Publications by authors named "Shufei Zhang"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Manifold adversarial training for supervised and semi-supervised learning.

Neural Netw 2021 Aug 26;140:282-293. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Alibaba Group, China. Electronic address:

We propose a new regularization method for deep learning based on the manifold adversarial training (MAT). Unlike previous regularization and adversarial training methods, MAT further considers the local manifold of latent representations. Specifically, MAT manages to build an adversarial framework based on how the worst perturbation could affect the statistical manifold in the latent space rather than the output space. Particularly, a latent feature space with the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is first derived in a deep neural network. We then define the smoothness by the largest variation of Gaussian mixtures when a local perturbation is given around the input data point. On one hand, the perturbations are added in the way that would rough the statistical manifold of the latent space the worst. On the other hand, the model is trained to promote the manifold smoothness the most in the latent space. Importantly, since the latent space is more informative than the output space, the proposed MAT can learn a more robust and compact data representation, leading to further performance improvement. The proposed MAT is important in that it can be considered as a superset of one recently-proposed discriminative feature learning approach called center loss. We conduct a series of experiments in both supervised and semi-supervised learning on four benchmark data sets, showing that the proposed MAT can achieve remarkable performance, much better than those of the state-of-the-art approaches. In addition, we present a series of visualization which could generate further understanding or explanation on adversarial examples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2021.03.031DOI Listing
August 2021

Acoustic study on the outbreak of Creseise acicula nearby the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant Base during the summer of 2020.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 18;165:112144. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Ecology and Environment, Guangzhou 510300, China. Electronic address:

From the mid-June to mid-July 2020, there was a massive bloom of Creseise acicula nearby the waters of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant Base (DNPP base). In order to find out the spatiotemporal dynamic characteristics of C. acicula and the main factors related to its outbreak and extinction, acoustic surveys and in-situ observations were performed. The results showed that the average abundance of C. acicula at the in-situ observation site fluctuated with the tidal rhythm. Furthermore, a horizontal migration pattern during ebb tide and a vertical subsidence trend of C. acicula was found. The outbreak of C. acicula bloom nearby the waters of DNPP base was the result of the joint action of water temperature, salinity and food availability etc. The extinction of C. acicula was mainly related to the adhesion of Licmophora, predation pressure from phytoplanktivorous fishes (such as Sardinella lemuru and Dussumieria elopsoides) and human intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112144DOI Listing
April 2021

Cortical myelin content mediates differences in affective temperaments.

J Affect Disord 2021 03 14;282:1263-1271. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences (South China Normal University), Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application; Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China. Electronic address:

Background: Affective temperaments are regarded as subclinical forms and precursors of mental disorders. It may serve as candidates to facilitate the diagnosis and prediction of mental disorders. Cortical myelination likely characterizes the neurodevelopment and the evolution of cognitive functions and reflects brain functional demand. However, little is known about the relationship between affective temperaments and myelin plasticity. This study aims to analyze the association between the affective temperaments and cortical myelin content (CMC) in human brain.

Methods: We measured affective temperaments using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) on 106 healthy adults and used the ratio of T1- and T2-weighted images as the proxy for CMC. Using the unsupervised k-means clustering algorithm, we classified the cortical gray matter into heavily, intermediately, and lightly myelinated regions. The correlation between affective temperaments and CMC was calculated separately for different myelinated regions.

Results: Hyperthymic temperament correlated negatively with CMC in the heavily myelinated (right postcentral gyrus and bilateral precentral gyrus) and lightly myelinated (bilateral frontal and lateral temporal) regions. Cyclothymic temperament showed a downward parabola-like correlation with CMC across the heavily, intermediately, and lightly myel0inated areas of the bilateral parietal-temporal regions.

Limitations: The analysis was constrained to cortical regions. The results were obtained from healthy subjects and we did not acquired data from patients of affective disorder, which may compromise the generalizability of the present findings.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that hyperthymic and cyclothymic temperaments have a CMC basis in extensive brain regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.01.038DOI Listing
March 2021

Measurement of pubic symphysis width in different birthing positions using ultrasound.

J Biomech 2020 12 9;113:110114. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen's University, 130 Stuart Street, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada.

Studies have shown that some vertical birthing positions, such as squatting and standing, may influence labour and childbirth. However, a rigorous biomechanical understanding of how different positions affect a woman's pelvis during labour is currently lacking. It was hypothesized that the position of pubic bones is affected in different positions, and thus the pubic symphysis width changes. Therefore, we measured pubic symphysis width on eleven women in their seventh to ninth months of pregnancy in different positions through three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of pubic symphysis ultrasound images. Positions studies included those used in clinics like supine and lithotomy positions, in addition to squatting and standing, which are recommended by midwives. The results showed that the average superior and inferior pubic symphysis widths in lithotomy, squatting and standing positions were approximately 1 mm larger than those in the supine position. However, no significant difference between lithotomy, squatting and standing positions was found. The results were consistent with those of two comparable studies. A significant difference was only found between standing and squatting, standing and lithotomy in the rotation angle about the medio-lateral axis. The results suggest that positions with thigh hyperflexion and gravity effect make a difference in pubic symphysis width and might have a positive effect in childbirth. However, due to the small sample size, no definite conclusion can be drawn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2020.110114DOI Listing
December 2020

Novel deep neural network based pattern field classification architectures.

Neural Netw 2020 Jul 14;127:82-95. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Edinburgh Napier University, School of Computing, Merchiston Campus, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, Scotland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Electronic address:

Field classification is a new extension of traditional classification frameworks that attempts to utilize consistent information from a group of samples (termed fields). By forgoing the independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) assumption, field classification can achieve remarkably improved accuracy compared to traditional classification methods. Most studies of field classification have been conducted on traditional machine learning methods. In this paper, we propose integration with a Bayesian framework, for the first time, in order to extend field classification to deep learning and propose two novel deep neural network architectures: the Field Deep Perceptron (FDP) and the Field Deep Convolutional Neural Network (FDCNN). Specifically, we exploit a deep perceptron structure, typically a 6-layer structure, where the first 3 layers remove (learn) a 'style' from a group of samples to map them into a more discriminative space and the last 3 layers are trained to perform classification. For the FDCNN, we modify the AlexNet framework by adding style transformation layers within the hidden layers. We derive a novel learning scheme from a Bayesian framework and design a novel and efficient learning algorithm with guaranteed convergence for training the deep networks. The whole framework is interpreted with visualization features showing that the field deep neural network can better learn the style of a group of samples. Our developed models are also able to achieve transfer learning and learn transformations for newly introduced fields. We conduct extensive comparative experiments on benchmark data (including face, speech, and handwriting data) to validate our learning approach. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed deep frameworks achieve significant improvements over other state-of-the-art algorithms, attaining new benchmark performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2020.03.011DOI Listing
July 2020

Nanocomposites consisting of nanoporous platinum-silicon and graphene for electrochemical determination of bisphenol A.

Mikrochim Acta 2020 03 23;187(4):241. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu, 215500, China.

Three-dimensional nanoporous PtSi (NP-PtSi) alloy was prepared by dealloying ternary PtSiAl alloy ribbons. By combining the nanoporous morphology of PtSi and graphene (GR), a new composite material was developed, which was used to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The resulting modified electrodes showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the electro oxidation of bisphenol A. Based on differential pulse voltammetry measurements, NP-PtSi/GR/GCE showed linear response over the concentration range 0.30 to 85 μM bisphenol A, while the detection limit was found to be 0.11 μM (S/N = 3). NP-PtSi/GR/GCE showed also satisfactory stability and selectivity over various compounds present in real samples, and they were successfully applied to the determination of bisphenol A in inoculated milk samples. Graphical abstract Nanoporous PtSi (NP-PtSi) was fabricated by dealloying PtSiAl alloy ribbons. Based on the NP-PtSi alloy and graphene (GR) composites that modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), a sensitive and stable electrochemical sensor was developed for the determination of bisphenol A by differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-020-4219-6DOI Listing
March 2020

Quantitative proteomic analysis provides insights into the algicidal mechanism of Halobacillus sp. P1 against the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 31;717:137048. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Ecology and Environment, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300, China. Electronic address:

Algicidal behavior is a common interaction between marine microalgae and bacteria, especially in the dissipation phase of algal blooms. The marine bacterium Halobacillus sp. P1 was previously isolated and exhibits high algicidal activity against the diatom Skeletonema costatum. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying this algicidal process. Here, a tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomic approach was coupled with physiological analysis to investigate the cellular responses of S. costatum when treated with P1 culture supernatant. Among the 4582 proteins identified, 82 and 437 proteins were differentially expressed after treatment for 12 and 24 h, respectively. The proteomic results were in accordance with the results of verification by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assays. Proteins involved in reactive oxygen species scavenging, protein degradation and transport were upregulated, while proteins participating in nitrogen metabolism, protein translation, photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis and cell cycle regulation were significantly downregulated (p-value ≤0.05), corresponding to the increasing malondialdehyde content and the decreasing nitrogen, protein and chlorophyll a contents. A nutrient competitive relationship might exist between the bacterium P1 and S. costatum, and the inhibition of nitrogen metabolism by the P1 culture supernatant might be the key lethal factor that results in the dysfunction of S. costatum metabolism. Our study sheds light on the algicidal mechanism of P1 at the molecular level and provides new insights into algae-bacteria interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137048DOI Listing
May 2020

Altered properties of brain white matter structural networks in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy.

Brain Imaging Behav 2020 Dec;14(6):2745-2761

Center for the Study of Applied Psychology & MRI Center, Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science of Guangdong Province, School of Psychology, Institute for Brain Research and Rehabilitation, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, People's Republic of China.

Previous neuroimaging studies revealed radiation-induced brain injury in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the years after radiotherapy (RT). These injuries may be associated with structural and functional alterations. However, differences in the brain structural connectivity of NPC patients at different times after RT, especially in the early-delayed period, remain unclear. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from three groups of NPC patients, 25 in the pre-RT (before RT) group, 22 in the early-delayed (1-6 months) period (post-RT-ED) group, and 33 in the late-delayed (>6 months) period (post-RT-LD) group. Then, we constructed brain white matter (WM) structural networks and used graph theory to compare their between-group differences. The NPC patients in the post-RT-ED group showed decreased global properties when compared with the pre-RT group. We also detected the nodes with between-group differences in nodal parameters. The nodes that differed between the post-RT-ED and pre-RT groups were mainly located in the default mode (DMN) and central executive networks (CEN); those that differed between the post-RT-LD and pre-RT groups were located in the limbic system; and those that differed between the post-RT-LD and post-RT-ED groups were mainly in the DMN. These findings may indicate that radiation-induced brain injury begins in the early-delayed period and that a reorganization strategy begins in the late-delayed period. Our findings may provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced brain injury in normal-appearing brain tissue from the network perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-019-00224-2DOI Listing
December 2020

Insights into the bacterial species and communities of a full-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment plant by using third-generation sequencing.

J Biosci Bioeng 2019 Dec 3;128(6):744-750. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK.

For the first time, full-length 16S rRNA sequencing method was applied to disclose the bacterial species and communities of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant using an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A/A/O) process in Wuhan, China. The compositions of the bacteria at phylum and class levels in the activated sludge were similar to which revealed by Illumina Miseq sequencing. At genus and species levels, third-generation sequencing showed great merits and accuracy. Typical functional taxa classified to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), denitrifying bacteria (DB), anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (ANAMMOXB) and polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) were presented, which were Nitrosomonas (1.11%), Nitrospira (3.56%), Pseudomonas (3.88%), Planctomycetes (13.80%), Comamonadaceae (1.83%), respectively. Pseudomonas (3.88%) and Nitrospira (3.56%) were the most predominating two genera, mainly containing Pseudomonas extremaustralis (1.69%), Nitrospira defluvii (3.13%), respectively. Bacteria regarding to nitrogen and phosphorus removal at species level were put forward. The predicted functions proved that the A/A/O process was efficient regarding nitrogen and organics removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2019.06.007DOI Listing
December 2019

Quantitative proteomics reveals the key molecular events occurring at different cell cycle phases of the in situ blooming dinoflagellate cells.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Aug 16;676:62-71. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, 361005, China. Electronic address:

Dinoflagellate blooms are the results of rapid cell proliferation governed by cell cycle, a highly-ordered series of events that culminates in cell division. However, little is known about cell cycle progression of the in situ bloom cells. Here, we compared proteomes of the in situ blooming cells of a dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense collected at different cell cycle phases. The blooming P. donghaiense cells completed a cell cycle within 24 h with a high synchronization rate of 82.7%. Proteins associated with photosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll synthesis, carbon, nitrogen and amino acid metabolisms exhibited high expressions at the G phase; DNA replication and mismatch repair related proteins were more abundant at the S phase; while protein synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation were highly enriched at the G/M phase. Cell cycle proteins presented similar periodic diel patterns to other eukaryotic cells, and higher expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin dependent kinase 2 at the S phase ensured the smooth S-G/M transition. Strikingly, four histones were first identified in P. donghaiense and highly expressed at the G/M phase, indicating their potential roles in regulating cell cycle. This study presents the first quantitative survey, to our knowledge, of proteome changes at different cell cycle phases of the in situ blooming cells in natural environment and provides insights into cell cycle regulation of the blooming dinoflagellate cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.216DOI Listing
August 2019

The Effects of Breviscapine Injection on Hypertension in Hypertension-Induced Renal Damage Patients: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2019 21;10:118. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Institute of Hypertension, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Breviscapine (Dengzhanhua) injection has been wildly used in clinical treatment for cerebral infarction, cardiovascular disease, diabetic nephropathy, renal impairment of essential hypertension and stroke in China. Breviscapine injection and antihypertensive drugs combination therapy is supposed to be beneficial for hypertension-induced renal damage patients. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of breviscapine injection on hypertension in hypertension-induced renal damage patients, an extensive meta-analysis was performed. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI, Sino Med, VIP, and Wanfang Data for relevant literature. The timeframe of retrieval was set from the founding date of each database to September 28, 2018. Fourteen papers were included in this study. The quality of all the studies included was determined to be low. All studies were conducted with Chinese populations. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with single-use antihypertensive drugs, using breviscapine injection in combination with antihypertensive drugs to treat hypertension in hypertension-induced renal damage patients can reduce 24-h urinary total protein (24 h UTP) [WMD = -0.04, 95% CI (-0.05, -0.02), ≤ 0.001], but does not lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) [WMD = -1.02, 95% CI (-2.88, 0.84), = 0.281] or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) [WMD = -0.21, 95% CI (-1.71, 1.29), = 0.786] more effectively. There was also no statistically significant difference in adverse events between experimental groups and control groups. Breviscapine injection, in combination with antihypertensive drugs, appears to be more effective in improving the 24 h UTP, but overall have no effect on improving the blood pressure in hypertension-induced renal damage patients. Moderate dose of breviscapine injection (10 ml) may have effects on reducing blood pressure in hypertension-induced renal damage patients but high doses of breviscapine injection (20 ml) may increase blood pressure by subgroup analysis. However, the evidence of methodological quality and sample sizes is weak, and thus, further standardized research is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394135PMC
February 2019

Common and specific altered amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in Parkinson's disease patients with and without freezing of gait in different frequency bands.

Brain Imaging Behav 2020 Jun;14(3):857-868

Center for the Study of Applied Psychology, Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science of Guangdong Province, School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, People's Republic of China.

Freezing of gait (FOG), a disabling symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), severely affects PD patients' life quality. Previous studies found neuropathologies in functional connectivity related to FOG, but few studies detected abnormal regional activities related to FOG in PD patients. In the present study, we analyzed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) to detect brain regions showing abnormal activity in PD patients with FOG (PD-with-FOG) and without FOG (PD-without-FOG). As different frequencies of neural oscillations in brain may reflect distinct brain functional and physiological properties, we conducted this study in three frequency bands, slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz), slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz), and classical frequency band (0.01-0.08 Hz). We acquired rs-fMRI data from 18 PD-with-FOG patients, 18 PD-without-FOG patients, and 17 healthy controls, then calculated voxel-wise ALFF across the whole brain and compared ALFF among the three groups in each frequency band. We found: (1) in slow-5, both PD-with-FOG and PD-without-FOG patients showed lower ALFF in the bilateral putamen compared to healthy controls, (2) in slow-4, PD-with-FOG patients showed higher ALFF in left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and lower ALFF in right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) compared to either PD-without-FOG patients or healthy controls, (3) in classical frequency band, PD-with-FOG patients also showed higher ALFF in ITG compared to either PD-without-FOG patients or healthy controls. Furthermore, we found that ALFF in MFG and ITG in slow-4 provided the highest classification accuracy (96.7%) in distinguishing PD-with-FOG from PD-without-FOG patients by using a stepwise multivariate pattern analysis. Our findings indicated frequency-specific regional spontaneous neural activity related to FOG, which may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of FOG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-018-0031-xDOI Listing
June 2020

Study on the bacterial and archaeal community structure and diversity of activated sludge from three wastewater treatment plants.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Oct 7;135:801-807. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Sir Frederick Mappin Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK.

In this study, the bacterial and archaeal communities along with their functions of activated sludge from three wastewater treatment plants were investigated by Illumina MiSeq Platform. The treatment processes were modified A/A/O, DE oxidation ditch and pre-anaerobic carrousel oxidation ditch, respectively. The taxonomic analyses showed that Proteobacteria was the predominant bacterial phylum, and Nitrosospira was the dominant nitrification genus. Candidatus Accumulibacter was abundant in DE oxidation ditch process, and the main archaea communities were methanosaeta-like species which had the capability to anaerobic ammonia oxidation. The results illustrated that anaerobic ammonium oxidation played an important role in the nitrogen metabolism and there might be other unknown phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) performing phosphorus removal in activated sludge. The predicted function analyses indicated that both bacteria and archaea were involved in nitrification, denitrification, ammonification and phosphorus removal processes, and their relative abundance varied metabolic modules differed from each other.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.08.010DOI Listing
October 2018

Disruption of superficial white matter in the emotion regulation network in bipolar disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 26;20:875-882. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Center for the Study of Applied Psychology, Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science of Guangdong Province, School of Psychology, Institute for Brain Research and Rehabilitation, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, PR China. Electronic address:

Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by emotion dysregulation and involves changes in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM). Although previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies reported changes in the diffusion properties of the deep WM (DWM) in BD patients, the diffusion properties of the superficial WM (SWM) are rarely investigated. In this study, we tried to determine whether the diffusion parameters of the SWM were altered in BD patients compared to controls and whether the changes were associated with the disrupted emotion regulation of the BD patients. We collected DTI data from 37 BD patients and 42 gender- and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Using probabilistic tractography, we defined a population-based SWM mask based on all the subjects. After performing the tract-based spatial statistical (TBSS) analyses, we identified the SWM areas in which the BD patients differed from the controls. This study showed significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in the SWM (FA) in the BD patients compared to the HC in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the left parietal cortex. Moreover, compared to the controls, the BD patients showed significantly increased mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) in the SWM in the right frontal cortex. This study presents altered cortico-cortical connections proximal to the regions related to the emotion dysregulation of BD patients, which indicated that the SWM may serve as the brain's structural basis underlying the disrupted emotion regulation of BD patients. The disrupted FA in the parietal cortex may indicate that the emotion dysregulation in BD patients is related to the cognitive control network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2018.09.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169099PMC
January 2019

Common and distinct abnormal frontal-limbic system structural and functional patterns in patients with major depression and bipolar disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 6;20:42-50. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Center for the Study of Applied Psychology, Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science of Guangdong Province, School of Psychology, Institute for Brain Research and Rehabilitation, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are common severe affective diseases. Although previous neuroimaging studies have investigated brain abnormalities in MDD or BD, the structural and functional differences between these two disorders remain unclear. In this study, we adopted a multimodal approach, combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional connectivity (FC), to study the common and distinct structural and functional alterations in unmedicated MDD and BD patients. The VBM analysis revealed that both the MDD and BD patients showed decreased gray matter volume (GMV) in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC_L) and right hippocampus (HIP_R) compared with the healthy controls, and the MDD patients showed decreased GMV in the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG_L) and ACC_L compared with the BD patients. Furthermore, we took these clusters as seed regions to analyze the abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the patients. We found that both the MDD and BD groups had decreased RSFC between the ACC_L and the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC_L) and that the MDD group had decreased RSFC between the SFG_L and the HIP_L, compared with the healthy controls. Our results revealed that the MDD and BD patients were more similar than different in GMV and RSFC. These findings indicate that investigating the frontal-limbic system could be useful for understanding the underlying mechanisms of these two disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2018.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6067086PMC
January 2019

Abnormal Effective Connectivity of the Anterior Forebrain Regions in Disorders of Consciousness.

Neurosci Bull 2018 Aug 29;34(4):647-658. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Center for the Study of Applied Psychology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, School of Psychology, Institute for Brain Research and Rehabilitation, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China.

A number of studies have indicated that disorders of consciousness result from multifocal injuries as well as from the impaired functional and anatomical connectivity between various anterior forebrain regions. However, the specific causal mechanism linking these regions remains unclear. In this study, we used spectral dynamic causal modeling to assess how the effective connections (ECs) between various regions differ between individuals. Next, we used connectome-based predictive modeling to evaluate the performance of the ECs in predicting the clinical scores of DOC patients. We found increased ECs from the striatum to the globus pallidus as well as from the globus pallidus to the posterior cingulate cortex, and decreased ECs from the globus pallidus to the thalamus and from the medial prefrontal cortex to the striatum in DOC patients as compared to healthy controls. Prediction of the patients' outcome was effective using the negative ECs as features. In summary, the present study highlights a key role of the thalamo-basal ganglia-cortical loop in DOCs and supports the anterior forebrain mesocircuit hypothesis. Furthermore, EC could be potentially used to assess the consciousness level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-018-0250-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060215PMC
August 2018

Plasticity in deep and superficial white matter: a DTI study in world class gymnasts.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 May 18;223(4):1849-1862. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Institute for Brain Research and Rehabilitation, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, People's Republic of China.

Brain white matter (WM) could be generally categorized into two types, deep and superficial WM. Studies combining these two types WM are important for a better understanding of brain plasticity induced by motor training. In this study, we applied both univariate and multivariate approaches to study gymnastic training-induced plasticity in brain WM. Specifically, we acquired diffusion tensor imaging data from 13 world class gymnasts and 14 non-athlete normal controls, reconstructed brain deep and superficial WM tracts, estimated and compared their fractional anisotropy (FA) difference between the two groups. Taking FA values as the features, we applied logistic regression and support vector machine to distinguish the gymnasts from the controls. Compared to the controls, the gymnasts showed lower FA in four regional deep WM tracts, including the occipital lobe portion of left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF.L), occipital and temporal lobe portion of right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF.R), insular cortex portion of right uncinate fasciculus (UF.R), and parietal lobe portion of right arcuate fasciculus (AF.R). Meanwhile, we found lower FA in the superficial U-shaped tracts within the frontal lobe in the gymnasts compared to the controls. In addition, we detected that mean FA in either the AF.R or the U-shaped tracts connecting the left pars triangularis and superior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with years of training in the gymnasts. Classification analyses indicated FA in deep WM hold higher potential to distinguish the gymnasts from the controls. Overall, our findings provide a more complete picture of training-induced plasticity in brain WM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-017-1594-9DOI Listing
May 2018
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