinoma based on radiomics analysis of magnetic resonance images.

BMC Oral Health 2021 11 19;21(1):585. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Radiology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, China.

Background: Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is one of the most difficult malignancies to control. It displays particular and aggressive behaviour even at an early stage. The purpose of this paper is to explore the value of radiomics based on magnetic resonance fat-suppressed T2-weighted images in predicting the degree of pathological differentiation of TSCC.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of 127 patients with TSCC who were randomly divided into a primary cohort and a test cohort, including well-differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated. The tumour regions were manually labelled in fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging (FS-T2WI), and PyRadiomics was used to extract radiomics features. The radiomics features were then selected by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. The model was established by the logistic regression classifier using a 5-fold cross-validation method, applied to all data and evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

Results: In total, 1132 features were extracted, and seven features were selected for modelling. The AUC in the logistic regression model for well-differentiated TSCC was 0.90 with specificity and precision values of 0.92 and 0.78, respectively, and the sensitivity for poorly differentiated TSCC was 0.74.

Conclusions: The MRI-based radiomics signature could discriminate between well-differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated TSCC and might be used as a biomarker for preoperative grading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01947-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8603498PMC
November 2021

A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of soluble monosaccharides in Ginkgo biloba leaves.

J Sep Sci 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

CAS Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 189, Songling Road, Qingdao, Shandong, 266000, P. R. China.

A method for the simultaneous determination of six monosaccharides by pre-column derivatization with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone and capillary electrophoresis was developed in this work. The derivatization (i.e., reaction temperature, capillary electrophoresis duration, and extraction number) and separation (i.e., pH and buffer concentration) conditions for capillary electrophoresis were optimized. Results showed that the limits of detection under optimal conditions were in the range of 0.036-0.35 mg/L with a mean correlation coefficient >0.99. The recoveries were in the range of 87.3-108.49%, and the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day variations were in the ranges of 2.2-3.8 and 3.2-5.0%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of six free monosaccharides in three types of Ginkgo biloba leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100749DOI Listing
November 2021

Stumbling and Growing: A Bibliometric Study of Academic Publications of Palliative Care in Mainland China for 2010-2020.

J Palliat Care 2021 Nov 8:8258597211039056. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

34732Department of Geriatrics, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Mainland China is facing increasing demand for palliative care and has launched related policies after 2010. Research and publications are important for sustainable development of palliative care, and should be encouraged by policy. This study aimed to describe the development of palliative care-related publications in Mainland China in various aspects. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ovid MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for publications from Mainland China for 2010-2020, with the topic words "hospice," "palliative care," "end-of-life care," or "terminal care." The publishing year, region, impacts, journals, publication types, and topics were analyzed. A total of 3682 publications were identified, 754 of them (20.5%) published in Chinese core journals or international journals. The annual publication number and impact factor rose rapidly after 2016 and dropped again in 2020. There is no specialized palliative care journal in Mainland China. The publication numbers differed significantly between East and Western China and were closely linked to the economy (2 = 0.8120,  < .0001). The megacities Beijing and Shanghai comprised 2.6% of the total population of Mainland China but produced 22.6% of the publications. Palliative care in cancer patients was the most common topic (37.7% of the publications). Practical keywords such as "pain management" and "living will" gained popularity recently. Palliative care-related research and publication in Mainland China are growing in recent years. However, the early stage growth is unstable, with a conspicuous regional disparity. Policies should be designed, in an equitable manner, to encourage original research and publication of palliative care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/08258597211039056DOI Listing
November 2021

O-carboxymethyl chitosan based pH/hypoxia-responsive micelles relieve hypoxia and induce ROS in tumor microenvironment.

Carbohydr Polym 2022 Jan 26;275:118611. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

XuZhou Central Hospital, XuZhou Clinical College, Xuzhou Medical University, China; School of Stomatology, Xuzhou Medical University, China. Electronic address:

The hypoxia in tumor microenvironment (TME) can upregulate the HIF-1α and PD-L1 expression and cause immunosuppression of tumor. In this study, a carboxymethyl chitosan-based pH/hypoxia-responsive and γ-FeO/isosorbide dinitrate carrying micelle was designed, and it could catalyze endogenous HO to generate oxygen and relieve hypoxia in TME, so as to relieve the overexpression of HIF-1α and PD-L1 in tumor; meanwhile, it could react with HO to release ROS via Fenton reaction and induce cytotoxicity in tumor. Along with these multiple effects, this carboxymethyl chitosan-based micelles could provide a comprehensive strategy for tumor treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118611DOI Listing
January 2022

Single-Atom-like B-N Sites in Ordered Macroporous Carbon for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Nov 5;13(45):53892-53903. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, P. R. China.

On the premise of cleanliness and stability, improving the catalytic efficiency for the oxygen reduction reaction in the electrode reaction of fuel cells and metal-air batteries is of vital importance. Studies have shown that heteroatom doping and structural optimization are efficient strategies. Herein, a single-atom-like B-N configuration in carbon is designed for efficient oxygen reduction reaction catalysis inspired by the extensively studied transition metal M-N sites, which is supported on the ordered macroporous carbon prepared by utilizing a hydrogen-bonded organic framework as carbon and nitrogen sources and SiO spheres as a template. The co-doping of B/N and ordered macroporous structures promote the metal-free material high oxygen reduction catalytic performance in alkaline media. DFT calculations reveal that the B-N structure played a key role in enhancing the oxygen reduction activity by providing rich favorable *OOH and *OH adsorption sites on the B center. The promoted formation of *OH/*OOH intermediates accelerated the electrocatalyst reaction. This study provides new insights into the design of single-atom-like nonmetallic ORR electrocatalysts and synthesis of ordered macroporous carbons based on hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c15661DOI Listing
November 2021

Prognostic Factors Associated With Survival in Patients With Diffuse Astrocytoma.

Front Surg 2021 15;8:712350. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Neurology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China.

Diffuse astrocytoma (DA) is a rare disease with inadequately understood epidemiological characteristics and prognosis. Identification of the factors associated with the survival in DA patients is therefore necessary. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of DA to delineate factors influencing the survival of DA. A population-based cohort study was conducted, utilizing prospectively extracted data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Patients with histological diagnosis of DA in the SEER database from 1973 to 2017 were included. A total of 799 participants with DA were included, consisting of 95.9% fibrillary astrocytoma and 4.1% protoplasmic variants. The average age of participants was 41.9 years, with 57.2% being male. The majority of the population was white (87.5%). More than half (53.9%) of the patients were married. DA arose mostly in the cerebrum (63.8%). Around 71.6% of the population had received surgical treatment. The overall 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rate were 73.7, 55.2, 49.4, and 37.6%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that age at diagnosis, marital status, primary tumor site, tumor size, and surgery was possibly associated with cancer-specific survival (CSS) ( < 0.05). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis indicated that surgery was a protective factor whereas older age, larger tumor size, and tumor in the brainstem were harmful factors for patients with DA. Moreover, a nomogram predicting 5- and 10-year survival probability for DA was developed. Age, primary tumor site, tumor size, and surgery were associated with the survival of patients with DA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.712350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8554054PMC
October 2021

Fitbeat: COVID-19 estimation based on wristband heart rate using a contrastive convolutional auto-encoder.

Pattern Recognit 2022 Mar 26;123:108403. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

The RADAR-CNS Consortium, London, United Kingdom.

This study proposes a contrastive convolutional auto-encoder (contrastive CAE), a combined architecture of an auto-encoder and contrastive loss, to identify individuals with suspected COVID-19 infection using heart-rate data from participants with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the ongoing RADAR-CNS mHealth research project. Heart-rate data was remotely collected using a Fitbit wristband. COVID-19 infection was either confirmed through a positive swab test, or inferred through a self-reported set of recognised symptoms of the virus. The contrastive CAE outperforms a conventional convolutional neural network (CNN), a long short-term memory (LSTM) model, and a convolutional auto-encoder without contrastive loss (CAE). On a test set of 19 participants with MS with reported symptoms of COVID-19, each one paired with a participant with MS with no COVID-19 symptoms, the contrastive CAE achieves an unweighted average recall of , a sensitivity of and a specificity of , an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of 0.944, indicating a maximum successful detection of symptoms in the given heart rate measurement period, whilst at the same time keeping a low false alarm rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2021.108403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8547790PMC
March 2022

Does prior exposure to immune checkpoint inhibitors treatment affect incidence and mortality of COVID-19 among the cancer patients: The systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Dec 11;101(Pt A):108242. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Intensive care unit, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) treatment among cancer patients has been shown to have antiviral effects by reactivating exhausted T cells. However, they could also trigger inflammatory storm. Therefore, prior exposure to ICIs may influence the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection and subsequent mortality. Recent results from studies of ICIs treatment on incidence and mortality of COVID-19 are controversial.

Materials And Methods: We searched databases PubMed, Embase, ISI of Knowledge, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), as well as pre-print databases (MedRxiv and BioRxiv) for retrospective and prospective studies comparing ICIs versus other antitumor treatments in cancer patients in the area of COVID-19 pandemic. The primary outcome was the incidence of COVID-19. The secondary outcomes were mortality of COVID-19.

Results: Twenty-three studies with a total of 117,735 patients were selected. Compared with other antitumor treatments, prior exposure to ICIs had not an increased risk of incidence [Odds ratio (OR), 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-1.18; P = 0.32] and mortality (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.91-1.62; P = 0.18) of COVID-19 infectioin. Our subgroup and meta-regression analyses indicated that prior exposure to ICIs may reduce the incidence of COVID-19 in metastatic cancer patients.

Conclusions: There was no significant difference on incidence and mortality of COVID-19 between prior exposure to ICIs with other anti-tumor treatments. ICIs may reduce infection susceptibility of COVID-19 in metastatic cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8502698PMC
December 2021

Traffic-related air pollution associated pulmonary pathophysiologic changes and cardiac injury in elderly patients with COPD.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Feb 9;424(Pt B):127463. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Peking University School of Public Health, and Peking University Institute of Environmental Medicine, Beijing, China; Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has shown enormous environmental toxicity, but its cardiorespiratory health impact on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been less studied. We followed a panel of 45 COPD patients with 4 repeated clinical visits across 14 months in a traffic-predominated urban area of Beijing, China, with concurrent measurements of TRAP metrics (fine particulate matter, black carbon, oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide). Linear mixed-effect models were performed to evaluate the associations and potential pathways linking traffic pollution to indicators of spirometry, cardiac injury, inflammation and oxidative stress. We observed that interquartile range increases in moving averages of TRAP exposures at prior up to 7 days were associated with significant reductions in large and small airway functions, namely decreases in forced vital capacity of 3.1-9.3% and forced expiratory flow 25-75% of 5.9-16.4%. Higher TRAP levels were also associated with worsening of biomarkers relevant to lung injury (hepatocyte growth factor and surfactant protein D) and cardiac injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I, B-type natriuretic peptide and soluble ST2), as well as enhanced airway/systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Mediation analyses showed that TRAP exposures may prompt cardiac injury, possibly via worsening pulmonary pathophysiology. These findings highlight the importance of traffic pollution control priority in urban areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127463DOI Listing
February 2022
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