Publications by authors named "Shuo Lin"

274 Publications

Impact of Early Pregnancy Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Retrospective Study of 7,536 Cases.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to explore whether SCH in the first trimester contributed to the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A total of 8,777 pregnant women who first visited before 13 weeks and 6 days of gestation and accepted routine prenatal service at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University from January 2015 to September 2018 were recruited in this study. Thyroid functions (thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH], free T4, and thyroid peroxidase antibody [TPOAb]) were measured before 13 weeks and 6 days of gestation and data of 7,536 subjects with TSH ≥0.1 mIU/L were analyzed. A 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed between 24 and 28 gestational weeks. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied to evaluate the relationship between SCH and GDM. The prevalence of SCH in this population was 7.53%. After stratifying the relationship between SCH and GDM according to TSH concentrations (slightly elevated TSH: ≥2.5, <4.0 mIU/L; moderately elevated TSH: ≥4.0, <10.0 mIU/L) and TPOAb status, a moderately elevated TSH combined with positive TPOAb (23.9% vs. normal 13.0%, chi-square = 6.317,  = 0.012) was found to increase the incidence of GDM. Furthermore, after adjusting for confounders (maternal age, educational levels, parity, and pregestational body mass index [preBMI]), the SCH group still exhibited a higher risk of GDM (relative risk [RR] 1.867, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.018-3.424). Our findings indicated that SCH during early pregnancy, in the presence of moderately elevated TSH levels and positive TPOAb, might lead to an increased risk of GDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2020.8825DOI Listing
April 2021

Dietary Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) Among the Family Members of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Its Influence on the KAP of T2DM Patients.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 15;14:205-213. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

School of Nursing, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To investigate the dietary knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among the family members (FMs) of Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and its influence on the KAP of T2DM patients.

Patients And Methods: Two hundred thirty-six pairs of hospitalized T2DM patients and their FMs (472 in total) in our hospital were enrolled. A pair of self-designed questionnaires on dietary KAP (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.763, I-CVI ≥ 0.857, S-CVI = 0.964, 0.958) were used to collect data and assess the KAP towards diabetes diets.

Results: The mean score for dietary KAP of T2DM patients was 2.33 ± 0.60, 3.03 ± 0.44 and 2.77 ± 0.38, whereas that of their FMs was 2.37 ± 0.55, 3.08 ± 0.48 and 2.82 ± 0.61, respectively. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of T2DM patients was negatively correlated to their dietary practice ( = -0.218, < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between T2DM patients and their FMs for dietary KAP ( = 0.306, < 0.05). The dietary practice of T2DM patients was positively correlated with the dietary KAP of their FMs ( = 0.305, 0.252 and 0.136, respectively, < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the score for dietary knowledge and attitude, occupation, residence, family history, complications of the T2DM patient, and the sex and dietary knowledge score of the FM were significantly associated with dietary practice for T2DM patients.

Conclusion: The dietary attitude of FMs was moderate but dietary knowledge and practice were poor. Dietary KAP was positively correlated with T2DM patients and their FMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S290639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815068PMC
January 2021

Comparison of two regimens for patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy receiving intravenous methyl prednisolone: A single center prospective randomized trial.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Dec 6;20(6):153. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Endocrinology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630, P.R. China.

Intravenous (i.v.) glucocorticoid is recommended for active moderate-to-severe thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). However, the details of the treatment schedule are still debatable. The present prospective randomized trial was performed to compare clinical outcomes and serum cytokines between the two regimens. A cohort of 90 patients with active moderate-to-severe TAO was randomized to receive i.v. methyl prednisolone on a weekly protocol or daily scheme. The response rate was evaluated at the 12-week follow-up visit. Serum interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were measured in 160 patients with TAO, 60 patients with isolated Graves' disease (GD) and 60 normal control (NC) at baseline, as well as patients with active moderate-to-severe TAO at the 12 week after treatment. The daily scheme had a higher response rate than the weekly protocol without a significant difference (77.8 vs 63.6%, P>0.05). No major adverse events were recorded under either regimen. Overall, minor events were more common on the daily scheme (11.36 vs 4.35%, P<0.05)than on the weekly protocol, whereas the deterioration of eye symptoms (two patients) was only reported on the weekly protocol. At baseline, the IL-17 level in the TAO group was higher than that in the isolated GD and NC groups (P<0.05). In addition, the IL-17 level in the active TAO group was higher than that in the inactive TAO group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the IL-17 level had significantly decreased under the two regimens at the 12-week visit (P<0.05). In conclusion, for patients with active moderate-to-severe TAO, daily i.v. glucocorticoid therapy has a relative higher response rate than the weekly protocol with a few more minor adverse events. These two regimens have their own merits with regard to adverse effects. IL-17 has the potential to be a biomarker for evaluating TAO activity and treatment effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.9282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571371PMC
December 2020

Development and Validation of a Hypoglycemia Risk Model for Intensive Insulin Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

J Diabetes Res 2020 19;2020:7292108. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Nursing Department, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630, China.

Aims: To develop a simple hypoglycemic prediction model to evaluate the risk of hypoglycemia during hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with intensive insulin therapy.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional chart review study utilizing the electronic database of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, and included 257 patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing intensive insulin therapy in the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Logistic regression analysis was used to derive the clinical prediction rule with hypoglycemia (blood glucose ≤ 3.9 mmol/L) as the main result, and internal verification was performed.

Results: In the derivation cohort, the incidence of hypoglycemia was 51%. The final model selected included three variables: fasting insulin, fasting blood glucose, and total treatment time. The area under the curve (AUC) of this model was 0.666 (95% CI: 0.594-0.738, < 0.001).

Conclusions: The model's hypoglycemia prediction and the actual occurrence are in good agreement. The variable data was easy to obtain and the evaluation method was simple, which could provide a reference for the prevention and treatment of hypoglycemia and screen patients with a high risk of hypoglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7292108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7525304PMC
September 2020

Prediction of organic pollutant removal using Corynebacterium glutamicum fermentation waste.

Environ Res 2021 01 28;192:110271. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

School of Chemical Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-dearo, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, 54896, Chonbuk, South Korea. Electronic address:

The disposal of bio-waste (e.g., Corynebacterium glutamicum) produced by the fermentation industry is a serious problem and has a negative impact on economic returns. Some fermentation waste can be recycled as livestock feed, but much cannot be used. Therefore, other recycling methods must be developed to increase its applications, for example, as an environmentally friendly adsorbent for the removal or recovery of chemicals. To broaden its application as an adsorbent, we carried out comprehensive experimental and theoretical analysis. From the experiments, adsorption affinity values between C. glutamicum and micropollutants were measured, and, based on the experimental values, we developed a predictive model. The experimental results reveal that the degree of adsorption is dependent on the structural properties of the micropollutants. In particular, the adsorbent has remarkable adsorption ability toward cations, whereas anionic and neutral compounds interact weakly with the adsorbent. In addition, we found that adsorption is affected by the sodium chloride concentration. Briefly, an increase in salt concentration increases the adsorption of anions, whereas the opposite behavior is observed for cations. In contrast, the adsorption of neutral compounds was not affected by the presence of salt. The modeling studies revealed that a linear free energy relationship model can be used to predict the adsorption affinity. Based on the developed model, we found that hydrogen-bond basicity, anionic coulombic interactions, and molecular volume are the main contributing factors to the adsorption model. However, to achieve the best predictability (a coefficient of determination (R) of 0.902), additional parameters, such as the dipolarity/polarizability and dispersive interaction, should be included. This indicates that adsorption is a product of complex interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110271DOI Listing
January 2021

The neuromuscular junction is a focal point of mTORC1 signaling in sarcopenia.

Nat Commun 2020 09 9;11(1):4510. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

With human median lifespan extending into the 80s in many developed countries, the societal burden of age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) is increasing. mTORC1 promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but also drives organismal aging. Here, we address the question of whether mTORC1 activation or suppression is beneficial for skeletal muscle aging. We demonstrate that chronic mTORC1 inhibition with rapamycin is overwhelmingly, but not entirely, positive for aging mouse skeletal muscle, while genetic, muscle fiber-specific activation of mTORC1 is sufficient to induce molecular signatures of sarcopenia. Through integration of comprehensive physiological and extensive gene expression profiling in young and old mice, and following genetic activation or pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1, we establish the phenotypically-backed, mTORC1-focused, multi-muscle gene expression atlas, SarcoAtlas (https://sarcoatlas.scicore.unibas.ch/), as a user-friendly gene discovery tool. We uncover inter-muscle divergence in the primary drivers of sarcopenia and identify the neuromuscular junction as a focal point of mTORC1-driven muscle aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18140-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481251PMC
September 2020

Oviposition preference and adult performance of the whitefly predator Serangium japonicum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): effect of leaf microstructure associated with ladybeetle attachment ability.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jan 31;77(1):113-125. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Institute of Plant Protection, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou, China.

Background: The leaf surface microstructure can greatly influence predator feeding behavior. However, its effects on predator oviposition preference, which is crucial for arthropod fitness at the population level, are largely unknown. This study aimed to test leaf discs and plants of five common host plant species of Bemisia tabaci, including Chinese kale, cotton, cucumber, eggplant, and sweetpotato, to determine the oviposition preference and offspring and adult performance of the whitefly predator Serangium japonicum. Cannibalism risk, attachment force, microstructure of the abaxial leaf surface (ALS), and ladybeetle tarsal morphology were examined.

Results: Ladybeetle's oviposition preference had no correlation with offspring performance but positively correlated with fecundity. Further, oviposition preference to leaf discs and fecundity positively correlated with attachment force. The cannibalism risk was not significantly different between plant species. The ALS of Chinese kale and eggplant supported the smallest and the largest attachment forces, respectively. The first one had epicuticular wax crystals, whereas the latter had stellate trichomes. The ALS of cotton and sweetpotato did not bear wax crystals or long trichomes. Cucumber leaves were covered with tapered trichomes. Tenant setae on the distal second tarsomere and a pair of curved, tapered claws on the distal fourth tarsomere were the attachment structures of S. japonicum, which interacted with the plant surface structures and generated the attachment force.

Conclusion: Plant morphological traits, associated with ladybeetle attachment force and adult performance might be key factors in ladybeetle oviposition preference, and are expected to occur in other host plant herbivore-predator systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6042DOI Listing
January 2021

Recovery of gold via adsorption-incineration techniques using banana peel and its derivatives: Selectivity and mechanisms.

Waste Manag 2020 Jul 11;113:225-235. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In this study, banana peel (BP) and its derivatives after sequential extraction of biochemical components were evaluated for selective recovery of gold. In-depth instrumental characterizations including XPS, FTIR, XRD and HR-TEM were performed to understand the adsorption mechanisms. The biomass after lipid extraction, BP-L, demonstrated very good affinity and selectivity towards gold. In multi-metal systems containing 100 mg/L of Pt(IV), Au(III), Pd(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Li(I), the selectivity coefficient increased from 978.45 in BP to 2034.70 in BP-L. Moreover, the equilibrium gold uptake was improved and reached 475.48 ± 3.08 mg/g owing to reduction-coupled adsorption mechanisms. The BP-L also showed improved gold nanoparticle formation properties that were pH-dependent. In a strategic adsorption-combined incineration process, metallic gold reaching 99.96% in purity was obtained. The BP and its derivative, BP-L have thus shown potentials for multiple applications in the areas of precious metal recovery and nanoscience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2020.05.053DOI Listing
July 2020

Phosphate sequestration by magnetic La-impregnated bentonite granules: A combined experimental and DFT study.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Oct 23;738:139636. Epub 2020 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, PR China.

To use the lanthanum hydroxide (La(OH)) as a low-cost, highly-efficient, and recyclable adsorbent, it could be embedded on a magnetic substance to improve its physical features and lower the overall cost. Herein, novel millimetric-size magnetic lanthanum-modified bentonite (La-MB) granules were fabricated for P sequestration, and the adsorption performance and mechanisms were systematic studied. The maximum capacity of P uptake by La-MB was up to 48.4 mg/g, which was higher than many previous reported La-based adsorbents. Moreover, the enhanced uptake of P was achieved over a wide pH range (3-9) and in the coexistence of common anions (Cl, NO, and SO). Besides, the exhausted La-MB can be effectively regenerated by 5 mol/L NaOH with about 94.5% desorption efficiency and 60.8% uptake capacity remained during 5 cycles. The La-MB also exhibited excellent performance of anti-interference in two kinds of real wastewaters. The postsorption characterization and DFT calculations revealed that the electrostatic interaction and chemical precipitation jointly facilitated phosphate sequestration by La-MB during the rapid sorption phase, while ligand exchange and complexation reaction played more important roles than others during the slow sorption step. The electrostatic interaction not only effectively promoted the ligand exchange, and also further accelerated chemical precipitation via the formation of LaPO during the whole process of phosphate uptake. Overall, millimetric La-MB is considered to have great potential for engineering application, and this work also provides new insights into the molecular-level mechanism of phosphate sequestration by La-MB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139636DOI Listing
October 2020

MiR-101-containing extracellular vesicles bind to BRD4 and enhance proliferation and migration of trophoblasts in preeclampsia.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2020 06 11;11(1):231. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 600, Tianhe Road, Guangzhou, 516000, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a frequently occurring pregnancy disorder in the placenta, which results in various maternal and fetal complications. The current study aims to evaluate the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs)-encapsulated microRNA (miR)-101 in biological processes of trophoblasts in PE and its underlying mechanism.

Methods: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (HUCMSC) and HUCMSC-derived EVs were isolated and cultured, after which EV characterization was carried out using PKH67 staining. In silico analyses were adopted to predict the downstream target genes of miR-101, and dual luciferase reporter gene assay was applied to validate the binding affinity. Furthermore, loss- and gain-of-function approaches were adopted to determine the role of miR-101 and bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) in trophoblast proliferation and invasion using EDU staining and transwell assay. In addition, a rat model of PE was established to verify the function of EV-encapsulated miR-101 in vivo.

Results: Placental tissues obtained from PE patients presented with downregulated miR-101 expression and upregulated BRD4 and CXCL11 expression. EV-encapsulated miR-101 from HUCMSCs could be delivered into the trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells, thus enhancing proliferation and migration of trophoblasts. Mechanically, miR-101 targeted and negatively regulated BRD4 expression. BRD4 knockdown promoted the proliferation and migration of trophoblasts by suppressing NF-κB/CXCL11 axis. EV-encapsulated miR-101 from HUCMSCs also reduced blood pressure and 24 h urine protein in vivo, thereby ameliorating PE.

Conclusion: In summary, EV-encapsulated miR-101 promoted proliferation and migration of placental trophoblasts through the inhibition of BRD4 expression via NF-κB/CXCL11 inactivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01720-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291671PMC
June 2020

Effect of Treatment With 3-Octylthio-1,1,1-Trifluoropropan-2-One in the Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to the Toxicity of Diafenthiuron, Indoxacarb, and Bacillus thuringiensis.

J Econ Entomol 2020 06;113(3):1419-1425

College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a worldwide insect pest of cruciferous crops. Although insecticides have long been used for its control, diamondback moth rapidly evolves resistance to almost any insecticide. In insects, juvenile hormone (JH) is critically involved in almost all biological processes. The correct activity of JH depends on the precise regulation of its titer, and juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) is the key regulator. Thus, JH and JHE have become important targets for new insecticide development. Trifluoromethyl ketones are specific JHE inhibitors, among which 3-octylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one (OTFP) has the highest activity. The interaction effects between pretreatment with or combination of OTFP and the insecticides diafenthiuron, indoxacarb, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were investigated in diamondback moth larvae to determine OTFP's potential as an insecticide synergist. In third-instar larvae, both pretreatment and combination treatment with OTFP decreased or antagonized the toxicities of diafenthiuron, indoxacarb, and Bt at all set concentrations. In fourth-instar larvae, combination treatment with OTFP decreased or antagonized the toxicities of diafenthiuron and indoxacarb at all set concentrations. However, it increased or synergized the toxicity of Bt at lower concentrations despite the limited effect at higher concentrations. Our results indicated that the effect of OTFP on the toxicities of insecticides varied with the type and concentration, larval stage, and treatment method. These findings contribute to the better use of OTFP in diamondback moth control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa041DOI Listing
June 2020

Mice carrying an analogous heterozygous dynamin 2 K562E mutation that causes neuropathy in humans develop predominant characteristics of a primary myopathy.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 05;29(8):1253-1273

Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Health Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.

Some mutations affecting dynamin 2 (DNM2) can cause dominantly inherited Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy. Here, we describe the analysis of mice carrying the DNM2 K562E mutation which has been associated with dominant-intermediate CMT type B (CMTDIB). Contrary to our expectations, heterozygous DNM2 K562E mutant mice did not develop definitive signs of an axonal or demyelinating neuropathy. Rather, we found a primary myopathy-like phenotype in these mice. A likely interpretation of these results is that the lack of a neuropathy in this mouse model has allowed the unmasking of a primary myopathy due to the DNM2 K562E mutation which might be overshadowed by the neuropathy in humans. Consequently, we hypothesize that a primary myopathy may also contribute to the disease mechanism in some CMTDIB patients. We propose that these findings should be considered in the evaluation of patients, the determination of the underlying disease processes and the development of tailored potential treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddaa034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254847PMC
May 2020

The nuclear gene rpl18 regulates erythroid maturation via JAK2-STAT3 signaling in zebrafish model of Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

Cell Death Dis 2020 02 19;11(2):135. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Oncogenomics, Key Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare, inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, characterized by red blood cell aplasia, developmental abnormalities, and enhanced risk of malignancy. However, the underlying pathogenesis of DBA is yet to be understood. Recently, mutations in the gene encoding ribosomal protein (RP) L18 were identified in DBA patients. RPL18 is a crucial component of the ribosomal large subunit but its role in hematopoiesis remains unknown. To genetically model the ribosomal defect identified in DBA, we generated a rpl18 mutant line in zebrafish, using CRISPR/Cas9 system. Molecular characterization of this mutant line demonstrated that Rpl18 deficiency mirrored the erythroid defects of DBA, namely a lack of mature red blood cells. Rpl18 deficiency caused an increase in p53 activation and JAK2-STAT3 activity. Furthermore, we found inhibitors of JAK2 or STAT3 phosphorylation could rescue anemia in rpl18 mutants. Our research provides a new in vivo model of Rpl18 deficiency and suggests involvement of signal pathway of JAK2-STAT3 in the DBA pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2331-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031319PMC
February 2020

Simultaneous scavenging of persistent pharmaceuticals with different charges by activated carbon fiber from aqueous environments.

Chemosphere 2020 May 14;247:125909. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Environmental Biotechnology National Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Beakje-dearo, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do, 54896, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The adsorptive removal possibility of persistent pharmaceuticals with different charges by activated carbon fiber (ACF) was examined. The pharmaceuticals tested included carbamazepine (CBZ), propranolol (PRO), and diclofenac (DCF), in neutral, cationic, and anionic forms, respectively, which were frequently detected in sewage. The adsorption characteristics of ACF were identified according to the kinetics, isotherm, pH, and ionic strength experiments. The results revealed that ACF can effectively remove these pharmaceuticals, and the adsorption capacities of CBZ, PRO, and DCF by ACF were 1.27 ± 0.06, 1.07 ± 0.08, and 0.95 ± 0.08 mmol g, respectively. Moreover, the adsorption of ACF for CBZ was independent of pH and ionic strength, whereas that of anionic diclofenac decreased at alkaline pHs and high concentrations of NaCl. Using a syringe system packed with ACF mat, the scavenging ability of intermittently generated secondary sewage was evaluated. As a result, the residual concentration of PRO and CBZ could not be even detected after consecutive 10 runs in secondary sewage mixture solution. This indicates ACF has the powerful potential for removing pharmaceutical micropollutants in the actual aqueous solutions. FTIR and XPS analyses showed that hydrophobic and π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding contributed to the adsorption process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.125909DOI Listing
May 2020

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated precise genome modification by a long ssDNA template in zebrafish.

BMC Genomics 2020 Jan 21;21(1):67. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, School of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Background: Gene targeting by homology-directed repair (HDR) can precisely edit the genome and is a versatile tool for biomedical research. However, the efficiency of HDR-based modification is still low in many model organisms including zebrafish. Recently, long single-stranded DNA (lssDNA) molecules have been developed as efficient alternative donor templates to mediate HDR for the generation of conditional mouse alleles. Here we report a method, zLOST (zebrafish long single-stranded DNA template), which utilises HDR with a long single-stranded DNA template to produce more efficient and precise mutations in zebrafish.

Results: The efficiency of knock-ins was assessed by phenotypic rescue at the tyrosinase (tyr) locus and confirmed by sequencing. zLOST was found to be a successful optimised rescue strategy: using zLOST containing a tyr repair site, we restored pigmentation in at least one melanocyte in close to 98% of albino tyr embryos, although more than half of the larvae had only a small number of pigmented cells. Sequence analysis showed that there was precise HDR dependent repair of the tyr locus in these rescued pigmented embryos. Furthermore, quantification of zLOST knock-in efficiency at the rps14, nop56 and th loci by next generation sequencing demonstrated that zLOST showed a clear improvement. We utilised the HDR efficiency of zLOST to precisely model specific human disease mutations in zebrafish with ease. Finally, we determined that this method can achieve a germline transmission rate of up to 31.8%.

Conclusions: In summary, these results show that zLOST is a useful method of zebrafish genome editing, particularly for generating desired mutations by targeted DNA knock-in through HDR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6493-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974980PMC
January 2020

Adsorptive removal of cationic tricyclic antidepressants using cation-exchange resin.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 10;27(20):24760-24771. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Environmental Biotechnology National Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering Chonbuk National University, Beakje-dearo 567, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, 54896, Republic of Korea.

This study aimed to select a high-performance cation-exchange resin (CER) and estimate its uptake of positively ionized tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), i.e., amitriptyline (AMI), imipramine (IMI), clomipramine (CLO), and desipramine (DES), which are frequently used, and detected in wastewater treatment systems. For the selection of the resin, the one-point check test of AMI in distilled water was examined using several CERs. As a result, the strong-acid polystyrene CER, Dowex 50WX4-200, was selected on the basis of its outstanding uptake of AMI. The maximum adsorption capacities of Dowex 50WX4-200 for removal of the TCAs ranged from 2.53 ± 0.20 mmol/g to 3.76 ± 0.12 mmol/g, which are significantly higher when compared with those of previously reported adsorbents. This is likely because the combination of electrostatic and π-π interactions between the TCAs and Dowex 50WX4-200 may lead to high uptakes of the TCAs. Additionally, the removal efficiency of DES as a representative of the TCAs was tested in actual wastewater system containing activated sludge and miscellaneous cations. Consequently, the removal efficiencies of the DES in distilled water, aerobic wastewater, and filtered wastewater were 95.68%, 77.99%, and 56.66%, respectively. It is interesting to note that the activated sludge could also contribute to adsorption of the DES, leading to increased removability, while the cations present in the wastewater acted as competing ions, decreasing the removal efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06549-1DOI Listing
July 2020

Ion-imprinted chitosan fiber for recovery of Pd(II): Obtaining high selectivity through selective adsorption and two-step desorption.

Environ Res 2020 03 4;182:108995. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk, 54896, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Selective separation of platinum group metals from acidic solutions is of great importance due to their cumulative supply risk and environmental concern. In this study, a Pd(II) ion-imprinted chitosan fiber (ICF) was prepared as the novel adsorbent, and a well-designed two-step desorption process was implemented for selectively recovering Pd(II) from acidic solution containing Pd(II) and interfering metals of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pt (IV). The ICF showed higher selectivity for Pd(II) adsorption, comparing the non-imprinted chitosan fiber (NICF) towards other metals adsorption. The first selective desorption was achieved by NaOH solution, since only Pt (IV) adsorbed on the ICF in a small amount could be eluted, without any acting on Pd(II) ions. The second desorption process was carried out using acidified thiourea solution for the exclusive Pd(II) ions desorption. Therefore, much higher selective recovery of Pd(II) was achieved through ICF with a good selective adsorption performance and a well-designed desorption process. Furthermore, the mechanisms of selective adsorption and desorption were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Finally, ICF-packed column system was conducted using synthetic multiple metals solution and a practical hydrometallurgy wastewater as influent, respectively, with a good adsorption capacity of 87.2 mg g and 94.2 mg g, resulting quite high concentrated effluent consisted of 97.4% of Pd(II) and 99.5% of Pd(II), respectively. It was opened up a promising designed material and technique for selectively recovering Pd(II) in the further practical large-scale application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108995DOI Listing
March 2020

Evaluation of orange peel-derived activated carbons for treatment of dye-contaminated wastewater tailings.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jan 9;27(1):1053-1068. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 561-756, Republic of Korea.

Dyes are colored compounds which are visible even at trace concentrations. Due to their recalcitrance and esthetic persistence, certain methods are unable to effectively eliminate them. So far, adsorptive treatment using activated carbons (ACs) is one of the most successful methods. In this study, we have employed orange peel (OP) as a cost-effective alternative to the expensive coal- and coir-based precursors to synthesize ACs for cationic methylene blue (MB) and anionic methyl orange (MO) dye adsorption. The pre-carbonized OP was activated via HSO, NaOH, KOH, ZnCl, and HPO to study the effects of activation reagents on dye removal efficiencies and mechanisms. Among several isotherm models employed to fit the adsorption data, the Langmuir and Sips models sufficiently estimated the maximum equilibrium uptakes close to the experimental values of 1012.10 ± 29.13, 339.82 ± 6.98, and 382.15 ± 8.62 mg/g, for ZnCl-AC (MO), ZnCl-AC (MB), and KOH-AC (MB), respectively. The adsorption mechanisms were suggested to involve electrostatic binding, pi-pi interactions, hydrogen bonding, and electron donor-acceptor reactions. Consequently, more than 99% removal efficiency was achieved from a laboratory organic wastewater sample bearing ~ 35 mg/L of MB. The results thus suggest that the synthesized ACs from agricultural waste have the tendencies to be applied to real dye wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07031-8DOI Listing
January 2020

mTORC2 affects the maintenance of the muscle stem cell pool.

Skelet Muscle 2019 12 2;9(1):30. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), containing the essential protein rictor, regulates cellular metabolism and cytoskeletal organization by phosphorylating protein kinases, such as PKB/Akt, PKC, and SGK. Inactivation of mTORC2 signaling in adult skeletal muscle affects its metabolism, but not muscle morphology and function. However, the role of mTORC2 in adult muscle stem cells (MuSCs) has not been investigated.

Method: Using histological, biochemical, and molecular biological methods, we characterized the muscle phenotype of mice depleted for rictor in the Myf5-lineage (RImyfKO) and of mice depleted for rictor in skeletal muscle fibers (RImKO). The proliferative and myogenic potential of MuSCs was analyzed upon cardiotoxin-induced injury in vivo and in isolated myofibers in vitro.

Results: Skeletal muscle of young and 14-month-old RImyfKO mice appeared normal in composition and function. MuSCs from young RImyfKO mice exhibited a similar capacity to proliferate, differentiate, and fuse as controls. In contrast, the number of MuSCs was lower in young RImyfKO mice than in controls after two consecutive rounds of cardiotoxin-induced muscle regeneration. Similarly, the number of MuSCs in RImyfKO mice decreased with age, which correlated with a decline in the regenerative capacity of mutant muscle. Interestingly, reduction in the number of MuSCs was also observed in 14-month-old RImKO muscle.

Conclusions: Our study shows that mTORC2 signaling is dispensable for myofiber formation, but contributes to the homeostasis of MuSCs. Loss of mTORC2 does not affect their myogenic function, but impairs the replenishment of MuSCs after repeated injuries and their maintenance during aging. These results point to an important role of mTORC2 signaling in MuSC for muscle homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13395-019-0217-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6886171PMC
December 2019

Highly efficient and acid-resistant metal-organic frameworks of MIL-101(Cr)-NH for Pd(II) and Pt(IV) recovery from acidic solutions: Adsorption experiments, spectroscopic analyses, and theoretical computations.

J Hazard Mater 2020 04 13;387:121689. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk 54896, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Cr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of MIL-101(Cr)-NH was post-synthesized from nitro-functionalized MIL-101(Cr) (MIL-101(Cr)-NO) through a reduction process. Adsorption behaviors and interactions of MIL-101(Cr)-NH and MIL-101(Cr)-NO with platinum group metal (PGM) anions of Pd(II) (PdCl) and Pt(IV) (PtCl), were investigated through batch adsorption experiments, spectroscopic analyses, and theoretical computations. According to adsorption kinetics and isotherms, the uptakes of Pd(II) and Pt(IV) by in MIL-101(Cr)-NH were found to be much higher than their uptakes by MIL-101(Cr)-NO. The abundant protonated amine groups (BDC-NH) in MIL-101(Cr)-NH were verified to be the main adsorptive binding sites by XPS and FTIR spectroscopy, and FE-SEM imageries. Additionally, BDC-NH shows extremely high affinities (b value) and binding energies (E) for PdCl and PtCl through electrostatic attraction, resulting in much higher adsorption capacities of MIL-101(Cr)-NH for these PGMs as compared to those of MIL-101(Cr)-NO. Moreover, the MOFs' Cr nodes without terminal -OH indicated positive electrostatic potentials, and certain values of E for PGM anions. Thus, the few-amount cationic Cr sites could also make little contributions to the adsorption of PGM anions in MIL-101(Cr)-NH or MIL-101(Cr)-NO. Furthermore, the perfect regeneration and reusability of MIL-101(Cr)-NH over five of adsorption-desorption cycles, suggesting its potential in practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121689DOI Listing
April 2020

mTORC1 signalling is not essential for the maintenance of muscle mass and function in adult sedentary mice.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2020 02 7;11(1):259-273. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: The balance between protein synthesis and degradation (proteostasis) is a determining factor for muscle size and function. Signalling via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates proteostasis in skeletal muscle by affecting protein synthesis and autophagosomal protein degradation. Indeed, genetic inactivation of mTORC1 in developing and growing muscle causes atrophy resulting in a lethal myopathy. However, systemic dampening of mTORC1 signalling by its allosteric inhibitor rapamycin is beneficial at the organismal level and increases lifespan. Whether the beneficial effect of rapamycin comes at the expense of muscle mass and function is yet to be established.

Methods: We conditionally ablated the gene coding for the mTORC1-essential component raptor in muscle fibres of adult mice [inducible raptor muscle-specific knockout (iRAmKO)]. We performed detailed phenotypic and biochemical analyses of iRAmKO mice and compared them with muscle-specific raptor knockout (RAmKO) mice, which lack raptor in developing muscle fibres. We also used polysome profiling and proteomics to assess protein translation and associated signalling in skeletal muscle of iRAmKO mice.

Results: Analysis at different time points reveal that, as in RAmKO mice, the proportion of oxidative fibres decreases, but slow-type fibres increase in iRAmKO mice. Nevertheless, no significant decrease in body and muscle mass or muscle fibre area was detected up to 5 months post-raptor depletion. Similarly, ex vivo muscle force was not significantly reduced in iRAmKO mice. Despite stable muscle size and function, inducible raptor depletion significantly reduced the expression of key components of the translation machinery and overall translation rates.

Conclusions: Raptor depletion and hence complete inhibition of mTORC1 signalling in fully grown muscle leads to metabolic and morphological changes without inducing muscle atrophy even after 5 months. Together, our data indicate that maintenance of muscle size does not require mTORC1 signalling, suggesting that rapamycin treatment is unlikely to negatively affect muscle mass and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7015237PMC
February 2020

Loss of in Zebrafish Leads to -Dependent Anemia.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 12 3;9(12):4149-4157. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Oncogenomics, Key Laboratory of Chemical Genomics, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, 518055, China and

Ribosome is a vital molecular machine for protein translation in the cell. Defects in several ribosomal proteins including RPS19, RPL11 and RPS14 have been observed in two types of anemia: Diamond Blackfan Anemia and 5q- syndrome. In zebrafish, deficiency of these ribosomal proteins shows similar anemic phenotype. It remains to be determined if any other ribosome proteins are similarly involved in regulating erythropoiesis. Here we generated mutations in zebrafish , a rarely studied ribosomal protein gene, and investigated its function. Analysis of this mutant demonstrates that disruption leads to impairment of erythrocyte maturation, resulting in anemia. In addition, the overall phenotype including the anemic state is -dependent in mutants. Furthermore, this anemic state can be partially relieved by the treatment of L-leucine, and dexamethasone, which have been previously used in rescuing the phenotype of other ribosomal protein mutants. Finally, by comparing the phenotype, we show that there are considerable differences in morphology, cytomorphology, and hemoglobin levels for four ribosomal protein mutants in zebrafish. Based on the observed difference, we suggest that the level of anemic severity correlates with the delayed status of erythrocyte maturation in zebrafish models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.119.400585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893189PMC
December 2019

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes protect against myocardial infarction by promoting autophagy.

Exp Ther Med 2019 Oct 9;18(4):2574-2582. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Department of Cardiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630, P.R. China.

Exosomes have been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of a variety of cardiac disorders. However, the effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) exosomes on myocardial infarction is yet to be determined. The current study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of MSC exosomes on myocardial injuries that are caused by myocardial infarction. MSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and were used for exosome enrichment using culture medium. Confirmation that MSCs and exosomes had been successfully extracted was performed using flow cytometry, electron microscopy and western blot analysis. A rat myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Rat myocardial injuries were determined using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, Masson and TUNEL staining. H9c2 cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration were analyzed using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine, Hoechst staining, flow cytometry and Transwell assays. Marker gene expression was evaluated using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Rat MSC exosomes were revealed to suppress myocardial injury and the myocardiocyte functions that were induced by I/R. The results also demonstrated decreased apoptotic protease activating factor-1 and increased autophagy-related protein 13 expression. The H9c2 cell proliferation and migration inhibition, as well as cell apoptosis during hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R), were suppressed by rat MSC exosomes, with an alteration of the expression of apoptotic and autophagic genes also being demonstrated. The application of autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine significantly mitigated the effect of exosomes on H9c2 cell proliferation and apoptosis, which were induced by H/R. Rat MSC exosomes inhibited myocardial infarction pathogenesis, possibly by regulating autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2019.7874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6755377PMC
October 2019

MMP9 inhibition increases erythropoiesis in RPS14-deficient del(5q) MDS models through suppression of TGF-β pathways.

Blood Adv 2019 09;3(18):2751-2763

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

The del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a distinct subtype of MDS, associated with deletion of the ribosomal protein S14 () gene that results in macrocytic anemia. This study sought to identify novel targets for the treatment of patients with del(5q) MDS by performing an in vivo drug screen using an rps14-deficient zebrafish model. From this, we identified the secreted gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). MMP9 inhibitors significantly improved the erythroid defect in rps14-deficient zebrafish. Similarly, treatment with MMP9 inhibitors increased the number of colony forming unit-erythroid colonies and the CD71 erythroid population from RPS14 knockdown human BMCD34 cells. Importantly, we found that MMP9 expression is upregulated in RPS14-deficient cells by monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. Double knockdown of MMP9 and RPS14 increased the CD71 population compared with RPS14 single knockdown, suggesting that increased expression of MMP9 contributes to the erythroid defect observed in RPS14-deficient cells. In addition, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling is activated in RPS14 knockdown cells, and treatment with SB431542, a TGF-β inhibitor, improved the defective erythroid development of RPS14-deficient models. We found that recombinant MMP9 treatment decreases the CD71 population through increased SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, suggesting that MMP9 directly activates TGF-β signaling in RPS14-deficient cells. Finally, we confirmed that MMP9 inhibitors reduce SMAD2/3 phosphorylation in RPS14-deficient cells to rescue the erythroid defect. In summary, these study results support a novel role for MMP9 in the pathogenesis of del(5q) MDS and the potential for the clinical use of MMP9 inhibitors in the treatment of patients with del(5q) MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6759738PMC
September 2019

Long noncoding RNA-MEG3 contributes to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury through suppression of miR-7-5p expression.

Biosci Rep 2019 08 19;39(8). Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Cardiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630, China

Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) plays an important role in protection of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in brain and liver. However, role of MEG3 in myocardial I/R injury remains unclear. Here, the role of MEG3 in protection of myocardial I/R injury and its association with microRNA-7-5p (miR-7-5p) was investigated using rat cardiac I/R model and myocardial I/R cell model. Our results showed that MEG3 was significantly up-regulated and miR-7-5p was significantly down-regulated after I/R. Following I/R, the levels of intact PARP and intact caspase-3 were reduced, while the cleaved fragments of PARP and caspase-3 were increased. TUNEL assay showed an increase in cardiomyocyte apoptosis after I/R. The levels of I/R-induced creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were inhibited by knockdown of MEG3 (siMEG3). SiMEG3 increased cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis after I/R. In contrast, overexpression of MEG3 increased the I/R-induced CK and LDH activities and cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation. The dual-luciferase reporter system showed a direct binding of MEG3 to miR-7-5p. The level of miR-7-5p was negatively associated with the change in levels of MEG3 in H9c2 cells. The levels of intact RARP1 and caspase-3 were significantly increased by knockdown of MEG3. Co-transfection of miR-7-5p inhibitor with siMEG3 activates CK and LDH, significantly decreased cell proliferation, increased cell apoptosis, and decreased intact poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and caspase-3. In summary, down-regulation of MEG3 protects myocardial cells against I/R-induced apoptosis through miR-7-5p/PARP1 pathway, which might provide a new therapeutic target for treatment of myocardial I/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20190210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6702358PMC
August 2019

mTORC1 and PKB/Akt control the muscle response to denervation by regulating autophagy and HDAC4.

Nat Commun 2019 07 18;10(1):3187. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50/70, CH-4056, Basel, Switzerland.

Loss of innervation of skeletal muscle is a determinant event in several muscle diseases. Although several effectors have been identified, the pathways controlling the integrated muscle response to denervation remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PKB/Akt and mTORC1 play important roles in regulating muscle homeostasis and maintaining neuromuscular endplates after nerve injury. To allow dynamic changes in autophagy, mTORC1 activation must be tightly balanced following denervation. Acutely activating or inhibiting mTORC1 impairs autophagy regulation and alters homeostasis in denervated muscle. Importantly, PKB/Akt inhibition, conferred by sustained mTORC1 activation, abrogates denervation-induced synaptic remodeling and causes neuromuscular endplate degeneration. We establish that PKB/Akt activation promotes the nuclear import of HDAC4 and is thereby required for epigenetic changes and synaptic gene up-regulation upon denervation. Hence, our study unveils yet-unknown functions of PKB/Akt-mTORC1 signaling in the muscle response to nerve injury, with important implications for neuromuscular integrity in various pathological conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11227-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6639401PMC
July 2019

Distribution of Pheromone Biosynthesis-Activating Neuropeptide in the Central Nervous System of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

J Econ Entomol 2019 12;112(6):2638-2648

Fujian Key Laboratory for Monitoring and Integrated Management of Crop Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou, China.

Insect neuropeptides in the pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) family are actively involved in many essential endocrinal functions and serve as potential targets in the search for novel insect control agents. Here, we dissect the nervous system of larval, pupal, and adult Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and describe the ganglion morphology and localization of PBAN during different insect developmental stages. Our results show that the central nervous system (CNS) of this species consists of four types of ganglia: cerebral ganglia (brain), subesophageal ganglion (SEG), thoracic ganglia, and abdominal ganglia. A two-lobed brain is connected to the reniform SEG with a nerve cord in larvae and prepupae, whereas in the late pupae and adults, the brain and SEG are fused, forming a brain-SEG complex. The larvae and prepupae have eight abdominal ganglia each, whereas the late pupae and adults each have four abdominal ganglia. Furthermore, all life stages of P. xylostella had similar patterns of PBAN immunoreactivity in the CNS, and the accumulation of PBAN was similar during all life stages except in adult males. PBAN immunoreactive signals were observed in the brain and SEG, and fluorescence signals originating in the SEG extended the entire length of the ventral nerve cord, ending in the terminal abdominal ganglia. Our results provide morphological data that inform the development and evolution of the CNS. In addition, they indicate that the nervous system contains PBAN, which could be used to control P. xylostella populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toz192DOI Listing
December 2019

Utility of MELD scoring system for assessing the prognosis of acute fatty liver of pregnancy.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2019 Sep 29;240:161-166. Epub 2019 Jun 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the value of Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) in assessing the prognosis of acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP).

Study Design: This was a retrospective study. From January 2010 to July 2018, data of 53 women diagnosed with AFLP in the third affiliated hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University were collected. Blood samples were collected on admission and MELD score was calculated. The MELD score was calculated by using the original MELD formula as shown: 9.57 log (creatinine) + 3.78 log (bilirubin) + 11.20 log (international normalized ratio, INR) + 6.43. The perinatal outcomes were documented.

Results: Nine women were excluded as they were transfered to our hospital after delivery in other hospitals. The remaining 44 women had average age of 28.8 ± 5.2 years. The MELD score showed good performance in predicting most of the perinatal complications of AFLP with all the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) > 0.8, including ascites (AUC: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.78-0.98), wound seroma (AUC: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.78-0.93), hepatic encephalopathy (AUC: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.82-0.99), DIC (AUC: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.74-0.95), sepsis (AUC: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.82-0.99), renal insufficiency (AUC: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.82-0.99) and stillbirth (AUC: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.71-0.94). Nearly all the maternal complications were more frequently happened in MELD score ≥30 group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: MELD scoring system may be a suitable method for assessing the prognosis of AFLP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2019.06.030DOI Listing
September 2019

Rescue of spinal muscular atrophy mouse models with AAV9-Exon-specific U1 snRNA.

Nucleic Acids Res 2019 08;47(14):7618-7632

Human Molecular Genetics, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, 34149 Trieste, Italy.

Spinal Muscular Atrophy results from loss-of-function mutations in SMN1 but correcting aberrant splicing of SMN2 offers hope of a cure. However, current splice therapy requires repeated infusions and is expensive. We previously rescued SMA mice by promoting the inclusion of a defective exon in SMN2 with germline expression of Exon-Specific U1 snRNAs (ExspeU1). Here we tested viral delivery of SMN2 ExspeU1s encoded by adeno-associated virus AAV9. Strikingly the virus increased SMN2 exon 7 inclusion and SMN protein levels and rescued the phenotype of mild and severe SMA mice. In the severe mouse, the treatment improved the neuromuscular function and increased the life span from 10 to 219 days. ExspeU1 expression persisted for 1 month and was effective at around one five-hundredth of the concentration of the endogenous U1snRNA. RNA-seq analysis revealed our potential drug rescues aberrant SMA expression and splicing profiles, which are mostly related to DNA damage, cell-cycle control and acute phase response. Vastly overexpressing ExspeU1 more than 100-fold above the therapeutic level in human cells did not significantly alter global gene expression or splicing. These results indicate that AAV-mediated delivery of a modified U1snRNP particle may be a novel therapeutic option against SMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkz469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698663PMC
August 2019

Characterization of the residual biochemical components of sequentially extracted banana peel biomasses and their environmental remediation applications.

Waste Manag 2019 Apr 5;89:141-153. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

After consumption of the inner fleshy fruit, the banana peel like many other fruit peels is usually disposed of unprocessed. For sustainable development, agro-wastes including banana peels need to be converted into valuable products that will be beneficial to human and the environment. In this study, biochemical components including lipids, proteins and structural polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from banana peel, and the residuals were characterized by FE-SEM/EDX, FTIR, XRD, TGA/DSC, XPS and elemental analysis. Owing to rapid industrialization, toxic species such as metals and dyes are consistently released into the aquatic environments. Therefore, the residual biomass samples were evaluated for environmental remediation application. The adsorption performances were outstanding, with uptakes reaching 1034, 279 and 152 mg/g, for methylene blue, lead and platinum, respectively. This study thus suggests that sequential extraction and detailed characterization are useful for identification of key contributing components for development of high-performance agro-waste-based adsorbents for water treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.04.009DOI Listing
April 2019