Publications by authors named "Shuo Chen"

776 Publications

Integrating longitudinal clinical laboratory tests with targeted proteomic and transcriptomic analyses reveal the landscape of host responses in COVID-19.

Cell Discov 2021 Jun 8;7(1):42. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Shanghai Institute of Hematology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, National Research Center for Translational Medicine at Shanghai, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) involves a multitude of host responses, yet how they unfold during the course of disease progression remains unclear. Here, through integrative analysis of clinical laboratory tests, targeted proteomes, and transcriptomes of 963 patients in Shanghai, we delineate the dynamics of multiple circulatory factors within the first 30 days post-illness onset and during convalescence. We show that hypercortisolemia represents one of the probable causes of acute lymphocytopenia at the onset of severe/critical conditions. Comparison of the transcriptomes of the bronchoalveolar microenvironment and peripheral blood indicates alveolar macrophages, alveolar epithelial cells, and monocytes in lungs as the potential main sources of elevated cytokines mediating systemic immune responses and organ damages. In addition, the transcriptomes of patient blood cells are characterized by distinct gene regulatory networks and alternative splicing events. Our study provides a panorama of the host responses in COVID-19, which may serve as the basis for developing further diagnostics and therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-021-00274-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185699PMC
June 2021

Metabolite Alterations in Adults With Schizophrenia, First Degree Relatives, and Healthy Controls: A Multi-Region 7T MRS Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 19;12:656459. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in schizophrenia have shown altered GABAergic, glutamatergic, and bioenergetic pathways, but if these abnormalities are brain region or illness-stage specific is largely unknown. MRS at 7T MR enables reliable quantification of multiple metabolites, including GABA, glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln), from multiple brain regions within the time constraints of a clinical examination. In this study, GABA, Glu, Gln, the ratio Gln/Glu, and lactate (Lac) were quantified using 7T MRS in five brain regions in adults with schizophrenia ( = 40), first-degree relatives ( = 11), and healthy controls ( = 38). Metabolites were analyzed for differences between groups, as well as between subjects with schizophrenia with either short (<5 years, = 19 or long (>5 years, = 21) illness duration. For analyses between the three groups, there were significant glutamatergic and GABAergic differences observed in the anterior cingulate, centrum semiovale, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There were also significant relationships between anterior cingulate cortex, centrum semiovale, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cognitive measures. There were also significant glutamatergic, GABAergic, and lactate differences between subjects with long and short illness duration in the anterior cingulate, centrum semiovale, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. Finally, negative symptom severity ratings were significantly correlated with both anterior cingulate and centrum semiovale metabolite levels. In summary, 7T MRS shows multi-region differences in GABAergic and glutamatergic metabolites between subjects with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives and healthy controls, suggesting relatively diffuse involvement that evolves with illness duration. Unmedicated first-degree relatives share some of the same metabolic characteristics as patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, suggesting that these differences may reflect a genetic vulnerability and are not solely due to the effects of antipsychotic interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.656459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170030PMC
May 2021

Identification and assessment of pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection by blood serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Nov 20;260:119978. Epub 2021 May 20.

College of Life and Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110169, China. Electronic address:

Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) is a causative agent for acute pulmonary infection, which can further develop to lethal meningoencephalitis if untreated. The meningoencephalitis infection can be prevented, if timely treatment on pulmonary cryptococcal infection can be implemented based on its early diagnosis and accurate assessment. In this study, blood serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method was investigated on identification and assessment of pulmonary C. neoformans infection. The serum SERS measurements were collected from the mice infected with C. neoformans and the healthy mice, in which the infected mice were further divided into four subgroups according to the duration of infection. Based on those SRES measurements, biochemical differences were analyzed among those different groups to investigate the potential biomarkers for identifying and assessing the pulmonary C. neoformans infection. Furthermore, partial least square (PLS) analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model was employed to identify pulmonary cryptococcal infection and to assess the degrees of infection with the accuracies of 96.7% and 85.3%, respectively. Therefore, our study has demonstrated the great clinical potential of using serum SERS technique for an accurate identification and assessment of pulmonary cryptococcal infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119978DOI Listing
November 2021

Faecal bile acids and colonic bile acid membrane receptor correlate with symptom severity of diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: A pilot study.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Graduate School, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Gastroenterology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Aims: To compare both the faecal bile acids (BAs) and the levels of two bile acid receptors, Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and vitamin D receptor (VDR), in the colonic mucosa between patients with irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy controls, and explore the correlations among clinical characteristics, bile acid receptors expression, and BAs.

Methods: The severity of abdominal pain and diarrhoea was assessed in IBS-D patients using validated questionnaires, faecal BAs were measured by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and rectosigmoid biopsies were taken for the analyses of TGR5 and VDR expression using immunohistochemistry.

Results: The level of TGR5 immunoreactivity in rectosigmoid mucosal biopsies was significantly higher in IBS-D patients than in controls, while the VDR immunoreactivity displayed no significant difference between patients and controls. The patients with more severe or more frequent abdominal pain had significantly higher TGR5 level. Faecal primary BAs were significantly increased in IBS-D patients and were positively correlated with the severity of diarrhoea. The level of TGR5 was positively associated with primary BAs and negatively associated with secondary BAs among all participants providing both mucosal and stool samples.

Conclusions: Colonic mucosal TGR5 protein expression and faecal bile acids were correlated with the symptom severity of IBS-D patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2021.04.022DOI Listing
May 2021

Grade diagnosis of human glioma using Fourier transform infrared microscopy and artificial neural network.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Nov 11;260:119946. Epub 2021 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China; Innovation Laboratory of Terahertz Biophysics, National Innovation Institute of Defense Technology, Beijing 100071, China. Electronic address:

The World Health Organization (WHO) grade diagnosis of cancer is essential for surgical outcomes and patient treatment. Traditional pathological grading diagnosis depends on dyes or other histological approaches, and the result interpretation highly relies on the pathologists, making the process time-consuming (>60 min, including the steps of dewaxing to water and H&E staining), resource-wasting, and labor-intensive. In the present study, we report an alternative workflow that combines the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy and artificial neural network (ANN) to diagnose the grade of human glioma in a way that is faster (~20 min, including the processes of sample dewaxing, spectra acquisition and analysis), accurate (the prediction accuracy, specificity and sensitivity can reach above 99%), and without reagent. Moreover, this method is much superior to the common classification method of principal component analysis-linear discriminate analysis (PCA-LDA) (the prediction accuracy, specificity and sensitivity are only 87%, 89% and 86%, respectively). The ANN mainly learned the characteristic region of 800-1800 cm to classify the major histopathologic classes of human glioma. These results demonstrate that the grade diagnosis of human glioma by FTIR microscopy plus ANN can be streamlined, and could serve as a complementary pathway that is independent of the traditional pathology laboratory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119946DOI Listing
November 2021

Higher contrast thresholds for vanishing optotype recognition in macular visual fields among glaucoma patients: a structure-function analysis.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

Background/aims: We aimed to explore the impact of glaucomatous macular damage, specifically retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, on macular pattern vision measured by the vanishing optotype (VO) recognition contrast threshold.

Methods: Seventy-two patients (mean age, 33.51±7.05 years) with primary open-angle glaucoma and 36 healthy controls (mean age, 30.25±6.70 years) were enrolled. VO recognition contrast thresholds of each participant were measured at the 16 preset test locations covering the central 5° visual field (VF). Macular sensitivity (MS) was tested by macular threshold test of Humphrey Field Analyzer. Macular RGC plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness was also measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

Results: The VO contrast threshold demonstrated weak-to-moderate correlations (rho=-0.275 to -0.653) with MS (p<0.001). There was a significantly higher VO contrast threshold in glaucoma group (p<0.0001). At similar levels of MS, patients with glaucoma with GCIPL damage showed remarkably higher VO contrast thresholds than those with preserved GCIPL (p=0.0079). The structure-function relationships between VO contrast threshold and GCIPL thickness (rho=-0.725 to -0.802) were remarkably stronger than those between MS and GCIPL thickness (rho=0.210 to 0.448). VO contrast threshold showed stronger correlation with average GCIPL thickness (rho=-0.362 to -0.778) than MS (rho=0.238 to 0.398) at multiple test locations in glaucoma group.

Conclusions: Glaucomatous eyes have higher contrast thresholds for VO recognition in fovea-around VF. Stronger structure-function relationships indicate that VO contrast threshold is more vulnerable to RGC damage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-318972DOI Listing
May 2021

Thermosensitive and Conductive Hybrid Polymer for Real-Time Monitoring of Spheroid Growth and Drug Responses.

ACS Sens 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204, United States.

Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture based on polymer scaffold provides a promising tool to mimic a physiological microenvironment for drug testing; however, the next-generation cell activity monitoring technology for 3D cell culture is still challenging. Conventionally, drug efficacy evaluation and cell growth heavily rely on cell staining assays, using optical devices or flow cytometry. Here, we report a dual-function polymer scaffold (DFPS) composed of thermosensitive, silver flake- and gold nanoparticle-decorated polymers, enabling conductance change upon cell proliferation or death for cell activity monitoring and drug screening. The cell activity can be quantitatively monitored via measuring the conductance change induced by polymeric network swelling or shrinkage. This novel dual-function system (1) provides a 3D microenvironment to enable the formation and growth of tumor spheroid in vitro and streamlines the harvesting of tumor spheroids through the thermosensitive scaffold and (2) offers a simple and direct quantitative method to monitor 3D cell culture for drug responses. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated that a breast cancer stem cell line MDA-MB-436 was able to form cell spheroids in the scaffold, and the conductance change of the sensor exhibited a linear relationship with cell concentration. To examine its potential in drug screening, cancer spheroids in the cell sensor were treated with paclitaxel (PTX) and docetaxel (DTX), and predicted quantitative evaluation of the cytotoxic effect of drugs was established. Our results indicated that this cell sensing system may hold promising potential in expanding into an array device for high-throughput drug screening.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.0c02266DOI Listing
May 2021

Neuroretinal Biomarkers for Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 Apr;10(4):29

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Purpose: We evaluated the patient-control differences and predictive value of the retina as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia.

Methods: The institutional study included both eyes of 58 schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) patients (age 37.2 ± 12.3 years) and 35 controls (age 41.1 ± 15.2 years). Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer, outer retinal photoreceptor complex, and total macula thicknesses were measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Anterior segment parameters including central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, and axial length were measured to rule out confounds on the retinal measures.

Results: The peripapillary RNFL was overall significantly thinner in SSD relative to controls (F = 3.97, P = 0.049), most pronounced in the temporal (5.2 µm difference, F = 6.95, P = 0.010) and inferior quadrants (12.1 µm difference, F = 7.32, P = 0.009). There were no significant group differences in thickness for the macular RNFL, ganglion, or photoreceptor cell related measures (P > 0.05). Peripapillary RNFL, central macula, and outer photoreceptor complex thicknesses were together able to classify SSD patients with 80% sensitivity and 71% specificity; area under the curve = 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.88).

Conclusions: SSD patients exhibited significant RNFL thinning relative to controls. Notably, retinal thickness measures including both peripapillary and macular data exhibited improved diagnostic accuracy for SSD as compared to these regions alone.

Translational Relevance: This is the first study to evaluate the predictive value of both the inner and outer retina in SSD. OCT retinal thickness measures including peripapillary data in conjunction with macular data may provide an informative, noninvasive in vivo ocular biomarker for schizophrenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.4.29DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083086PMC
April 2021

Mapping local and long-distance resting connectivity markers of TMS-related inhibition reduction in schizophrenia.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Apr 30;31:102688. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) is a biomarker for altered motor inhibition in schizophrenia, but the manner in which distant sites influence the inhibitory cortical-effector response remains elusive. Our study investigated local and long-distance resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) markers of SICI in a sample of N = 23 patients with schizophrenia and N = 29 controls. Local functional connectivity was quantified using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis and long-range connectivity was estimated using seed-based rsFC analysis. Direct and indirect effects of connectivity measures on SICI were modeled using mediation analysis. Higher SICI ratios (indicating reduced inhibition) in patients were associated with lower ReHo in the right insula. Follow-up rsFC analyses showed that higher SICI scores (indicating reduced inhibition) were associated with reduced connectivity between right insula and hubs of the corticospinal pathway: sensorimotor cortex and basal ganglia. Mediation analysis supported a model in which the direct effect of local insular connectivity strength on SICI is mediated by the interhemispheric connectivity between insula and left sensorimotor cortex. The broader clinical implications of these findings are discussed with emphasis on how these preliminary findings might inform novel interventions designed to restore or improve SICI in schizophrenia and deepen our understanding of motor inhibitory control and impact of abnormal signaling in motor-inhibitory pathways in schizophrenia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135038PMC
April 2021

Identifying functioning and nonfunctioning adrenal tumors based on blood serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning, China.

Adrenal tumors are common tumors in urology and they can be further divided into functioning and nonfunctioning tumors according to whether there is uncommon endocrine function. In clinical practice, the early identification and accurate assessment of adrenal tumors are essential for the guidance of subsequent treatment. However, a nonfunctioning adrenal tumor often lacks obvious clinical symptoms, making it difficult to be timely and precisely diagnosed by conventional examinations. Therefore, a rapid and accurate method for identifying the functioning and nonfunctioning adrenal tumors is urgently required to achieve precise treatment of adrenal tumors. In this study, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy was investigated as a diagnostic tool to identify the blood serum samples from healthy volunteers as well as the patients with functioning and nonfunctioning adrenal tumors. Based on the SERS peak analysis, abnormal glycolysis, DNA/RNA, and amino acid metabolites were found to be potential biomarkers for identifying patients with adrenal tumors, while metabolites related to disordered protein catabolism and excessive hormone secretion were expected to further differentiate functioning adrenal tumors from nonfunctioning adrenal tumors. In addition, principal component analysis followed by support vector machine (PCA-SVM) was further applied on those serum SERS measurements, and the classification accuracies of 96.8% and 84.5% were achieved for differentiating healthy group versus adrenal tumor group and functioning adrenal tumor group versus nonfunctioning adrenal tumor group, respectively. The results have demonstrated the prodigious potential of precise adrenal tumor diagnosis by using the blood serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy technique.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03381-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Arsenic bioaccessibility in rice grains via modified physiologically-based extraction test (MPBET): Correlation with mineral elements and comparison with As relative bioavailability.

Environ Res 2021 07 30;198:111198. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Rice consumption is a major dietary source of human exposure to arsenic (As), with As bioavailability being an important factor influencing its health risk. In this study, the As bioaccessibility was measured in 11 rice grains (140-335 μg As kg), which were compared to As relative bioavailability previously measured based on a mouse bioassay (Li et al., 2017). Using modified physiologically-based extraction test for rice (MPBET), As bioaccessibility in raw rice samples (44-88% in the gastric phase and 47-102% in the intestinal phase) was similar to those in cooked rice (42-73% and 43-99%). Arsenic bioaccessibility in rice was generally higher in the intestinal phase than in the gastric phase, with Fe and Ca concentrations in rice being negatively correlated with As bioaccessibility in the gastric phase (R = 0.47-0.49). In addition, for cooked rice, strong positive correlation was observed between bioaccessible As and inorganic As (R = 0.63-0.72), suggesting inorganic As in rice was easier to dissolve than organic As in gastrointestinal digestive fluids. Due to limited variation in As bioaccessibility and As bioavailability among the 11 samples, a weak correlation was observed between them (R = 0.01-0.03); however, As bioaccessibility values measured by the gastric phase (GP) of the MPBET agreed with As bioavailability values based on a mouse bioassay, suggesting the potential of the MPBET to predict As bioavailability in rice. Future work is needed to ascertain the robustness of the MPBET in predicting As bioavailability in rice using additional samples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111198DOI Listing
July 2021

Study on the Passive Heating System of a Heated Cooking Wall in Dwellings: A Case Study of Traditional Dwellings in Southern Shaanxi, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 3;18(7). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Faculty of Environmental Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu 808-0135, Japan.

In China, research on winter heating and energy saving for residential buildings mainly focuses on urban residences rather than rural ones. According to the 2018 China Building Energy Consumption Research Report, rural residential buildings emit about 423 million tons of carbon, accounting for 21% of the country's total carbon emissions. According to the research on China's greenhouse gas inventory, the main sources of carbon emissions in rural areas are from cooking and the burning of fuelwood and biomass for heating in winter. In this study, the southern Shaanxi area, which is hot in summer and cold in winter, was selected as the research site, and a fire wall system was planned that combines cooking and heating facilities in residential buildings. The system uses the heat generated by cooking and the heat storage capacity of the wall, as well as the principle of thermal radiation and heat convection, to increase the indoor temperature. The advantage is that the hot air generated is mainly concentrated in the inside of the wall, which reduces the direct contact with the cold outdoor air and avoids excess heat loss. In this study, in addition to considering the influence of the cooking fire wall system on the indoor temperature, the difference in the outer wall with or without solar thermal radiation was also considered. The research results show that the use of a cooking fire wall heating system reduces the annual heat load of the building to 440.8318 KW·h, which is a reduction rate of 7.91%. When there is solar radiation on the outer wall, the annual thermal load of the building is reduced by 1104.723 kW·h, and the reduction rate is 19.84%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038374PMC
April 2021

Highly efficient metal-free electro-Fenton degradation of organic contaminants on a bifunctional catalyst.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 20;416:125859. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

Heterogeneous electro-Fenton (e-Fenton) is a promising technology for the treatment of persistent organic pollutants, in which HO is produced via 2e oxygen reduction and is simultaneously activated into •OH by the iron-based catalyst. This system often suffers from the inevitable metal dissolution in the acidic or even neutral environment, leading to poor pH adaptation and low stability. In this work, we designed a metal-free e-Fenton system, using O-doped carbon nanotubes (OCNTs) as the bifunctional metal-free cathode for the degradation of organic pollutants. The system showed the excellent e-Fenton performance under neutral conditions with the phenol degradation kinetic constant of 0.071 min, and the corresponding TOC removal was 76.6% within 300 min. It also exhibited excellent performance for actual coking wastewater treatment with the specific energy consumption of 7.4 kW h kg COD, which was lower than that reported heterogeneous electro-Fenton system (9.2-14.4 kW h kg COD). The in-situ metal-free e-Fenton system could be regarded as a promising strategy for actual wastewater treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125859DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical and Molecular Differentiation Between Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney and Normal Tissue: A Two-Case Report.

Front Oncol 2021 30;11:659709. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Urology, Kunming Children's Hospital, Kunming, China.

Background: Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK) is a rare type of tumor that lacks typical clinical manifestations. Herein, we presented clinical data of 2 children with MRTK. In addition, we used a high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), GO analysis, and KEGG signaling pathway analysis to examine gene expression differences at the transcripts level between 2 patients with MRTK and 3 patients with non-tumor diseases without other symptoms.

Case Report: Preoperative B-scan ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) examination in 2 cases suggested nephroblastoma. Both patients were treated with radical nephrectomy. After the operation, MRTK was confirmed by pathological examination. Child 1 and Child 2 then received 7 courses and 12 courses of regular chemotherapy, respectively. Child 1 was followed up for 2 years, and Child 2 for 3.1 years without showing symptoms. RNA-seq results showed 2203 differential genes (DEGs) in the kidney tissue of children with MRTK compared to normal tissue (p <0.01). GO analysis suggested that most DEGs participate in protein binding. KEGG results showed that the DEGs were mainly involved in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and microRNA-related proteins.

Conclusion: The PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and microRNA-related proteins as targets have extremely high potential value for the diagnosis and treatment of MRTK.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.659709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042314PMC
March 2021

Arid1a-Plagl1-Hh signaling is indispensable for differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of tooth root progenitors.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(1):108964

Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA. Electronic address:

Chromatin remodelers often show broad expression patterns in multiple cell types yet can elicit cell-specific effects in development and diseases. Arid1a binds DNA and regulates gene expression during tissue development and homeostasis. However, it is unclear how Arid1a achieves its functional specificity in regulating progenitor cells. Using the tooth root as a model, we show that loss of Arid1a impairs the differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of tooth root progenitors through Hedgehog (Hh) signaling regulation, leading to shortened roots. Our data suggest that Plagl1, as a co-factor, endows Arid1a with its cell-type/spatial functional specificity. Furthermore, we show that loss of Arid1a leads to increased expression of Arid1b, which is also indispensable for odontoblast differentiation but is not involved in regulation of Hh signaling. This study expands our knowledge of the intricate interactions among chromatin remodelers, transcription factors, and signaling molecules during progenitor cell fate determination and lineage commitment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132592PMC
April 2021

Combined Oxytocin and Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training for Social Function in People With Schizophrenia.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May-Jun 01;41(3):236-243

Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System; Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, CA.

Background: A significant proportion of people with schizophrenia are characterized by impaired ability to socially engage with others. The development of effective interventions for social functioning remains a central therapeutic challenge. Cognitive-behavioral social skills training (CBSST) has been found to improve social functioning in schizophrenia, but with only medium effect sizes. Intranasal oxytocin also has prosocial effects, but also only with modest effect sizes. This study assessed whether the addition of intranasal oxytocin to CBSST can strengthen their impact on social function.

Methods: Participants (N = 62) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder entered a 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial with a 3-month follow-up evaluation at 2 sites: Maryland and San Diego. Participants were randomized to either intranasal oxytocin 36 IU (3 sprays) twice a day (n = 31) or intranasal placebo-oxytocin (3 sprays) twice a day (n = 31). All participants received CBSST plus a social cognition skills training module (48 total sessions).

Results: There were no significant treatment group differences in social functioning, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, defeatist beliefs, or asocial beliefs. The interpretation of treatment effects was complicated by site effects, whereby participants in San Diego began the trial with greater severity of impairments and subsequently showed greater improvements compared with participants in Maryland.

Conclusions: The results did not support the utility of add-on intranasal oxytocin to psychosocial rehabilitation interventions like CBSST for improvement in social function (ClinicalTrials.gov trial number: NCT01752712).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000001397DOI Listing
March 2021

A Self-test Prediction Model to Determine the Probability Risk of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Biomed Environ Sci 2020 Nov;33(11):857-861

School of Public Health, Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2020.116DOI Listing
November 2020

Blood pressure-related differences in brain health between young African Americans and Caucasian Americans.

Physiol Rep 2021 Mar;9(6):e14819

Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

Background: Although there are moderating effects of race on blood pressure (BP) and brain health in older adults, it is currently unknown if these race-related differences in cardiovascular and associated brain function are also present in younger adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between race and BP on brain health in younger African (AA) and Caucasian Americans (CA).

Methods: We studied 971 younger adults (29.1 ± 3.5 years; 180 AAs and 791 CAs) who volunteered to participate in the Human Connectome Project. Cognitive composite scores, brain volume, and cortical thickness using MRI were cross-sectionally assessed. ANCOVA was used to examine interactions between race and mean arterial pressure (MAP) on cognitive test scores and brain structure.

Results: After controlling for age, sex, education, and BMI, there were significant Race × MAP interaction effects on cognitive composite scores and cortical thickness. Among AAs but not CAs, as MAP increased, both global cognitive performance and entorhinal cortex (ERC) thickness decreased.

Conclusions: MAP was an important moderator of racial differences in cognitive performance and ERC thickness. Our findings suggest that young AAs may carry a greater hypertension-associated risk for cognitive brain health deficit. Interventions that address early signs of hypertension in AAs are needed to determine if the racial disparities in BP-related brain health in late adulthood can be reduced.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995666PMC
March 2021

Arid1a regulates cell cycle exit of transit-amplifying cells by inhibiting the Aurka-Cdk1 axis in mouse incisor.

Development 2021 Apr 16;148(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.

Stem cells self-renew or give rise to transit-amplifying cells (TACs) that differentiate into specific functional cell types. The fate determination of stem cells to TACs and their transition to fully differentiated progeny is precisely regulated to maintain tissue homeostasis. Arid1a, a core component of the switch/sucrose nonfermentable complex, performs epigenetic regulation of stage- and tissue-specific genes that is indispensable for stem cell homeostasis and differentiation. However, the functional mechanism of Arid1a in the fate commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their progeny is not clear. Using the continuously growing adult mouse incisor model, we show that Arid1a maintains tissue homeostasis through limiting proliferation, promoting cell cycle exit and differentiation of TACs by inhibiting the Aurka-Cdk1 axis. Loss of Arid1a overactivates the Aurka-Cdk1 axis, leading to expansion of the mitotic TAC population but compromising their differentiation ability. Furthermore, the defective homeostasis after loss of Arid1a ultimately leads to reduction of the MSC population. These findings reveal the functional significance of Arid1a in regulating the fate of TACs and their interaction with MSCs to maintain tissue homeostasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.198838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077510PMC
April 2021

Improving biological condition assessment accuracy by multimetric index approach with microalgae in streams and lakes.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 27;771:145417. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

School of Life Sciences, Institute of Life Sciences and Green Development, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China. Electronic address:

Multimetric index (MMI) approach is a broadly used in ecological assessment because it can integrate information of various kinds of ecologically related metrics of freshwater ecosystems and provide an easily understandable score for purpose of further evaluation and managements. Accounting for natural variation and disentangling covariation between natural environmental factors and human disturbance factors are imperative for an accurate assessment. Lots of progress has been made recently on the aforementioned two aspects. Three approaches, a priori classification of sites by regions or typologies, site-specific modeling of expected reference condition and varying metrics in site groups, have been tested in lakes and streams to improve assessment accuracy. All existed studies support that site-specific modeling can efficiently account for natural variation and generate a MMI with good performance. However, until now, no strong evidence has shown that diatom/blue-algae typologies are better than regionalization frameworks on accounting for natural variation either in lakes or in streams. To separate the natural variation explained by site specific modeling from that of varying metrics is necessary for a thorough and accurate evaluation on the valuableness of site-grouping by typologies. Different performance of varying metrics among site groups of streams and lakes was most probably caused by the lack of representativeness of diatom metrics on biological condition rather than the complex multi-stressor gradients in streams and rivers. A recent study showed that blue-green algae enhanced performance of diatom-based MMI on defining lake condition under high level of human disturbance. On the other hand, with more and more extensive and intensive use of statistics techniques in developing MMI, we also discussed some statistical challenges faced by scientists in field of ecological assessment, especially on setting significance level of a statistical test and multiple comparison issue in MMI performance comparison.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145417DOI Listing
June 2021

LncRNA AGAP2-AS1 Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation, Migration and Invasion in Colon Cancer by Forming a Negative Feedback Loop with LINC-PINT.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 2;13:2153-2161. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Tianjin Union Medical Center, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300121, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: It has been reported that lncRNA AGAP2-AS1 promotes the development of gastric cancer, lung cancer and breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the role of AGAP2-AS1 in colon cancer.

Methods: A total of 66 patients with colon cancer were enrolled. RT-qPCR was performed to detect the differential expression of AGAP2-AS1 in tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues. To test the interaction between AGAP2-AS1 and LINC-PINT in colon cancer, overexpression vector or inhibitor of AGAP2-AS1 and LINC-PINT were transfected into RKO and HCT 116 cells. CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation. Transwell assays were performed to evaluate cell migration and invasion. The expression of p-LATS1, p-YAP and nuclear YAP were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence.

Results: The expression of AGAP2-AS1 was upregulated in colon cancer tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, and the expression of AGAP2-AS1 in colon cancer tissues was not significantly affected by tumor stages. In addition, we found that the expression of LINC-PINT was downregulated in colon cancer tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues and had a reverse correlation with the expression of AGAP2-AS1 in colon cancer tissues. Moreover, overexpression of AGAP2-AS1 downregulated the expression of LINC-PINT, and overexpression of LINC-PINT also altered the expression of AGAP2-AS1 in colon cancer cells. Inhibition of AGAP2-AS1 upregulated the expression of LINC-PINT, and inhibition of LINC-PINT promoted the expression levels of AGAP2-AS1 in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of AGAP2-AS1 could increase the proliferation, invasion and migration of colon cancer cells, while overexpression of LINC-PINT could attenuate the effects of overexpression of AGAP2-AS1 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. We also found that AGAP2-AS1 promoted colon cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion through the Hippo signaling.

Conclusion: Upregulated expression of AGAP2-AS1 promoted proliferation, invasion and migration in colon cancer by forming a negative feedback loop with LINC-PINT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S260371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936697PMC
March 2021

Evaluating renal arterial wall by non-enhanced 2D and 3D free-breathing black-blood techniques: Initial experience.

Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Jun 5;79:5-12. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of 2D and 3D black-blood sequences in measuring morphology of renal arterial wall.

Methods: The 2D and 3D imaging sequences used variable-refocusing-flip-angle and constant-low-refocusing-flip-angle turbo spin echo (TSE) readout respectively, with delicately selected black-blood scheme and respiratory motion trigger for free-breathing imaging. Fourteen healthy subjects and three patients with Takayasu arteritis underwent renal artery wall imaging with 3D double inversion recovery (DIR) TSE and 2D Variable Flip Angle-TSE (VFA-TSE) black-blood sequences at 3.0 T. Four healthy subjects were randomly selected for scan-rescan reproducibility experiments. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and morphology of arterial wall were measured and compared using paired-t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test between 2D and 3D sequences. The inter-observer, intra-observer and scan-rescan agreements of above measurements were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).

Results: The 2D and 3D imaging sequences showed similar morphological measurements (lumen area, wall area, mean wall thickness and maximum wall thickness) of renal arterial wall (all P > 0.05) and excellent agreement (ICC: 0.853-0.954). Compared to 2D imaging, 3D imaging exhibited significantly lower SNR (P < 0.01) and SNR (P = 0.037), similar contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) (P = 0.285), and higher CNR efficiency (CNR) (P < 0.01). Both 2D and 3D imaging showed good to excellent inter-observer (ICC: 0.723-0.997), intra-observer (ICC: 0.749-0.996) and scan-rescan (ICC: 0.710-0.992) reproducibility in measuring renal arterial wall morphology, SNR and CNR, respectively.

Conclusions: Both high-resolution free-breathing 2D VFA-TSE and 3D DIR TSE black-blood sequences are feasible and reproducible in high-resolution renal arterial wall imaging. The 2D imaging has high SNR, whereas 3D imaging has high imaging efficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2021.03.001DOI Listing
June 2021

White matter brain aging in relationship to schizophrenia and its cognitive deficit.

Schizophr Res 2021 Mar 2;230:9-16. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

We hypothesized that cerebral white matter deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are driven in part by accelerated white matter aging and are associated with cognitive deficits. We used a machine learning model to predict individual age from diffusion tensor imaging features and calculated the delta age (Δage) as the difference between predicted and chronological age. Through this approach, we translated multivariate white matter imaging features into an age-scaled metric and used it to test the temporal trends of accelerated aging-related white matter deficit in SZ and its association with the cognition. A feature selection procedure was first employed to choose fractional anisotropy values in 34 of 43 white fiber tracts. Using these features, a machine learning model was trained based on a training set consisted of 107 healthy controls (HC). The brain age of 166 SZs and 107 HCs in the testing set were calculated using this model. Then, we examined the SZ-HC group effect on Δage and whether this effect was moderated by chronological age using the regression spline model. The results showed that Δage was significantly elevated in the age > 30 group in patients (p < 0.001) but not in age ≤ 30 group (p = 0.364). Δage in patients was significantly and negatively associated with both working memory (β = -0.176, p = 0.007) and processing speed (β = -0.519, p = 0.035) while adjusting sex and chronological age. Overall, these findings indicate that the Δage is elevated in SZs and become significantly from the third decade of life; the increase of Δage in SZs is associated with the declined neurocognitive performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2021.02.003DOI Listing
March 2021

The effect of COVID-19 stay-at-home order and campus closure on the prevalence of acute respiratory infection symptoms in college campus cohorts.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 05 4;15(3):331-335. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

Evaluation of population-based COVID-19 control measures informs strategies to quell the current pandemic and reduce the impact of those yet to come. Effective COVID-19 control measures may simultaneously reduce the incidence of other acute respiratory infections (ARIs) due to shared transmission modalities. To assess the impact of stay-at-home orders and other physical distancing measures on the prevalence of ARI-related symptoms, we compared symptoms reported by prospective college cohorts enrolled during two consecutive academic years. ARI-related symptoms declined following campus closure and implementation of stay-at-home orders, demonstrating the impact of population-based physical distancing measures on control of a broad range of respiratory infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014755PMC
May 2021

The function and regulation mechanism of piRNAs in human cancers.

Histol Histopathol 2021 Mar 2:18323. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Reproductive Medicine/Department of Fetal Medicine and Prenatal Diagnosis/BioResource Research Center, Key Laboratory for Major Obstetric Diseases of Guangdong Province, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are mainly expressed in mammalian germ cells, playing an important role in maintaining germ line DNA integrity, inhibiting transposon transcription and translation, participating in heterochromatin formation, epigenetic regulation, and germ cell genesis. They combine with P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI) proteins to form effector complexes known as piRNA-induced silencing complexes (pi-RISC) to regulate the gene silencing pathway. Recent evidence suggests that numerous piRNAs, with tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing functions in cancer development, are dysregulated in tumor tissues, and are related to clinical prognosis. In the present review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on the function and regulatory mechanisms of piRNAs in the tumorigenesis and progression of cancer, providing evidence for the potential use of piRNAs in the diagnosis and clinical treatment of cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14670/HH-18-323DOI Listing
March 2021

Feature Selection Boosted by Unselected Features.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Mar 1;PP. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Feature selection aims to select strongly relevant features and discard the rest. Recently, embedded feature selection methods, which incorporate feature weights learning into the training process of a classifier, have attracted much attention. However, traditional embedded methods merely focus on the combinatorial optimality of all selected features. They sometimes select the weakly relevant features with satisfactory combination abilities and leave out some strongly relevant features, thereby degrading the generalization performance. To address this issue, we propose a novel embedded framework for feature selection, termed feature selection boosted by unselected features (FSBUF). Specifically, we introduce an extra classifier for unselected features into the traditional embedded model and jointly learn the feature weights to maximize the classification loss of unselected features. As a result, the extra classifier recycles the unselected strongly relevant features to replace the weakly relevant features in the selected feature subset. Our final objective can be formulated as a minimax optimization problem, and we design an effective gradient-based algorithm to solve it. Furthermore, we theoretically prove that the proposed FSBUF is able to improve the generalization ability of traditional embedded feature selection methods. Extensive experiments on synthetic and real-world data sets exhibit the comprehensibility and superior performance of FSBUF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3058172DOI Listing
March 2021

Interfacial Superconductivity Achieved in Parent AEFeAs (AE = Ca, Sr, Ba) by a Simple and Realistic Annealing Route.

Nano Lett 2021 Mar 1;21(5):2191-2198. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204, United States.

Materials with interfaces often exhibit extraordinary phenomena exemplified by rich physics, such as high-temperature superconductivity and enhanced electronic correlations. However, demonstrations of confined interfaces to date have involved intensive effort and fortuity, and no simple path is consistently available. Here, we report the achievement of interfacial superconductivity in the nonsuperconducting parent compounds AEFeAs, where AE = Ca, Sr, or Ba, by simple subsequent annealing of the as-grown samples in an atmosphere of As, P, or Sb. Our results indicate that the superconductivity originates from electron transfer at the interface of the hybrid van der Waals heterostructures, consistent with the two-dimensional superconducting transition observed. The observations suggest a common origin of interfaces for the nonbulk superconductivity previously reported in the AEFeAs compound family and provide insight for the further exploration of interfacial superconductivity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04995DOI Listing
March 2021

BMP2-dependent gene regulatory network analysis reveals Klf4 as a novel transcription factor of osteoblast differentiation.

Cell Death Dis 2021 02 19;12(2):197. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine of Ministry of Education (KLOBM), School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the expression of target genes, inducing changes in cell morphology or activities needed for cell fate determination and differentiation. The BMP signaling pathway is widely regarded as one of the most important pathways in vertebrate skeletal biology, of which BMP2 is a potent inducer, governing the osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). However, the mechanism by which BMP2 initiates its downstream transcription factor cascade and determines the direction of differentiation remains largely unknown. In this study, we used RNA-seq, ATAC-seq, and animal models to characterize the BMP2-dependent gene regulatory network governing osteoblast lineage commitment. Sp7-Cre; Bmp2 mice (BMP2-cKO) were generated and exhibited decreased bone density and lower osteoblast number (n > 6). In vitro experiments showed that BMP2-cKO mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs) had an impact on osteoblast differentiation and deficient cell proliferation. Osteogenic medium induced mBMSCs from BMP2-cKO mice and control were subjected to RNA-seq and ATAC-seq analysis to reveal differentially expressed TFs, along with their target open chromatin regions. Combined with H3K27Ac CUT&Tag during osteoblast differentiation, we identified 2338 BMP2-dependent osteoblast-specific active enhancers. Motif enrichment assay revealed that over 80% of these elements were directly targeted by RUNX2, DLX5, MEF2C, OASIS, and KLF4. We deactivated Klf4 in the Sp7 + lineage to validate the role of KLF4 in osteoblast differentiation of mBMSCs. Compared to the wild-type, Sp7-Cre; Klf4 mice (KLF4-Het) were smaller in size and had abnormal incisors resembling BMP2-cKO mice. Additionally, KLF4-Het mice had fewer osteoblasts and decreased osteogenic ability. RNA-seq and ATAC-seq revealed that KLF4 mainly "co-bound" with RUNX2 to regulate downstream genes. Given the significant overlap between KLF4- and BMP2-dependent NFRs and enriched motifs, our findings outline a comprehensive BMP2-dependent gene regulatory network specifically governing osteoblast differentiation of the Sp7 + lineage, in which Klf4 is a novel transcription factor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03480-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895980PMC
February 2021

Clinical Analysis of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis Risk Factors and the Feasibility of Prophylactic Central Lymph Node Dissection in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 31;2021:6635686. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of General Surgery, South Branch of Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou 350000, Fujian, China.

Objective: To identify the risk factors for cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) and the feasibility of prophylactic central lymph node dissection.

Methods: The characteristics of 1107 patients were extracted and analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with lymph node metastasis. The relationship between the central lymph node dissection (CLND) and lateral lymph node metastasis (LLNM) was analyzed using the correlation analysis.

Results: The probability of CLNM was closely related to the male gender, age <55, and the increase of tumor size. Those patients with an increase in tumor size and CLNM were extremely prone to LLNM. Also, LLNM was more likely to happen in those with the more positive central lymph nodes. Routine prophylactic central lymph node dissection (P-CLND) did not increase the risk of complications.

Conclusion: P-CLND should be considered as a reasonable surgical treatment for PTC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6635686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868159PMC
January 2021

The microRNA-195 - BDNF pathway and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients with minimal antipsychotic medication exposure.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Feb 8;11(1):117. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Cognitive impairment is a core characteristic of schizophrenia, but its underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. Reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein critical for neural plasticity and synaptic signaling, is one of the few molecules consistently associated with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia although the etiological pathway leading to BDNF reduction in schizophrenia is unclear. We examined microRNA-195 (miR-195), a known modulator of BDNF protein expression, as a potential mechanistic component. One-hundred and eighteen first-episode patients with schizophrenia either antipsychotic medication-naïve or within two weeks of antipsychotic medication exposure and forty-seven age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. MiR-195 and BDNF mRNA and BDNF protein levels in peripheral blood were tested. Cognitive function was assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). MiR-195 was significantly higher (p = 0.01) whereas BDNF mRNA (p < 0.001) and protein (p = 0.016) levels were significantly lower in patients compared with controls. Higher miR-195 expression was significantly correlated to lower BDNF protein levels in patients (partial r = -0.28, p = 0.003) and lower BDNF protein levels were significantly associated with poorer overall cognitive performance by MCCB and also in speed of processing, working memory, and attention/vigilance domains composite score (p = 0.002-0.004). The subgroup of patients with high miR-195 and low BDNF protein showed the lowest level of cognitive functions, and miR-195 showed significant mediation effects on cognitive functions through BDNF protein. Elevated miR-195 may play a role in regulating BDNF protein expression thereby influencing cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, suggesting that development of cognition enhancing treatment for schizophrenia may consider a micro-RNA based strategy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01240-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870897PMC
February 2021