Publications by authors named "Shujuan Zhao"

35 Publications

Antithrombotic Management for Atrial Fibrillation Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention or With Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Evidence-Based Update.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 28;8:660986. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Pharmacy, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, School of Clinical Medicine, Henan University, Zhengzhou, China.

Combined antithrombotic regimens for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with coronary artery disease, particularly for those who have acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and/or are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), presents a great challenge in the real-world clinical scenario. Conventionally, a triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT), which consists of combined oral anticoagulant therapy to prevent systemic embolism or stroke along with dual antiplatelet therapy to prevent coronary arterial thrombosis (CAT), is used. However, TAT has been associated with a significantly increased risk of bleeding. With the emergence of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), randomized controlled trials have demonstrated a better risk-to-benefit ratio of dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT) in combination of a NOAC and with a P2Y12 inhibitor than vitamin K antagonist-based TAT. The results of these studies have impacted the recommendations of current international guidelines, which favor a DAT with a NOAC and P2Y12 inhibitor (especially clopidogrel) in this clinical setting. Additionally, aspirin can be administered during the periprocedural period, while the treatment duration of TAT should be as short as possible. In this article, we summarize the up-to-date evidence regarding antithrombotic regimens for AF patients with PCI or ACS, with a specific focus on the optimal approach and critical discussions of key scientific data and future developments for antithrombotic management in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.660986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273244PMC
June 2021

Molecular Genetics and Complex Inheritance of Congenital Heart Disease.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Jun 30;12(7). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common congenital malformation and the leading cause of mortality therein. Genetic etiologies contribute to an estimated 90% of CHD cases, but so far, a molecular diagnosis remains unsolved in up to 55% of patients. Copy number variations and aneuploidy account for ~23% of cases overall, and high-throughput genomic technologies have revealed additional types of genetic variation in CHD. The first CHD risk genotypes identified through high-throughput sequencing were de novo mutations, many of which occur in chromatin modifying genes. Murine models of cardiogenesis further support the damaging nature of chromatin modifying CHD mutations. Transmitted mutations have also been identified through sequencing of population scale CHD cohorts, and many transmitted mutations are enriched in cilia genes and Notch or VEGF pathway genes. While we have come a long way in identifying the causes of CHD, more work is required to end the diagnostic odyssey for all CHD families. Complex genetic explanations of CHD are emerging but will require increasingly sophisticated analysis strategies applied to very large CHD cohorts before they can come to fruition in providing molecular diagnoses to genetically unsolved patients. In this review, we discuss the genetic architecture of CHD and biological pathways involved in its pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12071020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307500PMC
June 2021

DIAPH1 Variants in Non-East Asian Patients With Sporadic Moyamoya Disease.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Yale Center for Genome Analysis, West Haven, Connecticut.

Importance: Moyamoya disease (MMD), a progressive vasculopathy leading to narrowing and ultimate occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid arteries, is a cause of childhood stroke. The cause of MMD is poorly understood, but genetic factors play a role. Several familial forms of MMD have been identified, but the cause of most cases remains elusive, especially among non-East Asian individuals.

Objective: To assess whether ultrarare de novo and rare, damaging transmitted variants with large effect sizes are associated with MMD risk.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A genetic association study was conducted using whole-exome sequencing case-parent MMD trios in a small discovery cohort collected over 3.5 years (2016-2019); data were analyzed in 2020. Medical records from US hospitals spanning a range of 1 month to 1.5 years were reviewed for phenotyping. Exomes from a larger validation cohort were analyzed to identify additional rare, large-effect variants in the top candidate gene. Participants included patients with MMD and, when available, their parents. All participants who met criteria and were presented with the option to join the study agreed to do so; none were excluded. Twenty-four probands (22 trios and 2 singletons) composed the discovery cohort, and 84 probands (29 trios and 55 singletons) composed the validation cohort.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Gene variants were identified and filtered using stringent criteria. Enrichment and case-control tests assessed gene-level variant burden. In silico modeling estimated the probability of variant association with protein structure. Integrative genomics assessed expression patterns of MMD risk genes derived from single-cell RNA sequencing data of human and mouse brain tissue.

Results: Of the 24 patients in the discovery cohort, 14 (58.3%) were men and 18 (75.0%) were of European ancestry. Three of 24 discovery cohort probands contained 2 do novo (1-tailed Poisson P = 1.1 × 10-6) and 1 rare, transmitted damaging variant (12.5% of cases) in DIAPH1 (mammalian diaphanous-1), a key regulator of actin remodeling in vascular cells and platelets. Four additional ultrarare damaging heterozygous DIAPH1 variants (3 unphased) were identified in 3 other patients in an 84-proband validation cohort (73.8% female, 77.4% European). All 6 patients were non-East Asian. Compound heterozygous variants were identified in ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoproteinlike protein EVL, a mammalian diaphanous-1 interactor that regulates actin polymerization. DIAPH1 and EVL mutant probands had severe, bilateral MMD associated with transfusion-dependent thrombocytopenia. DIAPH1 and other MMD risk genes are enriched in mural cells of midgestational human brain. The DIAPH1 coexpression network converges in vascular cell actin cytoskeleton regulatory pathways.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings provide the largest collection to date of non-East Asian individuals with sporadic MMD harboring pathogenic variants in the same gene. The results suggest that DIAPH1 is a novel MMD risk gene and impaired vascular cell actin remodeling in MMD pathogenesis, with diagnostic and therapeutic ramifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204259PMC
June 2021

Difluorocarbene-Mediated Cascade Cyclization: The Multifunctional Role of Ruppert-Prakash Reagent.

Org Lett 2021 05 29;23(9):3546-3551. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry, Center for Excellence in Molecular Synthesis, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Ling-Ling Road, Shanghai 200032, China.

A difluorocarbene-mediated cascade cyclization reaction for rapid access to difluorinated 3-coumaranone derivatives was developed. The difluorocarbene acts as a bipolar CF building block, which enables a homologation cyclization process via sequentially reacting with the phenolate and the ester group on the same substrate. The potential application of this synthetic approach is demonstrated by a late-stage modification of diethylstilbestrol. Mechanistic studies revealed the multiple crucial roles played by the Ruppert-Prakash reagent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00962DOI Listing
May 2021

Genome-wide identification of R2R3-MYB family in wheat and functional characteristics of the abiotic stress responsive gene TaMYB344.

BMC Genomics 2020 Nov 12;21(1):792. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Key Laboratory of Elemene Class Anti-cancer Chinese Medicine of Zhejiang Province, Engineering Laboratory of Development and Application of Traditional Chinese Medicine from Zhejiang Province, Holistic Integrative Pharmacy Institutes, School of Medicine, Hangzhou Normal University, No.2318 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, 311121, People's Republic of China.

Background: MYB superfamily is one of the most abundant families in plants, which plays important roles in plant growth, development, and productivity. However, to date, researches on MYBs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are scattered mostly, not comprehensive.

Results: In this study, a total of 393 R2R3-MYBs and 12 R1R2R3-MYBs were identified and analyzed including gene structure, chromosomal distribution, synteny relationship, and evolutionary relationship. Then, 29 clusters tandem duplication and 8 clusters segmental duplication genes were discovered. The expression profile of the identified genes under abiotic and biotic stress was analyzed using RNA-seq data. Based on expression patterns analysis, we screened many candidate genes involved in plant response to abiotic and biotic stress. Among them, the functional characteristics of TaMYB344 were further studied. TaMYB344 was localized in the nucleus and functioned as a weak transcriptional activator. We demonstrated that TaMYB344-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants had enhanced tolerance to drought, heat, and high salt stress.

Conclusions: In this study, 393 R2R3-MYBs and 12 R1R2R3-MYBs in wheat were systemically identified and analyzed. Differential expression analysis indicated that many R2R3-MYBs were involved in abiotic and biotic stress response. We identified a potential candidate gene TaMYB344, overexpression of which in tobacco plants enhanced drought, heat, and salt stress tolerance. These results will provide abundant molecular data for breeding new varieties of wheat in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07175-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7659103PMC
November 2020

Appropriate Dosing Regimens of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants for Treatment of Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: An Evidence-Based Consideration.

Front Pharmacol 2020 20;11:1293. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, School of Clinical Medicine, Henan University, Zhengzhou, China.

Patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) exhibit a high risk of stroke, which is associated with high mortality. Thus, stroke prevention is crucial for the overall management of NVAF. Two categories of drugs, vitamin K antagonist warfarin and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), are clinically used to prevent NVAF-related stroke. In some circumstances, NOACs are superior to warfarin. However, NOACs selection for NVAF patients is affected by many factors, including individual patient characteristics, comorbidities, risk factors, or laboratory variables. This article summarizes the discrepancy in NOACs management with emphasis on the dosing regimens and influencing factors, such as stroke risk, age, body weight, renal function, gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) risk, and combination of antiplatelet therapy, in order to identify individual groups with particular clinical characteristics who may obtain more benefit from a certain dosing regimen of NOACs. Determination of a particular subset of patient populations for the appropriate dose regimen of NOACs will help to achieve desired clinical outcomes. Furthermore, to compensate clinical evidence, we should place more emphasis on the findings of current clinical trials and supplement real-world data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.01293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468491PMC
August 2020

ER-mitochondria contacts promote mtDNA nucleoids active transportation via mitochondrial dynamic tubulation.

Nat Commun 2020 09 8;11(1):4471. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Biomedical Pioneer Innovation Center (BIOPIC), School of Life Sciences, Peking University, 100871, Beijing, China.

A human cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) packaged into nucleoids. Currently, the segregation and allocation of nucleoids are thought to be passively determined by mitochondrial fusion and division. Here we provide evidence, using live-cell super-resolution imaging, that nucleoids can be actively transported via KIF5B-driven mitochondrial dynamic tubulation (MDT) activities that predominantly occur at the ER-mitochondria contact sites (EMCS). We further demonstrate that a mitochondrial inner membrane protein complex MICOS links nucleoids to Miro1, a KIF5B receptor on mitochondria, at the EMCS. We show that such active transportation is a mechanism essential for the proper distribution of nucleoids in the peripheral zone of the cell. Together, our work identifies an active transportation mechanism of nucleoids, with EMCS serving as a key platform for the interplay of nucleoids, MICOS, Miro1, and KIF5B to coordinate nucleoids segregation and transportation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18202-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478960PMC
September 2020

smi-miR396b targeted SmGRFs, SmHDT1, and SmMYB37/4 synergistically regulates cell growth and active ingredient accumulation in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots.

Plant Cell Rep 2020 Oct 30;39(10):1263-1283. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

The SATCM Key Laboratory for New Resources and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Compound Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cailun Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai, 201203, People's Republic of China.

Key Message: MIR396b had been cloned and overexpressed in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots. MiR396b targets SmGRFs, SmHDT1, and SmMYB37/4 to regulate cell growth and secondary metabolism in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge) is a valuable medicinal herb with two kinds of clinically used natural products, salvianolic acids and tanshinones. miR396 is a conserved microRNA and plays extensive roles in plants. However, it is still unclear how miR396 works in S. miltiorrhiza. In this study, an smi-MIR396b has been cloned from S. miltiorrhiza. Overexpression of miR396b in danshen hairy roots inhibited hairy root growth, reduced salvianolic acid concentration, but enhanced tanshinone accumulation, resulting in the biomass and total salvianolic acids respectively reduced to 55.5 and 72.1% of the control and total tanshinones increased up to 1.91-fold of the control. Applied degradome sequencing, 5'RLM-RACE, and qRT-PCR, 13 targets for miR396b were identified including seven conserved SmGRF1-7 and six novel ones. Comparative transcriptomics and microRNomics analysis together with qRT-PCR results confirmed that miR396b targets SmGRFs, SmHDT1, and SmMYB37/4 to mediate the phytohormone, especially gibberellin signaling pathways and consequentially resulted in the phenotype variation of miR396b-OE hairy roots. Furthermore, miR396b could be activated by methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, gibberellin, salt, and drought stresses. The findings in this study indicated that smi-miR396b acts as an upstream and central regulator in cell growth and the biosynthesis of tanshinones and salvianolic acids, shedding light on the coordinated regulation of plant growth and biosynthesis of active ingredients in S. miltiorrhiza.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-020-02562-8DOI Listing
October 2020

Golgi-associated microtubules are fast cargo tracks and required for persistent cell migration.

EMBO Rep 2020 03 27;21(3):e48385. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology & Biomedical Pioneer Innovation Center (BIOPIC) & School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Microtubules derived from the Golgi (Golgi MTs) have been implicated to play critical roles in persistent cell migration, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, partially due to the lack of direct observation of Golgi MT-dependent vesicular trafficking. Here, using super-resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), we discovered that post-Golgi cargos are more enriched on Golgi MTs and also surprisingly move much faster than on non-Golgi MTs. We found that, compared to non-Golgi MTs, Golgi MTs are morphologically more polarized toward the cell leading edge with significantly fewer inter-MT intersections. In addition, Golgi MTs are more stable and contain fewer lattice repair sites than non-Golgi MTs. Our STORM/live-cell imaging demonstrates that cargos frequently pause at the sites of both MT intersections and MT defects. Furthermore, by optogenetic maneuvering of cell direction, we demonstrate that Golgi MTs are essential for persistent cell migration but not for cells to change direction. Together, our study unveils the role of Golgi MTs in serving as a group of "fast tracks" for anterograde trafficking of post-Golgi cargos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embr.201948385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7054669PMC
March 2020

Visible-light-mediated photocatalytic cross-coupling of acetenyl ketones with benzyl trifluoroborate.

Org Biomol Chem 2020 02 21;18(6):1073-1077. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Pharmacy, Henan Provincial People's Hospital; Zhengzhou University People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450003, P. R. China.

In this report, we describe a simple visible light-triggered Barbier-type reaction by employing acetenyl ketones with benzyl trifluoroborates. Through a radical-radical cross-coupling process, this photocatalytic protocol furnished a wide range of tertiary propargyl alcohols. Mechanistic investigation indicated that proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) might be involved in the photochemical transformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9ob02624jDOI Listing
February 2020

Reversible black tongue: A little known side effect of imipenem/cilastatin and evidence for novel mode of action.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2020 Apr 17;45(2):370-372. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Department of Pharmacy, People's Hospital of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, China.

What Is Known And Objective: Black tongue syndrome (BT) is a rare and self-limiting disorder which can result from physiological and metabolic condition and ingestion of toxic substances. Medications are the most common cause of BT.

Case Summary: A 39-year-old male patient presented with BT after the initiation of imipenem/cilastatin. Within one week of cessation of these drugs, the patient's tongue returned to a normal colour.

What Is New And Conclusion: This is the first case of BT induced by imipenem/cilastatin. Withdrawal of the combination is likely to reverse the condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.13066DOI Listing
April 2020

Recent advances in modular co-culture engineering for synthesis of natural products.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2020 04 10;62:65-71. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA. Electronic address:

The microbial production of natural products has been traditionally accomplished in a single organism engineered to accommodate target biosynthetic pathways. Often times, such approaches result in large metabolic burdens as key cofactors, precursor metabolites and energy are channeled to pathways of structurally complex chemicals. Recently, modular co-culture engineering has emerged as a new approach to efficiently conduct heterologous biosynthesis and greatly enhance the production of natural products. This review highlights recent advances that leverage Escherichia coli-based modular co-culture engineering for making natural products. Potential future perspectives for studies in this promising field are addressed as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2019.09.004DOI Listing
April 2020

Current Evidence for Pharmacologic Reversal Using Direct Oral Anticoagulants: What's New?

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2020 Apr;20(2):117-123

Department of Pharmacy, People's Hospital of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan, China.

Direct oral anticoagulants are increasingly used in clinical practice and have addressed many of the issues related to vitamin K antagonists. However, the lack of reversal in life-threatening situations raises concerns regarding patient safety. Thus, current research is aimed at developing reversal agents that can safely neutralize the effects of anticoagulants. We present the design and mechanisms of action of and the animal models, clinical trials, and current evidence supporting the use of these emerging reversal agents. Idarucizumab is approved in many countries, and andexanet alfa has been approved by the US FDA, whereas others are in clinical trials. In view of the results of clinical studies to date, the problems of safety, price and accessibility remain. Therefore, these antidotes are a significant step towards improving the field of urgent and emergency reversal. From a practical perspective, post-market surveillance will be crucial to monitor the safety and effectiveness of these agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-019-00366-0DOI Listing
April 2020

Design and Characterization of Biosensors for the Screening of Modular Assembled Naringenin Biosynthetic Library in .

ACS Synth Biol 2019 09 28;8(9):2121-2130. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering , Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute , Troy , New York 12180 , United States.

A common challenge in the assembly and optimization of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways in recombinant hosts is the identification of gene orthologues that will result in best production titers. Here, we describe the modular assembly of a naringenin biosynthetic pathway in that was facilitated by optimized naringenin-inducible prokaryotic transcription activators used as biosensors. The biosensors were designed and developed in by a multiparametric engineering strategy, which further was applied for the , high-throughput screening of the established yeast library. The workflow for assembling naringenin biosynthetic pathways involved Golden gate-directed combinatorial assembly of genes and promoters, resulting in a strain library ideally covering 972 combinations in . For improving the performance of our screening biosensor, a series of fundamental components was optimized, affecting the efficiency of the biosensor such as nuclear localization signal (NLS), the detector module and the effector module. One biosensor (_NLS_FdeR-N_-_mcherry_MV2) showed better performance, defined as better dynamic range and sensitivity than others established in this study as well as other previously reported naringenin biosensors. Using this biosensor, we were able to identify a recombinant strain as the most efficient candidate for the production of naringenin from the established naringenin biosynthetic library. This approach can be exploited for the optimization of other metabolites derived from the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways and more importantly employed in the characterization of putative flavonoid biosynthetic genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.9b00212DOI Listing
September 2019

Large-scale production of tauroursodeoxycholic acid products through fermentation optimization of engineered Escherichia coli cell factory.

Microb Cell Fact 2019 Feb 8;18(1):34. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

The SATCM Key Laboratory for New Resources & Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Compound Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, People's Republic of China.

Background: Bear bile powder is a valuable medicinal material characterized by high content of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) at a certain ratio to taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA). We had created an engineered E. coli harboring two-step bidirectional oxidative and reductive enzyme-catalyzing pathway that could rapidly convert TCDCA to TUDCA at a specific percentage in shake flasks.

Results: We reported here the large-scale production of TUDCA containing products by balancing the bidirectional reactions through optimizing fermentation process of the engineered E. coli in fermenters. The fermentation medium was firstly optimized based on M9 medium using response surface methodology, leading to a glycerol and yeast extract modified M9-GY medium benefits for both cell growth and product conversion efficiency. Then isopropylthio-β-galactoside induction and fed-stock stage was successively optimized. Finally, a special deep-tank static process was developed to promote the conversion from TCDCA to TUDCA. Applying the optimal condition, fermentation was performed by separately supplementing 30 g refined chicken bile powder and 35 g crude chicken bile powder as substrates, resulting in 29.35 ± 2.83 g and 30.78 ± 3.04 g powder products containing 35.85 ± 3.85% and 27.14 ± 4.23% of TUDCA at a ratio of 1.49 ± 0.14 and 1.55 ± 0.19 to TCDCA, respectively, after purification and evaporation of the fermentation broth. The recovery yield was 92.84 ± 4.21% and 91.83 ± 2.56%, respectively.

Conclusion: This study provided a practical and environment friendly industrialized process for producing artificial substitute of bear bile powder from cheap and readily available chicken bile powder using engineered E. coli microbial cell factory. It also put forward an interesting deep-tank static process to promote the enzyme-catalyzing reactions toward target compounds in synthetic biology-based fermentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-019-1076-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368744PMC
February 2019

Biosynthesis of rare 20()-protopanaxadiol/protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides through engineered with uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase genes.

J Ginseng Res 2019 Jan 16;43(1):116-124. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Ginsenosides are known as the principal pharmacological active constituents in medicinal plants such as Asian ginseng, American ginseng, and Notoginseng. Some ginsenosides, especially the 20() isomers, are found in trace amounts in natural sources and are difficult to chemically synthesize. The present study provides an approach to produce such trace ginsenosides applying biotransformation through modified with relevant genes.

Methods: Seven uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes originating from , , and were synthesized or cloned and constructed into pETM6, an ePathBrick vector, which were then introduced into BL21star (DE3) separately. 20()-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), 20()-protopanaxatriol (PPT), and 20()-type ginsenosides were used as substrates for biotransformation with recombinant modified with those genes.

Results: engineered with selectively transfers a glucose moiety to the C20 hydroxyl of 20()-PPD and 20()-PPT to produce 20()-CK and 20()-F1, respectively. and -modified glycosylated the C3-OH of 20()-PPD to form 20()-Rh2. Moreover, containing p2GT95K1, a recreated two-step glycosylation pathway via the ePathBrich, implemented the successive glycosylation at C20-OH and C3-OH of 20()-PPD and yielded 20()-F2 in the biotransformation broth.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that rare 20()-ginsenosides can be produced through engineered with UTG genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2017.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323243PMC
January 2019

Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C2 functions in auxin-modulated root development.

Plant Cell Environ 2019 05 11;42(5):1441-1457. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Nine phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipases C (PLCs) have been identified in the Arabidopsis genome; among the importance of PLC2 in reproductive development is significant. However, the role of PLC2 in vegetative development such as in root growth is elusive. Here, we report that plc2 mutants displayed multiple auxin-defective phenotypes in root development, including short primary root, impaired root gravitropism, and inhibited root hair growth. The DR5:GUS expression and the endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content, as well as the responses of a set of auxin-related genes to exogenous IAA treatment, were all decreased in plc2 seedlings, suggesting the influence of PLC2 on auxin accumulation and signalling. The root elongation of plc2 mutants was less sensitive to the high concentration of exogenous auxins, and the application of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid or the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid could rescue the root hair growth of plc2 mutants. In addition, the PIN2 polarity and cycling in plc2 root epidermis cells were altered. These results demonstrate a critical role of PLC2 in auxin-mediated root development in Arabidopsis, in which PLC2 influences the polar distribution of PIN2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.13492DOI Listing
May 2019

Molecular Sensors for NMR-Based Detection.

Chem Rev 2019 01 6;119(1):195-230. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry, Center for Excellence in Molecular Synthesis, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry , University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences , 345 Ling-Ling Road , Shanghai 200032 , China.

Reliable and precise methods capable of unambiguously identifying target analytes in real-world samples are indispensable in various fields, ranging from biological studies and diagnosis to quality control. Among various analytic techniques, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely powerful as it provides multidimensional data useful for structural analysis at the atomic level. The rich information obtained from various NMR experiments allows one to access not only molecular structures and interactions but also the dynamics and diffusional properties. However, the interpretation of NMR data in the analysis of real-world mixtures can be challenging and is often complicated by the overlap of the NMR resonances of each component. Moreover, the inherently low sensitivity of the NMR technique hampers its implementation in many detections, where the analytes of interest are present at low concentrations. By a combination of heteronuclear NMR, dedicatedly designed sensors, ingenious transduction mechanisms, and powerful NMR pulse sequences, significant advancements were made to conquer these limitations. The present review summarizes the sensing systems that effectively facilitate NMR-based detection with an emphasis on the chemical perspective of sensor design and transduction mechanism. Advances in hyperpolarized sensors to boost the sensitivity of detection will also be included where appropriate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.8b00202DOI Listing
January 2019

Overexpression of SmMYB9b enhances tanshinone concentration in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots.

Plant Cell Rep 2017 Aug 15;36(8):1297-1309. Epub 2017 May 15.

The SATCM Key Laboratory for New Resources and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Complex Prescription, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cailun Road, Zhangjiang High Tech, Pudong District, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Key Message: A Salvia miltiorrhiza R2R3-MYB gene, SmMYB9b , has been cloned and characterized. Overexpression of SmMYB9b resulted in a significant improvement of tanshinones, the lipophilic active ingredients in danshen hairy roots. Plant R2R3-MYB transcription factors play important roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge) is a valuable medicinal herb with tanshinones and salvianolic acids as the principal bioactive ingredients. A number of putative R2R3-MYB transcription factors have been identified in the plant, but their function remains to be studied. Here, we report the cloning of SmMYB9b, an S20 R2R3-MYB member and its regulatory properties. SmMYB9b contains an open reading frame of 792 bp in length and encodes a 264-amino acid protein. Its transcripts were most abundant in blooming flowers (except for calyces) and increased with flower development. Exogenous abscisic acid strongly activated its transcription. Gibberellins and methyl jasmonate also showed a time-dependent activation effect on its transcription, but to a weaker degree. Overexpression of SmMYB9b in danshen hairy roots enhanced tanshinone concentration to 2.16 ± 0.39 mg/g DW, a 2.2-fold improvement over the control. In addition to increased tanshinone concentration, the hairy root growth and lateral hairy root formation were also suppressed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis with de novo RNAseq data indicated that stress-response-related metabolic pathways, such as the terpenoid and plant hormone signal transduction pathways, were significantly enriched, implying possible implication of SmMYB9b in such processes. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription of terpenoid biosynthetic genes SmDXS2, SmDXR, SmGGPPS, and SmKSL1 was significantly up-regulated in danshen hairy roots over expressing SmMYB9b. These data suggest that overexpression of SmMYB9b results in enhanced tanshinone concentration through stimulation of the MEP pathway. The present findings shed new light on elucidating the roles of R2R3-MYB in the biosynthesis of diterpenoids in S. miltiorrhiza.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-017-2154-8DOI Listing
August 2017

Rapidly directional biotransformation of tauroursodeoxycholic acid through engineered Escherichia coli.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 07 22;44(7):1073-1082. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

The SATCM Key Laboratory for New Resources & Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Complex Prescription, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Bear bile powder is a precious medicinal material. It is characterized by high content of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) at a ratio of 1.0-1.5 to taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA). Here, we reported the biotransformation of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) through Escherichia coli engineered with a two-step mimic biosynthetic pathway of TUDCA from taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA). Two 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7α-HSDH) and two 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7β-HSDH) genes (named as α, α, β, and β) were selected and synthesized to create four pathway variants using ePathBrick. All could convert TCDCA to TUDCA and the one harboring α and β (pαβ) showed the strongest capability. Utilizing the oxidative and reductive properties of 7α- and 7β-HSDH, an ideal balance between TUDCA and TCDCA was established by optimizing the fermentation conditions. By applying the optimal condition, E. coli containing pαβ (BL-pαβ) produced up to 1.61 ± 0.13 g/L of TUDCA from 3.23 g/L of TCDCA at a ratio of 1.3 to TCDCA. This study provides a potential approach for bear bile substitute production from cheap and readily available chicken bile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10295-017-1935-yDOI Listing
July 2017

Factors influencing medication knowledge and beliefs on warfarin adherence among patients with atrial fibrillation in China.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2017 9;11:213-220. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Department of Pharmacy.

Objectives: Warfarin is often used for ischemic stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but the factors affecting patient adherence to warfarin therapy have not been fully understood.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in AF patients undergoing warfarin therapy at least 6 months prior to the study. The clinical data collected using questionnaires by phone interviews included the following: 1) self-reported adherence measured by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8; 2) beliefs about medicines surveyed by Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ); and 3) drug knowledge as measured by the Warfarin Related Knowledge Test (WRKT). Demographic and clinical factors associated with warfarin adherence were identified using a logistic regression model.

Results: Two hundred eighty-eight patients completed the survey and 93 (32.3%) of them were classified as nonadherent (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 score <6). Major factors predicting warfarin adherence included age, cardiovascular disorders, WRKT, and BMQ; WRKT and BMQ were independently correlated with adherence to warfarin therapy by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Adherents were more likely to have greater knowledge scores and stronger beliefs in the necessity of their specific medications ([odds ratio {OR} =1.81, 95% confidence interval {CI} =1.51-2.15] and [OR =1.17, 95% CI =1.06-1.29], respectively). Patients with greater concerns about adverse reactions and more negative views of general harm were more likely to be nonadherent ([OR =0.76, 95% CI =0.69-0.84] and [OR =0.82, 95% CI =0.73-0.92], respectively).

Conclusion: BMK and WRKT are related with patient behavior toward warfarin adherence. BMQ can be applied to identify patients at increased risk of nonadherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S120962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5308593PMC
February 2017

A prospective study investigating the causes of warfarin under-utilization in Chinese patients.

Int J Clin Pharm 2016 Oct 3;38(5):1286-93. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Department of Pharmacy, People's Hospital of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan, China.

Background Warfarin is efficacious for ischemic stroke prevention in intermediate- to high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation; thus, warfarin is the recommended treatment according to evidence-based guidelines. Objective This prospective study evaluated the reasons for under-utilization of warfarin in Chinese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Setting The People's Hospital of Henan Province of Zhengzhou City, which is a 3900-bed tertiary-care teaching institution. Methods We extracted data from an existing patient database. Patients at risk for thromboembolism were categorized based on CHA2DS2-VASc [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 (doubled), diabetes, prior stroke (doubled), vascular disease, age 65-74 years, and sex category (female)] scores. Main outcome measure The percent of warfarin utilization was estimated in recruited patients. Any demographic and clinical factors associated with warfarin under-utilization were identified using a logistic regression model. Results Among the patient sample (n = 612), 569 patients had a CHA2DS2-VASc score of ≥1. At presentation, warfarin under-utilization was estimated to be 27.1 %. Only 120 patients (25.1 %) considered to be at the highest risk were prescribed warfarin. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that previous stroke, age ≥75 years, and anti-platelet therapy were associated with warfarin under-utilization. Conclusion Patients with CHA2DS2-VASc scores ≥1 who were admitted with NVAF were under prescribed warfarin, and 138 patients were not treated with either warfarin or other antithrombotic therapies. In conclusion, a more aggressive approach for stroke prevention in NVAF patients is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-016-0367-5DOI Listing
October 2016

Conventional, ultrasound-assisted, and accelerated-solvent extractions of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes.

Food Chem 2016 Apr 10;197(Pt A):266-72. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Guangdong Industry Technical College, Guangdong 510300, China.

Purple sweet potatoes (PSPs) are rich in anthocyanins. In this study, we investigated the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins from PSPs using conventional extraction (CE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and accelerated-solvent extraction (ASE). Additionally, the effects of these extraction methods on antioxidant activity and anthocyanin composition of PSP extracts were evaluated. In order of decreasing extraction efficiency, the extraction methods were ASE>UAE>CE for anthocyanins (218-244 mg/100 g DW) and CE>UAE>ASE for total phenolics (631-955 mg/100 g DW) and flavonoids (28-40 mg/100 g DW). Antioxidant activities of PSP extracts were CE≈UAE>ASE for ORAC (766-1091 mg TE/100 g DW) and ASE>CE≈UAE for FRAP (1299-1705 mg TE/100 g DW). Twelve anthocyanins were identified. ASE extracts contained more diacyl anthocyanins and less nonacyl and monoacyl anthocyanins than CE and ASE extracts (P<0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.10.110DOI Listing
April 2016

RopGEF2 is involved in ABA-suppression of seed germination and post-germination growth of Arabidopsis.

Plant J 2015 Dec 11;84(5):886-99. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

The involvement of Rho of Plants (ROP) GTPases in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling in Arabidopsis has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the roles of RopGEFs (Rop guanine nucleotide exchange factors), which modulate ROP activities in ABA signalling, are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that RopGEF2 may play a negative role in ABA-suppressed seed germination and post-germination growth. We show that disruption of RopGEF2 enhances sensitivity to exogenous ABA in seed germination assays and that RopGEF2pro-GUS is mainly expressed in developing embryos and germinating seeds. Interestingly, YFP-RopGEF2 is located in both the cytoplasmic region and in mitochondria. Notably, the PRONE2 (plant-specific ROP nucleotide exchanger 2) domain of RopGEF2 is detected in mitochondria, whereas the N-terminus of RopGEF2 is shown to be in the cytosol. After ABA treatment, degradation of RopGEF2 is triggered in the cytosol through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system. The binding of RopGEF2 to ROP2, ROP6 or ROP10, which has been demonstrated to be involved in ABA signalling, not only alters the localization of RopGEF2 but also enables RopGEF2 to escape degradation in the cell. Thus, in this study, we deduce a sophisticated mechanism of ABA-mediated RopGEF2-ROP signalling, which potentially implicates the inactivation of ROPs in responsiveness to ABA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.13046DOI Listing
December 2015

Enhancing diterpenoid concentration in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots through pathway engineering with maize C1 transcription factor.

J Exp Bot 2015 Dec 9;66(22):7211-26. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

The SATCM Key Laboratory for New Resources & Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, The MOE Key Laboratory for Standardization of Chinese Medicines and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Complex Prescription, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, PR China.

Tanshinones are valuable natural diterpenoids from danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge). Here, it was demonstrated that maize transcription factor C1 improved the accumulation of tanshinones by comprehensively upregulating the pathway genes, especially SmMDC and SmPMK in danshen hairy roots, yielding total tanshinones up to 3.59mg g(-1) of dry weight in line C1-6, a 3.4-fold increase compared with the control. Investigation of 2024bp of the SmMDC promoter fragment revealed that C1-mediated upregulation of terpenoid genes was possibly due to the direct interaction of C1 with its recognition sequences. The increase of tanshinones was accompanied by a decrease of salvianolic acid production, the other bioactive ingredient in danshen, by up to 37% compared with the control. This was the result of the downregulation of SmTAT, the entry-point gene of the tyrosine pathway, which promoted metabolic flow to anthocyanins rather than to salvianolic acids. Based on the findings of the present study, it was concluded that cis-acting elements shared by terpenoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes are partially responsible for the C1-stimulated variation of tanshinone and salvianolic acid concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erv418DOI Listing
December 2015

Arabidopsis PLC2 is involved in auxin-modulated reproductive development.

Plant J 2015 Nov;84(3):504-15

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Phospholipase C (PLC) is an enzyme that plays crucial roles in various signal transduction pathways in mammalian cells. However, the role of PLC in plant development is poorly understood. Here we report involvement of PLC2 in auxin-mediated reproductive development in Arabidopsis. Disruption of PLC2 led to sterility, indicating a significant role for PLC2 in reproductive development. Development of both male and female gametophytes was severely perturbed in plc2 mutants. Moreover, elevated auxin levels were observed in plc2 floral tissues, suggesting that the infertility of plc2 plants may be associated with increased auxin concentrations in the reproductive organs. We show that expression levels of the auxin reporters DR5:GUS and DR5:GFP were elevated in plc2 anthers and ovules. In addition, we found that expression of the auxin biosynthetic YUCCA genes was increased in plc2 plants. We conclude that PLC2 is involved in auxin biosynthesis and signaling, thus modulating development of both male and female gametophytes in Arabidopsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.13016DOI Listing
November 2015

Education is critical for medication adherence in patients with coronary heart disease.

Acta Cardiol 2015 Apr;70(2):197-204

Background: Although non-adherence to medications is associated with increased cardiovascular risks, very little information is focused on the relationship between knowledge and medication adherence among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).

Aim: The purposes were to assess the relationship between medication adherence and medication- or disease-related knowledge in patients with CHD, and to investigate whether educating patients would alter their medication adherence behaviour.

Methods: This study was carried out at the outpatient clinic of a public university teaching hospital in China.The primary outcome was the ability of patients to follow medication instructions, which was assessed by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMSA-8). The Medication- or Disease-Related Knowledge Test (MDRKT) was used to assess patients'medication-related knowledge. We also explored patients'preferences for receiving education about medications and whether it is necessary for pharmacists to provide education.

Results: Among the 159 patients who completed the survey, approximately 38.4% were considered non-adherent (MMAS-8 score <6). Medication- or disease-related knowledge and concerns about adverse drug events were significantly associated with non-adherence. The MDRKT revealed that most participants had very little knowledge about their drug treatment. Specifically, 22 participants said that pharmacists were their primary source of information. Subsequently, 95.0% of participants expressed an interest in activities related to medication education.

Conclusions: Knowledgeable patients with CHD are more likely to adhere to medication instructions. Many patients have difficulty acquiring medication information; thus, patients need increased access to education about their medication. Pharmacist services may be required to provide such information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ac.70.2.3073511DOI Listing
April 2015

Improvement of catechin production in Escherichia coli through combinatorial metabolic engineering.

Metab Eng 2015 Mar 17;28:43-53. Epub 2014 Dec 17.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA. Electronic address:

Reconstruction of highly efficient biosynthesis pathways is essential for the production of valuable plant secondary metabolites in recombinant microorganisms. In order to improve the titer of green tea catechins in Escherichia coli, combinatorial strategies were employed using the ePathBrick vectors to express the committed catechin pathway: flavanone 3β-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). Three F3H, three DFR, and two LAR genes originating from different plant species were selected and synthesized, to create 18 pathway variants to be screened in E. coli. Constructs containing F3H(syn) originally from Camellia sinensis, DFR(syn) from Anthurium andraeanum, C. sinensis, or Fragaria ananass, and LAR(syn) from Desmodium uncinatum (p148, p158 and p168) demonstrated high conversion efficiency with either eriodictyol or naringenin as substrate. A highly efficient construct was created by assembling additional copies of DFR(syn) and LAR(syn) enabling a titer of 374.6 ± 43.6 mg/L of (+)-catechin. Improving the NADPH availability via the ΔpgiΔppc mutation, BLΔpgiΔppc-p148 produced the highest titer of catechin at 760.9 ± 84.3 mg/L. After utilizing a library of scaffolding proteins, the strain BLΔpgiΔppc-p168-759 reached the highest titer of (+)-catechin of 910.9 ± 61.3 mg/L from 1.0 g/L of eriodictyol in batch culture with M9 minimal media. The impact of oxygen availability on the biosynthesis of catechin was also investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymben.2014.12.002DOI Listing
March 2015

Effect of glycosylation patterns of Chinese eggplant anthocyanins and other derivatives on antioxidant effectiveness in human colon cell lines.

Food Chem 2015 Apr 6;172:183-9. Epub 2014 Sep 6.

College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Zhejiang 310053, China. Electronic address:

In this study, we compared the scavenging ROS of anthocyanins from Chinese eggplant var. Niu Jiao Qie and other delphinidin derivatives with different glycosylation patterns in HT-29 and HCT-116 cell lines. The eggplant anthocyanins were isolated and identified using LC-MSn and (1)H/(13)C NMR as delphinidin-3-[(4"-trans-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnosyl (1 → 6)glucoside]-5-glucoside, also known as nasunin. Delphinidin derivatives with glycosylation only on C3 (delphinidin-3-glucoside, 3-sambubioside, or 3-rutinoside) exhibited greater effects on ROS reduction as compared to delphinidin derivatives that have glycosylation on C3 and C5 (delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside>delphinidin-3-rutinoside-5-glucoside). Nasunin has glycosylation on C3 and C5 and an acyl group (p-coumaric acid), demonstrated the least effect on ROS reduction. Meanwhile, their ROS reduction activities were consistent with glutathione reductase protein expression levels in HT-29. Although not potent in ROS reduction, nasunin and its deacylated derivatives protected cells from DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that the anthocyanins isolated from Chinese eggplant var. Niu Jiao Qie and other delphinidin have antioxidant activities in colon cancer cells and also protect cells from DNA damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.100DOI Listing
April 2015

Removal of off-flavours from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) anthocyanin-rich pigments using chitosan and its mechanism(s).

Food Chem 2014 Mar 25;146:423-8. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

Department of Food Science and Engineering, School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Jiangsu 212013, China.

In this paper, we examined the role of chitosan in the removal of off-flavours from radish anthocyanin-rich pigments and studied the mechanisms of the process. Four radish glucosinolates (glucoraphenin, dehydroerucin, glucobrassicin, and glucoerucin) were identified by LC-MSn from root extracts and dehydroerucin was found to be the major glucosinolate in red radish roots. Application of chitosan with 76%, 83% or 89% deacetylation in radish extracts attributed to 26%, 35% or 43% adsorption rate for glucosinolates, and 28%, 26% or 22% for anthocyanins, respectively. HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis demonstrated that the concentration of volatile compounds decreased by 70%, resulting in the loss of odorous compounds. The changes in chitosan spectra before/after adsorption and after desorption at 1590 and 3360cm(-1) and at broad bands from 2600 to 2000cm(-1) suggest that the dominant adsorption mechanisms of glucosinolates on chitosan may be electrostatic attractions, including hydrogen bonds and charge neutralisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.107DOI Listing
March 2014
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