Publications by authors named "Shuichi Ota"

139 Publications

Improvements in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes for adults with ALL over the past 3 decades.

Blood Adv 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a promising treatment for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), an intractable hematological malignancy. The trends in allo-HCT outcomes over the past 30 years were examined to verify the efficacy of evolving treatment methods and to identify further challenges. We analyzed data from a registry database that included 8467 adult ALL patients who underwent their first allo-HCT between 1990 and 2019. The period was divided into three 10-year intervals for analysis. Five-year overall survival improved from 48.2% to 70.2% in the first complete remission (CR1), from 25.6% to 44.1% in subsequent CR, and from 10.0% to 22.7% in non-CR. Non-relapse mortality improved over the 3 decades in each disease stage. However, the relapse rate only improved in CR1 every decade (26.3% to 15.9% in CR1, 33.4% to 32.8% in subsequent CR, and 53.6% to 54.8% in non-CR). Although there was continual improvements in adjusted survival for Philadelphia-chromosome (Ph) positive patients, the improvement was inadequate for Ph negative patients with t(4;11), t(8;14), t(14;18), or hypodiploidy. Allo-HCT outcomes for adults with ALL have improved over the past 30 years. Improved outcomes in the future will require more effective prevention of relapse in patients with ALL not in CR1 and in those with high-risk chromosomal abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2022008032DOI Listing
June 2022

Correlation between antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance: A multicenter study using the Japan Surveillance for Infection Prevention and Healthcare Epidemiology (J-SIPHE) system in Hokkaido, Japan.

Am J Infect Control 2022 Jun 4. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Department of Cardiology, Hakodate Shintoshi Hospital; 331-1 Ishikawa-cho, Hakodate, Hokkaido 041-0802, Japan.

Background: The Japan Surveillance for Infection Prevention and Healthcare Epidemiology (J-SIPHE) system aggregates information related to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) measures in participating medical institutions nationwide and is intended to be used for promotion of AMR measures in participating facilities and their communities. This multicenter study aimed to determine the usefulness of the J-SIPHE system for evaluating the correlation between antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in Hokkaido, Japan.

Methods: Data on antibiotic use and detection rate of major resistant Gram-negative bacteria at 19 hospitals in 2020 were collected from the J-SIPHE system, and data correlations were analyzed using JMP Pro.

Results: The detection rate of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was significantly positively correlated with carbapenem use (Spearman's ρ = 0.551; P = 0.015). There were significant positive correlations between the detection rate of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli and the use of piperacillin/tazobactam, carbapenems, and quinolones [ρ = 0.518 (P = 0.023), ρ = 0.76 (P < 0.001), and ρ = 0.502 (P = 0.029), respectively].

Conclusion: This is the first multicenter study to investigate the correlation between antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance using the J-SIPHE system. The results suggest that using this system may be beneficial for promoting AMR measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2022.05.025DOI Listing
June 2022

High CRP-albumin ratio predicts poor prognosis in transplant ineligible elderly patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.

Sci Rep 2022 May 25;12(1):8885. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients older than 65 years have a poor prognosis. Recently, CAR (C-reactive-protein/albumin ratio) has been actively reported as a prognostic index reflecting the nutritional and inflammatory status of elderly patients with solid tumors, but the usefulness of this index as a prognostic indicator in transplant-ineligible elderly AML patients has not been investigated. We studied genetic alterations and CARs in 188 newly diagnosed AML patients aged 65 years or older who were treated in a multicenter setting and had treated without HSCT. Both NCCN 2017 risk group, reflecting the genetic component of the tumor, and CAR, reflecting the inflammatory and nutritional status of the patient, successfully stratified the overall survival (OS) of the patients (2-year OS; CAR low vs high, 42.3% vs 17.8%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, in multivariate analysis, NCCN 2017 poor group and high CAR were extracted as independent poor prognostic factors predicting 2-year OS in the current study. We found, for the first time, that CAR at diagnosis predicted the prognosis of elderly patients with newly diagnosed AML treated without HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12813-1DOI Listing
May 2022

Improved trends in survival and engraftment after single cord blood transplantation for adult acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood Cancer J 2022 May 25;12(5):81. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) is an alternative curative option for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who need allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) but lack an HLA-matched related or unrelated donor. However, large-scale data are lacking on CBT outcomes for unselected adult AML. To investigate the trends of survival and engraftment after CBT over the past 22 years, we retrospectively evaluated the data of patients with AML in Japan according to the time period of CBT (1998-2007 vs 2008-2013 vs 2014-2019). A total of 5504 patients who received single-unit CBT as first allogeneic HCT for AML were included. Overall survival (OS) at 2 years significantly improved over time. The improved OS among patients in ≥ complete remission (CR)3 and active disease at CBT was mainly due to a reduction of relapse-related mortality, whereas among patients in first or second CR at CBT, this was due mainly to a reduction of non-relapse mortality. The trends of neutrophil engraftment also improved over time. This experience demonstrated that the survival and engraftment rate after CBT for this group has improved over the past 22 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-022-00678-6DOI Listing
May 2022

Ideal Body Weight Is Useful For Predicting Neutrophil Engraftment and Platelet Recovery for Overweight and Obese Recipients in Single-Unit Cord Blood Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Hematology, National Defense Medical College Hospital, Saitama, Japan.

Because cord blood (CB) units are usually selected based on the cell dose per kilogram, overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/mto < 30 kg/m) and obese (30 kg/m ≤ BMI) recipients tend to have difficulty in getting appropriate CB units. In general, actual body weight (ABW) is used for CB unit selection. However, ideal body weight (IBW) has been reported to be more closely correlated with successful engraftment after autologous, allogeneic bone marrow, and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation than ABW. We conducted this analysis to clarify the threshold of CD34 cell doses based on ideal body weight (CD34) and to compare the outcomes among the groups stratified by the threshold according to actual body weight (CD34) and CD34 for overweight and obese recipients in cord blood transplantation (CBT). We retrospectively analyzed 650 overweight and obese recipients who received single-unit CBT. To focus on the recipients who received a low CD34 cell dose/kg, those who received 1.5×10 CD34 cells/ABW or more were excluded. Using a cut-off of 0.8×10 CD34 cells/kg, we compared the outcomes in 3 groups with low CD34 and low CD34 (CD34), low CD34 but high CD34 (CD34), and high CD34 and high CD34 (CD34). Hematopoietic recoveries were significantly delayed in the CD34 group compared with those in the CD34 group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67 for neutrophil, P < .001; HR 0.72 for platelet, P = .014), whereas those were comparable in the CD34 and CD34 groups (HR 1.22 for neutrophil, P = .16; HR 1.29 for platelet, P = .088). Moreover, the CD34 group demonstrated longer overall survival than the CD34 group (HR 1.48, P = .011) and comparable survival to the CD34 group (HR 0.93, P = .68). This finding may address the lack of availability of CB units for some overweight and obese recipients for whom suitable donors are unavailable. Further investigations are warranted to evaluate the appropriateness of ABW and IBW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2022.05.006DOI Listing
May 2022

A Rare Case of the Coexistence of Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction and Gastrointestinal Tumor in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

Cureus 2022 Apr 11;14(4):e24048. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka Saiseikai Noe Hospital, Osaka, JPN.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a congenital condition characterized by "café au lait" spots and subcutaneous fibromas. There are various combined diseases, such as malignant tumors in the abdominal organs or brain tumors. Here, we present a case of a 35-year-old patient with a rare combination of NF1 with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM). At the first visit, her main symptom was right upper abdominal pain. Radiological investigations revealed a common bile duct stone, submucosal tumor in the duodenum, PBM, and abnormal findings in the intrahepatic bile ducts. After the common bile duct stone was removed by endoscopic intervention, the patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, resection of the duodenal submucosal tumor, and liver biopsy. Pathological examination revealed chronic cholecystitis, GIST of the duodenum, and chronic inflammation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. This is the first case report of the rare coexistence of GIST and PBM in a patient with NF1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.24048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9090212PMC
April 2022

Propensity score matching/reweighting analysis comparing autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation for B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Int J Hematol 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

We compared the outcomes of autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) with those of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) from a human leukocyte antigen-matched related donor in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Newly diagnosed patients who underwent allo-SCT (n = 486) or auto-SCT (n = 99) after achieving first complete remission (CR) were included. Propensity score matching (PS) and an inverse probability of the treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis were applied to compensate for imbalances in baseline characteristics. The 5 years rates of overall survival (OS) among those in the PS-matched cohorts were 57% [95% confidence interval (CI) 46-67%] for those who received allo-SCT and 44% (95% CI 33-54%) for those who received auto-SCT. Multivariable, propensity score-matched, and IPTW analyses all revealed no statistically significant differences in OS between the two groups [hazard ratios (HR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.53-1.27, p = 0.36; HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.40-1.78, p = 0.65; HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.25-2.02, p = 0.53, respectively]. Prospective trials that include autologous transplantation as a treatment option are needed to examine the potential of autologous transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-022-03368-yDOI Listing
May 2022

Impact of HLA Epitope Matching on Outcomes After Unrelated Bone Marrow Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2022 3;13:811733. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Hematology, Rheumatology (Second Department of Internal Medicine), Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Japan.

The significance of antibody-identified epitopes stimulating humoral alloimmunity is not well understood in the identification of non-permissive human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatching patterns in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This was a retrospective study in a cohort of 9,991 patients who underwent their first HSCT for hematologic malignancies from unrelated bone marrow donors in the Transplant Registry Unified Management Program (TRUMP). HLA eplet mismatches (EMM) were quantified using HLAMatchmaker (HLAMM). The median age of patients was 48 years (range, 16 to 77). The number of EMM in recipient-donor pairs in our study population ranged from 0 to 37 in HLA class I (median, 0) and 0 to 60 in HLA class II (median, 1). In addition to the known high-risk mismatch patterns in the Japanese cohort, HLA-C EMM in the GVH direction was associated with a significantly higher risk for grade III-IV aGVHD, leading to a higher risk of non-relapse mortality and lower overall survival (compared with HLA-C matched patients, HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.44-1.95; HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.25-1.54; HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.10-1.30, respectively). HLAMM-based epitope matching might be useful for identifying patients who are at high risk for serious complications after HSCT from HLA mismatched unrelated donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.811733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8928463PMC
May 2022

Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Adult Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Second Complete Remission.

Transplant Cell Ther 2022 Jun 17;28(6):326.e1-326.e10. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Even in the era of high-intensity chemotherapy, disease recurrence remains a major cause of treatment failure in adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-negative B-ALL). For patients who achieved second complete remission (CR2) with salvage chemotherapy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) could be the best curative treatment. However, limited data are available on the outcomes of allo-HSCT for adult Ph-negative B-ALL in CR2 in the high-intensity chemotherapy era. We evaluated the transplantation outcomes of adult patients with Ph-negative B-ALL in CR2 compared with those in CR1. We also clarified the prognostic factors among adult allo-HSCT recipients with Ph-negative B-ALL in CR2. We conducted a nationwide retrospective study using the data form Japanese transplant registry database. Patients aged ≥16 years and underwent their first allo-HSCT between 2003 and 2017 were included. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of the patients in CR2 (n = 382) was significantly lower than that in first complete remission (n = 1375) (51.8% versus 68.1%; P < .001), accompanied by a higher relapse rate (34.2% versus 17.6% at 3 years; P < .001). In a multivariate analysis among CR2 patients, time from diagnosis to allo-HSCT (≤2 years) was a significant factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.87; P < .001) and relapse (HR = 1.88; P < .001), whereas age at allo-HSCT (≥30 years) was a significant factor for OS (HR = 2.10, P < .001) and nonrelapse mortality (HR = 2.68; P < .001). By assigning a score of 1 to each factor, the 3-year OS rate of CR2 patients significantly stratified: 70.7% in patients with score 0, 56.4% with score 1, and 28.4% with score 2 (P < .001). The survival outcomes of allo-HSCT in adult Ph-negative B-ALL patients in CR2 were inferior to those in CR1 in the high-intensity chemotherapy era, mainly because of the higher relapse rate. Among the CR2 patients, the short time between diagnosis and allo-HSCT was a significant risk factor for disease recurrence and overall mortality. Better disease control with novel treatment strategies may be needed for early relapse. In addition, the nonrelapse mortality rate in patients over 30 years of age was particularly high among CR2 patients, suggesting the need for improved supportive care for these patients. Further studies are warranted on the outcomes of allo-HSCT after achieving CR2 with novel drugs, such as inotuzumab ozogamicin and blinatumomab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2022.03.017DOI Listing
June 2022

Outcome of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and oligoblastic acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A propensity score matched analysis.

Hematol Oncol 2022 Mar 17. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Department of Hematology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan.

Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes (t-MDS) are generally progressive and associated with poorer outcomes than de novo MDS (d-MDS). To evaluate the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for t-MDS, we conducted a propensity score matched-pair analysis of patients with t-MDS and d-MDS using a nationwide database. A total of 178 patients with t-MDS underwent allo-HSCT between 2001 and 2018, and 178 out of 3123 patients with d-MDS were selected. The probability of 3-year overall survival rate was 40.0% and 50.0% in the t-MDS and d-MDS groups, respectively (p = 0.032). The 3-year transplant-related mortality was 30.9% and 19.0% in the t-MDS and d-MDS groups, respectively (p = 0.005). The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 32.8% and 33.0% in the t-MDS and d-MDS groups, respectively (p = 0.983). A multivariate analysis identified four adverse factors for overall survival in the t-MDS group: age ≥ 55 years (hazard ratio [HR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.11-3.94; p = 0.023), the poor cytogenetic risk group (HR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.40-4.19; p = 0.019), performance status at allo-HSCT 2-4 (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.19-3.86; p = 0.011), and a shorter interval from diagnosis to transplantation (<8 months; HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.00-2.57; p = 0.048). The most frequent cause of transplant-related death was the infectious complications (21.6%) in t-MDS group and organ failure (12.5%) in d-MDS group. In conclusion, allo-HSCT potentially provides long-term remission in patients with t-MDS; however, further efforts to reduce transplant-related death are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2991DOI Listing
March 2022

Myeloablative Versus Reduced-Intensity Conditioning With Fludarabine/Busulfan for Myelodysplastic Syndrome: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2022 Jun 13;28(6):323.e1-323.e9. Epub 2022 Mar 13.

Department of Hematology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan.

There are limited data comparing myeloablative conditioning with fludarabine/busulfan (Flu/Bu4) and reduced-intensity conditioning with fludarabine/busulfan (Flu/Bu2) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We retrospectively analyzed nationwide registry data and compared the outcomes of adult patients with MDS receiving Flu/Bu4 and Flu/Bu2 by propensity score (PS) matching. Patients who met the following criteria were eligible for enrollment: (1) age ≥16 years; (2) diagnosis of de novo MDS; (3) first allo-HSCT between 2006 and 2018; (4) related bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from an HLA-matched donor, unrelated BMT from an HLA-matched or HLA-1 allele-mismatched donor, or unrelated cord blood transplantation; and (5) receiving Flu/Bu4 or Flu/Bu2 as a conditioning regimen. Flu/Bu4 comprised intravenous busulfan (total dose, 12.8 mg/kg) combined with fludarabine (total dose, 125-180 mg/m). Flu/Bu2 comprised intravenous busulfan (total dose, 6.4 mg/kg) combined with the same dose of fludarabine. To minimize selection bias and confounding factors, we performed a propensity score (PS)-matched analysis. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) after allo-HSCT. A total of 3386 patients with de novo MDS underwent their first allo-HSCT between 2006 and 2018. Among them, 202 patients were assigned each to the Flu/Bu4 and Flu/Bu2 groups after PS-matched analysis. The median age was 61 (interquartile, 57-65) years. The 3-year OS rates were 44.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.1-52.1%) and 46.9% (95% CI, 39.2-54.2%) in the Flu/Bu4 and Flu/Bu2 groups, respectively (P = .67). The 3-year rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free survival, relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 28.8% (95% CI, 22.2-35.7%) and 33.0% (95% CI, 26.2-40.0%), respectively (P = .36). The 3-year cumulative incidence rates of relapse were 28.9% (95% CI, 22.6-35.6%) and 30.0% (95% CI, 23.6-36.6%), respectively (P = .47). The 3-year cumulative incidence rates of non-relapse mortality (NRM) were 28.2% (95% CI, 21.7-35.0%) and 27.1% (95% CI, 20.6-33.9%), respectively (P = .60). The 100-day cumulative incidence rate of grade II-IV acute GVHD was significantly higher in the Flu/Bu4 group than in the Flu/Bu2 group (41.7% [95% CI, 34.8%-48.4%] versus 29.3% [95% CI, 23.2%-35.7%], P = 0.012). To identify patients who had more favorable outcomes with 1 of the 2 regimens, we compared the outcomes between the 2 groups after stratifying by age, hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index, cytogenetic risk, disease status at allo-HSCT, stem cell source, and donor type. OS, GRFS, relapse, and NRM did not differ between the 2 groups in any subgroup analyses. There were no significant interactions between the choice of conditioning regimens and any other factors. There are no differences in survival between Flu/Bu4 and Flu/Bu2, although our study population was highly selected by PS matching. Data from more patients and prospective studies are needed to determine the optimal intensity of conditioning regimens in patients with MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2022.03.011DOI Listing
June 2022

Dynamic change in peripheral blood WT1 mRNA levels within three cycles of azacitidine predict treatment response in patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

Ann Hematol 2022 Jun 8;101(6):1239-1250. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Department of Hematology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Kita-ku, Sapporo, N15 W7060-8638, Japan.

Azacitidine (AZA) improves overall survival (OS) in patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, predictive factors for response to AZA remain largely unknown. To elucidate whether dynamic change in peripheral blood (PB) Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1) mRNA levels could predict response to AZA, we retrospectively identified 75 treatment-naïve patients with high-risk MDS who received at least 3 cycles of AZA. We classified patients into 4 groups, low-increase (LI), low-stable (LS), high-decrease (HD), and high-stable (HS) based on the dynamic change in PB WT1 mRNA levels within 3 cycles of AZA. Cumulative incidence of overall response after 10 cycles of AZA was significantly higher in LS/HD than in HS/LI (75.5% vs 4.5%, P < 0.001). The median OS for LS/HD was 18.2 months (95% CI, 12.8-28.1 months), whereas it was 11.6 months for HS/LI (95% CI, 6.6-14.1 months; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that poor-/very poor-IPSS-R cytogenetic risk and HS/LI were independently associated with poor OS (poor-/very poor-IPSS-R cytogenetic risk: HR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.10-4.68, P = 0.03, HS/LI: HR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.21-4.46, P = 0.01). Patients with HS/LI did not show any further response to continuous AZA, and they should be considered for alternative therapy from earlier cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-022-04807-wDOI Listing
June 2022

Wilms' tumor 1 peptide-loaded dendritic cell vaccination in patients with relapsed or refractory acute leukemia.

Ther Apher Dial 2022 Jun 10;26(3):537-547. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Department of Hematology, Sapporo Hokuyu Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

Introduction: The prognosis of patients with relapsed or refractory acute leukemia is poor. In the present pilot study, we treated relapsed or refractory acute leukemia patients with Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) and examined safety, clinical and immunological responses.

Methods: Eleven eligible patients were enrolled. DCs were administered every 2-3 weeks with OK-432 adjuvant.

Results: The treatment was well tolerated. The reduction of leukemia cells or the expression of WT1 mRNA was observed in four patients which was maintained for a significant period of time. All the responding patients manifested immune responses against WT1 which might be related to clinical outcome. Decreases in the absolute number of regulatory T cells were observed following vaccination, indicating that DC vaccinations may contribute to the reversal of immunosuppression.

Conclusion: These results indicate that DC-based immunotherapy is safe and feasible for patients with acute leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.13828DOI Listing
June 2022

Wilms' tumor 1 peptide-loaded dendritic cell vaccination in patients with relapsed or refractory malignant lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2022 Feb 15:1-5. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Hematology, Sapporo Hokuyu Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2022.2038371DOI Listing
February 2022

Donor lymphocyte infusion after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia.

Ann Hematol 2022 Mar 6;101(3):643-653. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Although haploidentical donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is a valid treatment option for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the incidence and risk factors for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the efficacy of haploidentical DLI have not been fully evaluated. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes after haploidentical DLI for 84 patients with AML using a nationwide database and additional questionnaires. The median number of DLI cycles and infused CD3 cell dose was 1 and 1.0 × 10/kg, respectively. The infused CD3 cell count of 5.0 × 10/kg or higher was associated with acute GVHD (grade II-IV, 32.1% vs. 10.5%, p = 0.03; grade III-IV, 21.4% vs. 5.3%, p = 0.10). Patients who developed grade III-IV acute GVHD more frequently succumbed to treatment-related mortality (46.7% vs. 15.8% at 1 year, p = 0.002), although the relapse-related mortality was significantly low (40.0% vs. 72.2% at 1 year, p = 0.025). The overall response to DLI was significantly higher in the preemptive DLI group (47.4%) than in the therapeutic group (13.9%, p = 0.002). In the multivariate analysis, preemptive DLI was the predictive factor for overall response (odds ratio, 5.58; p = 0.003). Our results indicated the substantial risk of acute GVHD after haploidentical DLI with CD3 cell count of 5.0×10/kg or higher and the favorable outcomes after preemptive DLI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04731-5DOI Listing
March 2022

Antithymocyte Globulin Potentially Could Overcome an Adverse Effect of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in Matched-Related Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2022 03 22;28(3):153.e1-153.e11. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Previous Japanese studies have shown that bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is associated with better survival compared with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from a matched related donor (MRD). PBSCT recipients have shown higher incidences of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) compared with BMT recipients. In recent years, the efficacy and safety of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for PBSCT recipients has been evaluated worldwide. In the present study, we aimed to compare BMT and PBSCT recipients to identify current improvements and unmet needs among MRD PBSCT recipients. In addition, we evaluated the impact of ATG administration on the outcomes of PBSCT recipients. We retrospectively analyzed patients age ≥16 years with acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, or chronic myelogenous leukemia who underwent their first BMT or PBSCT from an MRD between 2009 and 2018 in Japan. A total of 3599 transplantations were performed (BMT, n = 1218; PBSCT without ATG [PBSCT-ATG(-)], n = 2288; PBSCT with ATG [PBSCT-ATG(+)], n = 93). The PBSCT-ATG(-) group had a higher NRM (hazard ratio [HR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.57; P = .005) and lower overall survival (OS) (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.30; P = .011) compared with the BMT group. Furthermore, the PBSCT-ATG(-) group had higher incidences of grade III-IV, stage 2-4 gut, high-risk, and steroid-refractory acute GVHD compared with the BMT group. Acute GVHD had a negative impact on NRM and OS. The PBSCT-ATG(-) group also was associated with an elevated risk of chronic GVHD (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.57; P < .001) and extensive chronic GVHD (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.68; P < .001). The incidences of acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and NRM and chronic GVHD-free relapse-free survival rates were comparable between the PBSCT-ATG(+) and BMT groups. The OS of patients with acute GVHD was similar in the 3 donor groups. Patients treated with reduced-intensity conditioning in the PBSCT-ATG(+) group had a higher relapse rate and lower OS rate compared with those in the BMT group. In this Japanese cohort, standard calcineurin inhibitor-based GVHD prophylaxis was not sufficient for recipients of MRD PBSCT because of the high incidence of severe acute GVHD. Prophylactic ATG was found to be a promising strategy against GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.12.009DOI Listing
March 2022

Baseline immunity predicts prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients treated with WT1 and/or MUC1 peptide-loaded dendritic cell vaccination and a standard chemotherapy.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 12 17;17(12):5563-5572. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Hokuyu Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

The prognosis of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer is poor despite the recent introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic approaches is urgently required. In the present phase I/II study, we have evaluated the safety, the efficacy and the prognostic factors of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) and/or mucin 1 (MUC1) peptide-loaded dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in combination with a chemotherapy employing gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel or a combination chemotherapy regimen consisting of oxaliplatin, irinotecan, fluorouracil and leucovorin (FOLFIRINOX) in patients with advanced or relapsed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Forty-eight eligible patients were enrolled and received the vaccinations approximately every 2-4 weeks at least seven times. No severe adverse events related to the vaccinations were observed. Median progression free survival and overall survival were 8.1 months and 15.1 months, respectively. DC vaccinations augmented tumor specific immunity which might be related to clinical outcome. The multivariate analyses demonstrated that WT1 or MUC1-specific interferonɤ enzyme-linked immunospot number prior to DC vaccination was an independent prognostic factor related to overall survival. These results indicate that DC-based immunotherapy combined with a conventional chemotherapy is safe and has clinical benefits for patients in advanced stage of PDAC. The precise evaluation of the baseline antitumor specific immunity is critical to predict clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.2003645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8903979PMC
December 2021

Comparing cord blood transplantation and matched related donor transplantation in non-remission acute myeloid leukemia.

Leukemia 2022 04 24;36(4):1132-1138. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Cord blood transplantation (CBT) is an alternative donor transplantation method and has the advantages of rapid availability and the possibility of inducing a more potent graft-versus-leukemia effect, leading to a lower relapse rate for patients with non-remission relapse and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (R/R AML). This study aimed to investigate the impact of CBT, compared to human leukocyte antigen-matched related donor transplantation (MRDT). This study included 2451 adult patients with non-remission R/R AML who received CBT (1738 patients) or MRDT (713 patients) between January 2009 and December 2018. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) and the prognostic impact of CBT were evaluated using a propensity score (PS) matching analysis. After PS matching, the patient characteristics were well balanced between the groups. The five-year PFS was 25.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.2-29.5%) in the CBT group and 18.1% (95% CI: 14.5-22.0%) in the MRDT group (P = 0.009). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69-1.00, P = 0.045); this was due to a more pronounced decrease in the relapse rate (HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.69-0.89, P < 0.001) than an increase in the NRM (1.42, 1.15-1.76, P = 0.001). In this population, CBT was associated with a better 5-year PFS than MRDT after allogeneic HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01474-0DOI Listing
April 2022

Non-age-related neoplastic loss of sex chromosome correlated with prolonged survival in real-world CBF-AML patients.

Int J Hematol 2022 Feb 5;115(2):188-197. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Blood Disorders Center, Aiiku Hospital, S4W25, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, 064-0804, Japan.

In this real-world clinical study, in which we determined eligibility for allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by prognostic factors and minimal residual disease status, we retrospectively evaluated cytogenetic, genetic, and clinical features in 96 patients with core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML) including 62 patients with RUNX1/RUNX1T1 and 34 patients with CBFβ/MYH11. Multivariate analyses for 5-year overall survival (OS) in CBF-AML patients revealed that age of 50 years or older (HR: 3.46, 95% CI 1.47-8.11, P = 0.004) and receiving 2 or more induction cycles (HR: 3.55, 95% CI 1.57-8.05, P = 0.002) were independently associated with worse OS and that loss of sex chromosome (LOS) was independently associated with better OS (HR: 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.71, P = 0.022). At the time of complete remission, all 21 karyotyped patients with LOS had a normal karyotype. Furthermore, in all 9 patients with LOS who had a mosaic of metaphase cells with and without t(8;21) or inv(16), the metaphase cells without t(8;21)/inv(16) showed a normal karyotype. These results proved that LOS was not age-related and physiological, but rather a neoplastic chromosomal abnormality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03238-zDOI Listing
February 2022

Characterization of myeloid neoplasms following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Am J Hematol 2022 02 16;97(2):185-193. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

We compared characteristics of myeloid neoplasms (MNs) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) versus autologous HCT using a Japanese HCT registry database. Among 43 788 patients who underwent allogeneic (n = 18 874) or autologous HCT (n = 24 914) for non-myeloid malignancies or non-malignant diseases, 352 developed MNs. The cumulative incidence of MNs was lower after allogeneic HCT than after autologous HCT (0.3% vs. 1.8% at 10 years, respectively, p < .001). Compared with autologous HCT, MNs following allogeneic HCT developed in younger patients (median, 42 vs. 57 years old, respectively) and sooner after HCT (median, 16 vs. 33 months, respectively). Approximately half of MNs following allogeneic HCT were donor-derived and occurred later than recipient-derived MNs (median, 26 vs. 6 months, respectively, p = .003). In multivariate analysis, reduced-intensity conditioning and cord blood transplantation were associated with MN development after allogeneic HCT. Overall survival was similar in patients who developed MNs following allogeneic versus autologous HCT (18% vs. 22% at 5 years, respectively, p = .48). Patient age ≥ 55 years, the presence of previous HCT, AML subtype, and chromosome 5 or 7 abnormalities were adverse factors for overall survival after MN diagnosis. Further research is warranted to elucidate the mechanisms of MN development following allogeneic HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26401DOI Listing
February 2022

Re-pancreaticojejunostomy for Necrosis of the Roux-en-Y Limb Tip 14 Years After Partington-Rochelle Procedure.

Cureus 2021 Sep 20;13(9):e18142. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Gastroenterological Surgery, Osaka Saiseikai-Noe Hospital, Osaka, JPN.

Longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis, the Partington-Rochelle (PR) procedure, is a good option to control pain caused by dilation of the main pancreatic duct. However, long-term complications related to anastomosis are still unclear. Here, we present a case of a 78-year-old patient with sudden necrosis of the Roux-en-Y limb tip in a PR procedure performed 14 years ago. During emergent laparotomy, we resected the necrotic limb and re-anastomosed the remaining Roux-en-Y limb to the main pancreatic duct. Postoperatively, we managed the inflammation caused by the pancreatic fistula and successfully saved the patient by long-term drainage. Although the cause of necrosis is still unclear, mild kinking and stenosis of the Roux-en-Y limb might be associated with this situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.18142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8528648PMC
September 2021

Two novel high-risk adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia subtypes with high expression of CDX2 and IDH1/2 mutations.

Blood 2022 03;139(12):1850-1862

Department of Pathology and Tumor Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

The genetic basis of leukemogenesis in adults with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is largely unclear, and its clinical outcome remains unsatisfactory. This study aimed to advance the understanding of biological characteristics, improve disease stratification, and identify molecular targets of adult B-ALL. Adolescents and young adults (AYA) (15 to 39 years old, n = 193) and adults (40 to 64 years old, n = 161) with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-) B-ALL were included in this study. Integrated transcriptomic and genetic analyses were used to classify the cohort into defined subtypes. Of the 323 cases included in the RNA sequencing analysis, 278 (86.1%) were classified into 18 subtypes. The ZNF384 subtype (22.6%) was the most prevalent, with 2 novel subtypes (CDX2-high and IDH1/2-mut) identified among cases not assigned to the established subtypes. The CDX2-high subtype (3.4%) was characterized by high expression of CDX2 and recurrent gain of chromosome 1q. The IDH1/2-mut subtype (1.9%) was defined by IDH1 R132C or IDH2 R140Q mutations with specific transcriptional and high-methylation profiles. Both subtypes showed poor prognosis and were considered inferior prognostic factors independent of clinical parameters. Comparison with a previously reported pediatric B-ALL cohort (n = 1003) showed that the frequencies of these subtypes were significantly higher in AYA/adults than in children. We delineated the genetic and transcriptomic landscape of adult B-ALL and identified 2 novel subtypes that predict poor disease outcomes. Our findings highlight the age-dependent distribution of subtypes, which partially accounts for the prognostic differences between adult and pediatric B-ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011921DOI Listing
March 2022

New-onset Evans syndrome associated with systemic lupus erythematosus after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination.

Int J Hematol 2022 Mar 23;115(3):424-427. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Hematology, Sapporo Hokuyu Hospital, Higashi Sapporo 6-6, Shiroishi-ku, Sapporo, 0030006, Japan.

Evans syndrome presents as concurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the most frequent autoimmune disorder associated with Evans syndrome. We herein report a case of new-onset Evans syndrome associated with SLE after BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in a 53-year-old woman. Blood examination at diagnosis showed hemolytic anemia with a positive Coombs test and thrombocytopenia. Hypocomplementemia and the presence of lupus anticoagulant indicated a strong association with SLE. Prednisolone administration rapidly restored hemoglobin level and platelet count. This case suggests that mRNA COVID-19 vaccination may cause an autoimmune disorder. Physicians should be aware of this adverse reaction by mRNA COVID-19 vaccination and should consider the benefits and risks of vaccination for each recipient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03243-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8536917PMC
March 2022

Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation during second or subsequent complete remission of acute promyelocytic leukemia: a prognostic factor analysis.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2022 01 13;57(1):78-82. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an effective therapy for patients with relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, it remains unclear whether this procedure is equally effective for certain groups of patients. To address this question, we analyzed 296 patients with APL who had undergone autologous HCT during second or subsequent complete remission (CR2+) between 2006 and 2019. Among them, 24 patients were ≥65 years old, and 17 underwent autologous HCT during third or subsequent CR. Of the 286 patients whose measurable residual disease (MRD) data were available, 21 showed detectable MRD. The 5-year probabilities of relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality for the entire cohort were 85%, 88%, 9%, and 6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis revealed that the duration of first CR ( < or ≥2 years) was the sole factor associated with RFS (P = 0.002), but even those with CR1 duration <2 years showed a 5-year RFS of 76%. The other factors such as age, disease status, and MRD status were not predictive for the survival outcomes. Our findings demonstrate very favorable long-term results when autologous HCT is conducted during CR2 + across the various subgroups of patients with relapsed APL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01501-9DOI Listing
January 2022

Syngeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia: a propensity score-matched analysis.

Blood Cancer J 2021 09 24;11(9):159. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

The present study evaluated outcomes and prognostic factors in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after syngeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Among patients in first complete remission (CR1), outcomes of syngeneic HSCT (Syn) were compared with those of autologous HSCT (Auto), allogeneic HSCT from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor (MSD), or allogeneic HSCT from HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD). Among 11,866 patients receiving first HSCT, 26 in the Syn group were analyzed. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate, the cumulative incidence of relapse, and the cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) were 47.8%, 59.6%, and 4.6%, respectively. The OS was significantly better in patients in CR1 (n = 13) than in patients in non-CR1 (P = 0.012). Furthermore, 39 patients in CR1 each were assigned to the Auto, MSD, and MUD groups using propensity score matching. The 5-year OS in the Syn (68.4%) was not significantly different from those in the Auto (55.9%, P = 0.265), MSD (62.4%, P = 0.419), or MUD (63.7%, P = 0.409) groups. A higher relapse in the Syn than in the MSD and MUD groups was offset by lower NRM. In summary, syngeneic HSCT might be an alternative option for AML patients in CR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00553-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8463668PMC
September 2021

Graft-Versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis Using Low-Dose Antithymocyte Globulin in Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation-A Matched-Pair Analysis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 12 6;27(12):995.e1-995.e6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Hematology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan; Department of Hematology, Hokkaido University Faculty of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan. Electronic address:

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) decreases chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) in peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT); however, the optimal ATG dose has not been elucidated. We conducted a matched-pair analysis to evaluate whether low-dose ATG could inhibit cGVHD in HLA-matched PBSCT after myeloablative conditioning. A total of 70 patients who were enrolled in the JSCT-ATG15 study, a multicenter phase II clinical trial of 2 mg/kg of ATG (thymoglobulin) given on days -2 and -1, were compared with 210 patients not receiving ATG, who were matched for age, sex, disease, and calcineurin inhibitor selected from the database in Japan. The primary endpoint, cumulative incidence of extensive cGVHD at 2 years was significantly less in the ATG group than that in the non-ATG group (8.7% [95% CI, 3.5%-16.8%] versus 26.2% [95% CI, 20.3%-32.5%], P = .002). ATG significantly reduced the incidence of overall cGVHD and inhibited multiple organ involvement. The ATG group had favorable outcome compared to the non-ATG group in GVHD-free, and relapse-free survival at 2 years. In conclusion, low-dose ATG effectively inhibits chronic GVHD in PBSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.029DOI Listing
December 2021

Fludarabine/busulfan versus busulfan/cyclophosphamide as myeloablative conditioning for myelodysplastic syndrome: a propensity score-matched analysis.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 12 7;56(12):3008-3015. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Myeloablative conditioning with fludarabine/busulfan (Flu/Bu4) prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is effective for acute myeloid leukemia. However, the effectiveness of Flu/Bu4 for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) remains poorly understood. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed nationwide registry data in Japan from 2006 to 2018 and compared transplant outcomes of adult MDS patients receiving Flu/Bu4 and busulfan/cyclophosphamide (Bu4/Cy) using propensity score (PS) matching. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Among 2,482 MDS patients, 153 patients were assigned each to the Flu/Bu4 and Bu4/Cy groups. The 3-year OS rates were 52.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.8-60.8%) and 49.5% (95% CI, 40.8-57.6%) in the Flu/Bu4 and Bu4/Cy group, respectively (P = 0.548). The 3-year progression-free survival (P = 0.858), the cumulative incidence of relapse (P = 0.536), and cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (P = 0.684) were not significantly different between the two groups. According to the findings of subgroup analyses, no patient had a favorable OS when using either of the two regimens. In conclusion, although our PS-matched cohort mainly comprised older patients who had a low hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index and low-risk disease status, Flu/Bu4 could be an alternative to Bu4/Cy for MDS patients prior to allo-HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01447-yDOI Listing
December 2021

The differential effect of disease status at allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation on outcomes in acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemia.

Ann Hematol 2021 Dec 3;100(12):3017-3027. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

This study aimed to compare the effect of disease status at the time of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on post-transplant outcomes between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Japanese nationwide registry data for 6901 patients with AML and 2469 patients with ALL were analyzed. In this study, 2850 (41%), 937 (14%), 62 (1%), and 3052 (44%) AML patients and 1751 (71%), 265 (11%), 23 (1%), and 430 (17%) ALL patients underwent transplantation in first complete remission (CR1), second CR (CR2), third or subsequent CR (CR3 +), and non-CR, respectively. The probabilities of overall survival at 5 years for patients transplanted in CR1, CR2, CR3 + , and non-CR were 58%, 61%, 41%, and 26% for AML patients and 67%, 45%, 20%, and 21% for ALL patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that the risks of relapse and overall mortality were similar for AML patients transplanted in CR1 and CR2 (P = 0.672 and P = 0.703), whereas they were higher for ALL patients transplanted in CR2 than for those transplanted in CR1 (P < 0.001 for both). The risks of relapse and overall mortality for those transplanted in CR3 + and non-CR increased in a stepwise manner for both diseases, with the relevance being stronger for ALL than for AML patients. These results suggest a significant difference in the effect of disease status at HCT on post-transplant outcomes in AML and ALL. Further investigation to incorporate measurable residual disease data is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04661-2DOI Listing
December 2021

Optimal treatment for Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission in the era of high-intensity chemotherapy.

Int J Hematol 2021 Nov 30;114(5):608-619. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Healthcare Administration, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.

The optimal treatment for Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first complete remission (CR1) has not been established in the high-intensity chemotherapy era. The outcomes of patients with Ph-negative ALL who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a human leukocyte antigen-matched related or unrelated donor in CR1 (HSCT-MRD group and HSCT-MUD group) were obtained from a Japanese registry database. Patients aged 16-24 years and 25-65 years were analyzed separately, and their outcomes were compared to those of patients who continued high-intensity chemotherapy in CR1 in studies (202U group and 202O group) by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG). In the HSCT-MRD group, patients younger than 25 years had lower overall survival (OS) than the 202U group, presumably due to the higher non-relapse mortality (NRM) in the HSCT-MRD group. Patients 25 years and older had similar OS to the 202O group. The lower relapse rate was counterbalanced by higher NRM in the HSCT-MRD group. In the HSCT-MUD group, patients in both age groups had similar OS to their corresponding groups in the JALSG studies. In conclusion, high-intensity chemotherapy may change the role of HSCT for Ph-negative ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03198-4DOI Listing
November 2021
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