Publications by authors named "Shuang-Cheng Ma"

122 Publications

Micro-morphological identification study on Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. and its adulterants based on stereo microscope and desktop scanning electron microscope.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute for Quality Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, China.

The Chinese Materia Medica, Cordyceps sinensis (called "Dongchongxiacao" in Chinese), used as a tonic for nearly 600 years by Traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been recorded by Chinese Pharmacopoeia. This drug is rare and precious, which in turn lead to the emergence of adulterants derived from the same genus of Cordyceps. The adulterants which can be commonly found in the market are Cordyceps gunnii (called "Gunichongcao" in Chinese), Cordyceps liangshanensis (called "Liangshanchongcao" in Chinese), and Cordyceps gracilis (called "Xinjiangchongcao" in Chinese). This study combined a desktop scanning electron microscope and stereo microscope to distinguish C. sinensis from the above three adulterants especially on their different characters of caterpillar parts. Referring to the professional entomological literature, the micro-morphological features including the cuticle of the abdomen and the planta of abdomen prolegs were observed, photographed, and expressed based on the description of macroscopic characters. The identification method studied in this article is more convenient, quick, and environmental friendly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23749DOI Listing
April 2021

[Current quality standards of cattle bile and sheep bile quality standards and discussion on related problems].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Mar;46(6):1580-1584

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 102629,China.

To analyze quality standards of cattle bile and sheep bile, and to discuss the related problems in the standards. The results showed that physical forms of the related medicinal materials of cattle bile and sheep bile were chaotic, and the technical methods adopted in the quality standards were generally backward. In addition, there were still problems that some medicinal material standards lacked necessary test items, which were especially obvious in the relevant medicinal material standards of sheep bile and brought difficulties to quality evaluation and control. We suggest that physical forms of cattle bile and sheep bile in quality standards should be determined, and inspection items should be completed. Based on mainstream analytical technology, some technical methods of these standards should be improved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20201214.301DOI Listing
March 2021

[Investigation of chemical profile of bile acids and determination of them in cultured Bovis Calculus with UPLC-QDA].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Nov;45(21):5232-5237

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 102629, China.

In this study, 10 batches of samples of cultured Bovis Calculus(cow-bezoar) were determined for the investigation of chemical profile of bile acids with the UPLC-QDA method established. The results showed that nine common bile acids, cholic acid(CA), deoxycholic acid(DCA), chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA), taurocholic acid(TCA), taurodeoxycholic acid(TDCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid(TCDCA), glycocholic acid(GCA), glycodeoxycholic acid(GDCA) and glycochenodeoxycholic acid(GCDCA), were founded in samples and 7 bile acids were quantified except GDCA and GCDCA. In these samples, unconjugated bile acids, the major type of bile acids, accounted for more than 97% of all types of bile acids. As for unconjugated bile acids, CA was the most major bile acid in cultured cow-bezoar and it was about twice as much as DCA. The relative low-cost method established in the current study is accurate, rapid and sensitive, which is suitable for the studies of other drugs from animal bile.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200620.202DOI Listing
November 2020

[Comparison between charged aerosol detector and evaporative light scattering detector for analysis of sugar in Zhusheyong Yiqi Fumai and study on accuracy of methods].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Nov;45(22):5511-5517

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050, China.

Evaporative light scattering detector(ELSD) and charged aerosol detector(CAD) methods were established in this study for the content determination of four kinds of sugars in Zhusheyong Yiqi Fumai(YQFM), and the factors affecting the accuracy of CAD methods were discussed. HPLC-ELSD chromatographic separation was performed on a Shodex Asahipak NH2 P-50 column with acetonitrile-water(75∶25)as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min~(-1), drift tube temperature of 80 ℃. The analysis by HPLC-CAD was performed on the same column with acetonitrile-water as mobile phase for gradient elution, with a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min~(-1), a neb temperature of 45 ℃, and power function(PF) of 1.3. The samples of YQFM were detected by ELSD and CAD respectively. It was found that YQFM was composed of fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose. The linear relationship of the two methods was good, and the recoveries, reproducibility and stability of these four kinds of sugars measured by the two methods satisfied the requirements of methodology. Both CAD and ELSD detectors were accurate and reliable in detecting saccharides components in YQFM. In addition, it was revealed in this study for the first time that the PF parameter of CAD had an important influence on the accuracy of sugar determination and acted as the key parameter of CAD method. It was also found that for CAD, a non-linear detector, there was no significant difference between the results of linear regression and logarithmic regression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200221.306DOI Listing
November 2020

Advances in understanding the metabolites and metabolomics of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb: A mini review.

Curr Drug Metab 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Institute for Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing 100050. China.

Background: The roots of Polygonum multiflorum (PM) are a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, widely used to treat a variety of conditions in Southeast Asia, South Korea, Japan and other countries. It is known that Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata (PMRP) may enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of PM. However, reports of adverse reactions, such as hepatotoxicity, caused by PM or PMRP, have continuously appeared around the world, which increased the known risks of the medication and gradually attracted extensive attention of many researchers. The chemical constituents of PM that cause hepatotoxicity have not been distinctly elucidated using the traditional phytochemical screening. Recently, with the rapid development of metabolomics, there has been a growing need to explore the potential hepatotoxic components and mechanism of PM.

Methods: The metabolites and metabolomics of PM were searched by the Web of Science, PubMed, Google scholar and some Chinese literature databases.

Results: A brief description of metabolites and metabolomics of PM is followed by a discussion on the metabolite-induced toxicity in this review. More than 100 metabolites were tentatively identified and this will contribute to further understanding of the potential hepatotoxic components of PM. Meanwhile, some toxic compounds were identified and could be used as potential toxic markers of PM.

Conclusion: This review mainly outlines the metabolites and metabolomics of PM that have been identified in recent years. This study could help to clarify the potential hepatotoxic components and metabolic mechanisms of PM and provide a scientific reference for its safe clinical use in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389200221666201201091345DOI Listing
November 2020

In vivo hepatotoxicity screening of different extracts, components, and constituents of Polygoni Multiflori Thunb. in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Nov 24;131:110524. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Institute for Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM) is a traditional Chinese medicine, commonly used to treat a variety of diseases. However, the hepatotoxicity associated with PM hampers its clinical application and development. In this study, we refined the zebrafish hepatotoxicity model with regard to the following endpoints: liver size, liver gray value, and the area of yolk sac. The levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, albumin, and microRNAs-122 were evaluated to verify the model. Subsequently, this model was used to screen different extracts, components, and constituents of PM, including 70 % EtOH extracts of PM, four fractions from macroporous resin (components A, B, C, and D), and 19 compounds from component D. We found that emodin, chrysophanol, emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (cis)-emodin-emodin dianthrones, and (trans)-emodin-emodin dianthrones showed higher hepatotoxicity compared to other components in PM, whereas polyphenols showed lower hepatotoxicity. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to identify that dianthrones may account for the hepatotoxicity of PM. We believe that these findings will be helpful in regulating the hepatotoxicity of PM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110524DOI Listing
November 2020

Multiflorumisides HK, stilbene glucosides isolated from Polygonum multiflorum and their in vitro PTP1B inhibitory activities.

Fitoterapia 2020 Oct 20;146:104703. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:

A phytochemical study on a 70% EtOH extract of dried roots of Polygonum multiflorum resulted in the isolation of four undescribed stilbene glucosides, namely multiflorumisides HK (1-4). The structures of the natural products were elucidated by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as well as mass spectroscopy analyses. Among them, multiflorumiside J (3) and multiflorumiside K (4) belong to rare tetramer stilbene glucosides. Moreover, the in vitro inhibitory activities against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were evaluated and the putative biosynthetic pathway was proposed. Notably, compounds 1-4 showed the inhibitory activity against PTP1B with the IC values of 1.2, 1.7, 1.5 and 4.6 μm, respectively. Based on the obtained results, stilbene glucosides could be the potential PTP1B inhibitors of P. multiflorum.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104703DOI Listing
October 2020

Geographical origin differentiation of Chinese Angelica by specific metal element fingerprinting and risk assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Dec 9;27(36):45018-45030. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710061, China.

Traceability offers significant information about the quality and safety of Chinese Angelica, a medicine and food homologous substance. In this study, a systematic four-step strategy, including sample collection, specific metal element fingerprinting, multivariate statistical analysis, and benefit-risk assessment, was developed for the first time to identify Chinese Angelica based on geographical origins. Fifteen metals in fifty-six Chinese Angelica samples originated from three provinces were analyzed. The multivariate statistical analysis model established, involving hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and self-organizing map clustering analysis was able to identify the origins of samples. Furthermore, benefit-risk assessment models were created by combinational calculation of chemical daily intake (CDI), hazard index (HI), and cancer risk (CR) levels to evaluate the potential risks of Chinese Angelica using as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and food, respectively. Our systematic strategy was well convinced to accurately and effectively differentiate Chinese Angelica based on geographical origins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10309-xDOI Listing
December 2020

[Study on potential hepatotoxicity of main monomers of Polygonum multiflorum based on liver micro-tissue].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Jun;45(12):2954-2959

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050, China.

In this study, we aimed to establish a rat liver micro-tissue evaluation system to evaluate the hepatotoxicity of the main monomers in Polygonum multiflorum. Rat primary hepatocytes were isolated and purified by two-step in situ perfusion method to prepare hepatic parenchymal cells. The ultra-low adsorption plate and the inverted model were used to establish an in vitro hepatotoxicity evaluation system. After the system was established, the main monomer components(monanthone with emodin type, rhein, emodin, emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, physcion) of P. multiflorum were selected for in vitro hepatotoxicity evaluation. This study showed that the primary cells of the liver can form liver micro-tissues in the low adsorption plate method and the mold perfusion method, with good liver structure and function, which can be used to evaluate the hepatotoxicity of the drug to be tested after long-term administration. The five monomers to be tested in P. multiflorum can significantly affect the proliferation of primary liver micro-tissues in rats in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The hepatotoxic effects were as follows: monanthone with emodin type > rhein > emodin > emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside > physcion. The results suggested that the emodin-type monoterpene and rhein might be the potential hepatotoxic components, while the metabolites of emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside and emodin methyl ether showed more toxic risks. The rat primary hepatocyte micro-tissue model system established in this experiment could be used to achieve long-term drug administration in vitro, which was consistent with the clinical features of liver injury caused by long-term use of P. multiflorum. The experimental results provided important information and reference on the clinical application and toxic component of P. multiflorum.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200322.401DOI Listing
June 2020

Innovative health risk assessment of heavy metals in Chinese herbal medicines based on extensive data.

Pharmacol Res 2020 09 5;159:104987. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China. Electronic address:

In the present study, the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and copper (Cu) in 2245 batches of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). We developed a risk assessment strategy that assessed the heavy metal-associated health risk of CHMs based on our large dataset. Using a combination of the mean and 95th percentile (P95) values of the chronic daily intake (CDI), hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI), and lifetime cancer risk (CR), the health risks of the average exposure population and the high exposure population were estimated, respectively. To obtain a precise and realistic risk assessment, the exposure frequency and exposure duration were determined using questionnaire data from 20,917 randomly selected volunteers. Additionally, given the specific ingestion characteristics of CHMs, the safety factor and the transfer rates of heavy metals were highlighted as well. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Cu in 2245 batches of CHMs were 1.566, 0.299, 0.391, 0.074, and 8.386 mg/kg, respectively. The mean HI values indicated that consumption of most CHMs would not pose an unacceptable health risk to the average exposure population, except for argy wormwood leaf (1.326), morinda root (2.095), plantain herb (1.540), chrysanthemum flower (1.146), and Indian madder root (2.826). In addition, CR assessment for Pb and As revealed that, for the average exposure population, the risk of developing cancers was lower than the acceptable levels (1 × 10) in the clinic. However, the P95 of the HI and CR values indicated that more attention should be paid to the systemic effects of CHMs in terms of both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks for the high exposure population. Furthermore, in order to serve population health better, national and international guidelines have now been established. The risk assessment strategy developed in this study is the first of its kind, and contributed to the risk assessment, guidelines, and safety standards for heavy metals in CHMs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104987DOI Listing
September 2020

Innovative health risk assessments of heavy metals based on bioaccessibility due to the consumption of traditional animal medicines.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 21;27(18):22593-22603. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, No. 2 Tiantan Xili, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100050, China.

Few studies reported the extent of heavy metal accumulation in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Currently, oral bioaccessibility of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and copper (Cu) present in traditional animal medicines was investigated with physiologically based extraction test-extracted in vitro model. We are the first to develop a health risk assessment strategy by combinational analysis of bioaccessible heavy metal levels to calculate target hazard quotient (THQ), target hazard index (THI) and cancer risk (CR), which has capacity to evaluate the heavy metal associated heath risk of traditional animal medicines. To precisely acquire a realistic risk assessment, questionnaire data was adopted to measure the frequency and duration of the exposure to traditional animal medicines, and the safety factor was highlighted as well. Our data revealed that the bioaccessibility of Hg was the lowest among the five heavy metals. After the adjustment with the bioaccessibility of each heavy metal to target hazard index (THI) values, excitingly, the results manifested that the consumption of traditional animal medicines might not exert an unacceptable health risk in a broad community. In addition, the CR values of As and Pb indicated that the risk of developing cancers was quite lower than their acceptable levels in the clinic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08769-2DOI Listing
June 2020

[HPLC specific chromatogram of Vernonia anthelmintica and determination of six components].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Feb;45(4):910-915

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University Beijing 100069, China.

This work aims to establish an HPLC specific chromatogram and determine six components of Vernonia anthelmintica with chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, scutellarein and luteolin as index components. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters Xbridge C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with gradient elution of acetonitrile-0.05% trifluoroacetic acid solution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1). The detection wave length was 360 nm and the column temperature was 30 ℃. Chemometrics software Chempattern was employed to analyze the data. HPLC specific chromatogram of V. anthelmintica was established and six characteristic peaks were marked. Six characteristic peaks were simultaneously determined by HPLC within 50 min. The contents of the six components in 13 batch samples of V. anthelmintica were 0.14%-0.68%, 0.44%-0.74%, 0.63%-1.01%, 0.14%-0.71%, 0.15%-0.26% and 0.010%-0.030%, respectively. The HPLC specific chromatogram of V. anthelmintica, together with determination of six components showed strong specificity, and it can be used for the quality control of the crude drug.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20191111.201DOI Listing
February 2020

[Study on application of salvianolic acids reference extract in quality control of Salvia miltiorrhiza and salvianolic acids for injection].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Dec;44(24):5446-5450

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050,China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the salvianolic acids reference extract for quality control for Salvia miltiorrhiza and salvianolic acids for injection. An Agilent ZORBAX SB-C18( 4. 6 mm×250 mm,5 μm) column was used with mobile phase consisting of 0. 1% formic acid-water and 0. 1% formic acid-acetonitrile in gradient elution procedure. The column temperature was 30 ℃; the flow rate was 1 m L·min-1; and the detection wavelength was 288 nm. The content of rosmarinic acid,lithospermic acid and salvianolic acid B in S. miltiorrhiza was determined by using the salvianolic acids reference extract as control substance. The content of caffeic acid,salvianolic acid E,rosmarinic acid,lithospermic acid,salvianolic acid B,and salvianolic acid Y in the salvianolic acids for injection was also determined. The linear relationship between chemicals was good( r>0. 998 9),and the injection precision RSD was 0. 30%-0. 90%. The sexual RSD is between 1. 4% and 3. 0%,and the RSD of the reproducibility of the extract is between 2. 1% and 5. 2%. The recovery rate of the three components in S. miltiorrhiza was 96. 80%-99. 20%,and the recovery rate of the six components in salvianolic acids for injection was 88. 90%-107. 5%. The solution of S. miltiorrhiza and salvianolic acids for injection were stable within 48 h. A total of 8 batches of S. miltiorrhiza and injection were determined by the reference extract,and the difference was smaller than that measured by the monomer control. This study preliminarily verified that the salvianolic acids reference extract can be used as a substitute for the monomer control for the quality control of S. miltiorrhiza and salvianolic acids for injection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20191014.202DOI Listing
December 2019

[Study on simultaneous determination of six arsenic species by HPLC-ICP-MS].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Dec;44(24):5441-5445

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050,China.

This study aims to establish a method for the determination of As B,As C,DMA,As( Ⅲ),MMA and As( Ⅴ) by using HPLC-ICP-MS. A Dioncx Ion PacTMAS7( 4 mm×250 mm) column was used for the HPLC-ICP-MS method. The mobile phase was 100 mmol·L-1 ammonium carbonate-1. 5 mmol·L-1 ammonium dibasic phosphate( gradient elution) at a flow rate of 1 m L·min-1. The injection volume was 10 μL. The linear relationships of As B,As C,DMA,As( Ⅲ),MMA,As( Ⅴ) were good with the concentration of10-500 μg·L-1. The average recovery rates( n = 6) were 105. 7%,100. 5%,102. 9%,105. 7%,100. 2%,92. 69%. The RSD were0. 50%,2. 4%,0. 93%,1. 3%,0. 89%,1. 5%. The precision and repeatability of this method were good. In this study,six forms of arsenic were separated effectively by this method. With methodological validation and sample determination,this method can be used to determine the morphological valence of arsenic in content determination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190830.201DOI Listing
December 2019

[Study on potential hepatotoxicity of rhein in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma based on liver metabolism].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Jan;45(2):412-417

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050, China.

The bilirubin metabolism mediated by the phase Ⅱ metabolizing enzyme UGT1A1 in the liver was evaluated to study the potential hepatotoxicity risk based on investigation on the inhibitory effect of rhein and its metabolites on the UGT1A1 enzyme in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. Firstly, in vitro liver microsomes incubation was used to initiate the phase Ⅱ metabolic reaction to investigate the inhibitory effect of rheinon UGT1A1 enzyme. Secondly, the phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ metabolic reactions were initiated to investigate the hepatotoxicity risk of rhein metabolites. It was found that the rhein and its phase Ⅱ metabolites had no significant inhibitory effect on UGT1A1 enzyme, but its phase Ⅰ metabolites significantly reduced UGT1A1 enzyme activity. Based on the metabolites analysis, it is speculated that the rhein phase Ⅰ metabolite rheinhydroxylate and its tautomers have certain hepatotoxicity risks, while the toxicity risk induced by the prototype and phase Ⅱ metabolites of rheinglucoside, rheinglucuronic acid and rhein sulfate is small.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20191018.202DOI Listing
January 2020

Antiviral activity of Isatidis Radix derived glucosinolate isomers and their breakdown products against influenza A in vitro/ovo and mechanism of action.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Apr 7;251:112550. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, PR China; National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, National Medical Products Administration, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Isatidis Radix, the sun-dried roots of Isatis indigotica Fortune ex Lindl., is one of the most usually used traditional Chinese medicines. For centuries, the herb has been employed in clinical practice for treatment of virus infection and inflammation. However, its active ingredients remain unclear.

Aim Of The Study: In the present study, the anti-influenza virus activity of epiprogoitrin, progoitrin, epigoitrin and goitrin, the Isatidis Radix derived glucosinolate isomers and their breakdown products, was firstly evaluated in vitro and in ovo and their mechanism of action was investigated.

Materials And Methods: Epiprogoitrin, progoitrin, epigoitrin and goitrin were isolated from Isatidis Radix by chiral separation. In vitro and in ovo evaluations were performed on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and embryonated eggs respectively, both using protocols including prevention, treatment and virus neutralization. Hemagglutination (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assays were performed for further understanding of the antiviral mechanism.

Results: Isatidis Radix derived glucosinolate isomers and their breakdown products all exhibited dose-dependent inhibition effect against influenza A virus (H1N1) without toxicity. The antiviral potency of the components was in the order of progoitrin > goitrin > epigoitrin > epiprogoitrin. The attachment of the constituents to the viral envelope conduced to the mechanism of their antiviral action without disturbing viral adsorption or budding.

Conclusion: Taken together, these results are promising for further development of Isatidis Radix and may contribute an adjunct to pharmacotherapy for influenza virus infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.112550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7126217PMC
April 2020

[Prediction of potential drug interactions of apigenin based on molecular docking and in vitro inhibition experiments].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Sep;44(18):4043-4047

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050,China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of apigenin on UGT1 A1 enzyme activity and to predict the potential drug-drug interaction of apigenin in clinical use. First,on the basis of previous experiments,the binding targets and binding strength of apigenin to UGT1 A1 enzyme were predicted by computer molecular docking method. Then the inhibitory effect of apigenin on UGT1 A1 enzyme was evaluated by in vitro human liver microsomal incubation system. Molecular docking results showed that apigenin was docked into the active region of UGT1 A1 enzyme protein F,consistent with the active region of bilirubin docking,with moderate affinity. Apigenin flavone mother nucleus mainly interacted with amino acid residues ILE343 and VAL345 to form hydrophobic binding Pi-Alkyl. At the same time,the hydroxyl group on the mother nucleus and the amino acid residue LYS346 formed an additional hydrogen bond,which increased the binding of the molecule to the protein. These results suggested that the flavonoid mother nucleus structure had a special structure binding to the enzyme protein UGT1 A1,and the introduction of hydroxyl groups into the mother nucleus can increase the binding ability. In vitro inhibition experiments showed that apigenin had a moderate inhibitory effect on UGT1 A1 enzyme in a way of competitive inhibition,which was consistent with the results of molecular docking. The results of two experiments showed that apigenin was the substrate of UGT1 A1 enzyme,which could inhibit the activity of UGT1 A1 enzyme competitively,and there was a risk of drug interaction between apigenin and UGT1 A1 enzyme substrate in clinical use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190326.401DOI Listing
September 2019

Identification of Calculus Bovis and its mixed varieties by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS) combined with the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020 Feb 10;179:112979. Epub 2019 Nov 10.

Research and Inspection Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ethnomedicine, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, State Food and Drug Administration, No.2, Tiantan Xili, Beijing, 100050, China; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No. 9, Dongdan Santiao, Beijing, 100730, China. Electronic address:

The method of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS) was established and combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to identify natural Calculus Bovis, in vitro cultured Calculus Bovis and artificial Calculus Bovis. PCA, which was particularly powerful in dealing with multicollinearity and variables that outnumber the samples, was used to analyze the UHPLC-MS data of the processed samples, and potential markers were analyzed and described based on orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. According to the results in this study, the approach of combining UHPLC-QTOF-MS with PCA was proven to be credible and could be used to identify Calculus Bovis from in vitro cultured Calculus Bovis and artificial Calculus Bovis and to determine if there is Calculus Bovis in patented Chinese medicines that should contained Calculus Bovis medicinal materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2019.112979DOI Listing
February 2020

[Comparative studies of three Cistanche speices based on UPLC specific chromatogram and determination of main components].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Sep;44(17):3749-3757

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050,China.

Based on UPLC specific chromatogram and determination of seven main components,this study aimed at evaluating the quality of Cistanche deserticola,C. tubulosa and C. sinensis. Echinacoside,cistanoside A,verbascoside,tubuloside A,isoacteoside,2'-acetylacteoside,tubuloside B were used as reference substances. UPLC analysis was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column( 2. 1 mm×100 mm,1. 8 μm). The mobile phase was acetonitrile-0. 08% trifluoroacetic acid solution. The flow rate was0. 3 mL·min-1,and the injection amount was 10 μL. The column temperature was 40 ℃,and the detection wavelength was 330 nm.The UPLC specific chromatograms were processed with ChemPattern software. UPLC specific chromatograms of C. deserticola and C.tubulosa from different samples were of high similarity,but the similarities of their counterfeit C. sinensis were less than 0. 06. Both of cluster and principal component analysis can distinguish certified products and counterfeits. The content ratios of echinacoside/verbascoside and verbascoside/isoacteoside were quite different between C. deserticola and C. tubulosa,which had distinct significance.The UPLC specific chromatogram and contents of seven main components can provide a basis for quality evaluation of Cistanches Herba.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190624.201DOI Listing
September 2019

[Research progress on chemical constituents and quality control of Tripterygium wilfordii preparations].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Aug;44(16):3368-3373

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050,China.

Tripterygium wilfordii preparations,with various biological activities such as immunosuppressive,anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects,are widely used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis,lupus erythematosus,and nephrotic syndrome. They have definite therapeutic effect,but often cause serious adverse reactions and result in damages to liver,kidney,blood,reproduction,and other systems due to their complex compositions,great toxicity,and narrow margin between the toxic and therapeutic dosages. At present,T. wilfordii preparations produced by different manufacturers exhibit large variations in clinical efficacy and side effects in account of their different chemical compositions and quality fluctuation due to differences in raw materials and production process. However,the existing quality standards are controversial in terms of index components and content limit,which cannot be effectively used for the overall quality control of the preparations. In this paper,the research progress on chemical constituents,quality standard and quality control methods of four T. wilfordii preparations including Tripterygium Tablets,Tripterygium Zongtie Tablets,Tripterygium Shuangceng Tablets and Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets was reviewed,in order to provide ideas and reference for the quality improvement of this type of preparations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190606.501DOI Listing
August 2019

[Screening of multiple pesticide residues in Jinyinhua Formula Granules].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Aug;44(15):3287-3296

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050,China.

To evaluate the pesticide residue risk of Jinyinhua Formula Granules( made from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos) used in the market preliminarily,20 samples of Jinyinhua Formula Granules from 5 manufactures were collected randomly through the national evaluative sampling test program. Totally 262 pesticides( involving 270 chemical monomers) with monitoring significance to traditional Chinese medicinal materials were detected. Samples were extracted by high speed homogenate with acetonitrile as solvent. And their residues were analyzed by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS in MRM mode. No less than 2 groups of characteristic ion pairs were adopted for qualitative detection,and the calibration curve method was used for quantitative detection. The results showed that 20 pesticides were detected in 20 batches of Jinyinhua Formula Granules,with an average of about 9 pesticides detected in every batch,but no restricted pesticide was detected. The detected pesticides were all at the trace level,which was far lower than the limit of the general food standard. Therefore,the safety risk was low in Jinyinhua Formula Granules. In this study,a screening method for pesticide residues in Jinyinhua Formula Granules was established for the first time. The method was accurate and rapid,and the detection indicators were highly targeted. The results could provide theoretical reference for the prevention and control of pesticide safety risks in Jinyinhua Formula Granules and even traditional Chinese medicine formula granules.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190516.302DOI Listing
August 2019

Identification and Differentiation of Radix and Radix Preaparata through the Quantitative Analysis of Multicomponents by the Single-Marker Method.

J Anal Methods Chem 2019 8;2019:7430717. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

National Institute for Food and Drug Control, Beijing 100050, China.

The quantitative analysis of multicomponents by the single-marker (QAMS) method was established and the relationship between value (the ratio of the sum of the contents of emodin-8-O--D-glucopyranoside and physcion-8-O--D-glucopyranoside to the sum of the contents of emodin and physcion) and the steaming time was found to identify and differentiate Radix and its processed product. Emodin was considered as the control substance, and the correction factors of physcion, emodin-8-O--D-glucopyranoside, and physcion-8-O--D-glucopyranoside were computed. In addition, the contents of the four components were determined. When the value is greater than or equal to 1.0, the sample was identified as Radix, and if the value was between 0.6 and 1.0, the sample of Radix Preaparata was processed incompletely. The value of the qualified Radix should be no more than 0.6. However, the influence of different sample injection volumes and the chromatographic columns and instruments used on the durability of the correction factors and RSD ≤3% hindered accurate identification; therefore, a QAMS method using an external standard value with methodological verification was developed. We redefined the " rules." The method using " rules" revised after optimization of the determination results was used, as it was accurate and led to convenient operation and low inspection costs, and moreover, the method could differentiate Radix Preaparata and Radix medicinal samples and precisely identify samples that were different from the completely processed product Radix Preaparata.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7430717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6702820PMC
August 2019

[Study on hepatotoxicity of physcion based on liver metabolism in vitro].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Jun;44(11):2367-2372

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050, China.

To evaluate the hepatotoxicity risks of physcion on the basis of the bilirubin metabolism mediated by glucuronidation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A1(UGT1A1 enzyme). The monomers were added into the rat liver microsomes to test the hepatotoxicity by using bilirubin as UGT1A1 enzyme substrate, with apparent inhibition constant K_i as the evaluation index. Liver microsome incubation in vitro was adopted to initiate phase Ⅱ metabolic reaction and investigate the inhibitory effect of physcion. Then the phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ metabolic reactions were initiated to investigate the comprehensive inhibition of metabolites and prototype components. The results showed that when only the phase Ⅱ reaction was initiated, physcion directly acted on the UGT1A1 enzyme in a prototype form, exhibited weak inhibition and the inhibition type was mixed inhibition; When the phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ reactions were initiated simultaneously, the inhibitory effects of physcion on UGT1A1 enzyme became strong and the inhibition type was mixed inhibition, suggesting that physcion had phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ metabolic processes, and the metabolites had strong inhibitory effect on UGT1A1 enzyme. This experiment preliminarily proved that the metabolites of physcion may be the main components to induce hepatotoxicity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190129.002DOI Listing
June 2019

[Comparative study for freeze-drying and sun-drying on multi-index ingredients of Cordyceps sinensis].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 May;44(10):1974-1977

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050,China.

The aim of this paper was to compare the influence of freeze-drying and sun-drying on six main nucleosides and nucleobases of Cordyceps sinensis by HPLC. Hypoxanthine,xanthine,uridine,inosine,guanosine and adenosine were reference substances. HPLC analysis was performed on a GL Inertsustain AQ-C_(18) column( 4. 6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),with mobile phase consisting of water( A)-acetonitrile( B) at the flow rate of 1. 0 mL·min~(-1)( 0-10 min,0-1% B; 10-65 min,1%-3% B). The detection wavelength was 260 nm,the column temperature was controlled at 30 ℃,and the injection volume was 5 μL. The linear ranges of hypoxanthine,xanthine,uridine,inosine,guanosine and adenosine were 1. 025-20. 50( r = 0. 999 8),0. 545-10. 90( r = 0. 999 9),4. 051-81. 02( r = 0. 999 8),4. 044-80. 88( r= 0. 999 9),2. 075-41. 50( r= 0. 999 9),4. 032-80. 64( r = 0. 999 9) mg·L~(-1),respectively. The average recoveries of them( n = 6)were as follows: 102. 3%( RSD 2. 1%),101. 1%( RSD 2. 4%),97. 80%( RSD 1. 7%),101. 8%( RSD 1. 8%),98. 90%( RSD2. 0%) and 98. 10%( RSD 1. 4%),respectively. Each sample was processed by freeze-drying and sun-drying so as to compare the difference between the two drying methods. The contents of six index ingredients were significantly different between freeze-drying and sun-drying sample of C. sinensis. The total contents of six index ingredients in sun-drying sample were higher than that in the corresponding freeze-drying sample. This research results provide the scientific basis for the drying methods and quality evaluation of C. sinensis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20181101.004DOI Listing
May 2019

Small molecules from natural products targeting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a therapeutic strategy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Sep 19;117:108990. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Science & Medicine, Northwest University, No. 229 Taibai North Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710069, China. Electronic address:

The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved developmental signaling event that plays a critical role in regulating tissue development and maintaining homeostasis, the dysregulation of which contributes to various diseases. Natural products have been widely recognized as a treasure trove of novel drug discovery for millennia, and many clinical drugs are derived from natural small molecules. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that many natural small molecules could inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, while the efficacy of natural products remains to be determined. Therefore, this paper primarily reviews the targeting mechanism of natural small molecules for aberrant Wnt/β-catenin pathway that is intimately implicated in the pathogenesis of myriad diseases, such as cancers, renal diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and bone disorders. In addition, this review also highlights some natural products that have the potential to halt Wnt/β-catenin pathway, especially for porcupine, the receptors of Wnt ligands, β-catenin and β-catenin-dependent proteins. Additionally, a series of natural small molecules have shown good therapeutic effects against mutations of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which may dramatically facilitate the development of natural products in Wnt/β-catenin pathway intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108990DOI Listing
September 2019

Redox signaling in aging kidney and opportunity for therapeutic intervention through natural products.

Free Radic Biol Med 2019 09 11;141:141-149. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Science & Medicine, Northwest University, No. 229 Taibai North Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710069, China. Electronic address:

Kidney diseases are serious public problems with high morbidity and mortality in the general population and heavily retard renal function with aging regardless of the cause. Although myriad strategies have been assigned to prevent or harness disease progression, unfortunately, thus far, there is a paucity of effective therapies partly due to an insufficient knowledge of underlying pathological mechanisms, indicating deeper studies are urgently needed. Additionally, natural products are increasingly recognized as an alternative source for disease intervention owing to the potent safety and efficacy, which might be exploited for novel drug discovery. In this review, we primarily expatiate the new advances on mediators that might be amenable to targeting aging kidney and kidney diseases, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), renin-angiotensin system (RAS), nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), peroxisome proliferator-activated γ receptor (PPARγ), advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) as well as microRNAs and vitagenes. Of note, we conclude by highlighting some natural products which have the potential to facilitate the development of novel treatment for patients with myriad renal diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.06.012DOI Listing
September 2019

Analysis of the fingerprint profile of bioactive constituents of traditional Chinese medicinal materials derived from animal bile using the HPLC-ELSD and chemometric methods: An application of a reference scaleplate.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2019 Sep 22;174:50-56. Epub 2019 May 22.

Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Traditional Chinese medicinal materials derived from animal bile are widely applied in clinical therapy for thousands of years in several Southeast Asian countries. Although the constituents are similar, these crude drugs exhibit different pharmacological activities; bile acids are the main bioactive constituent. Depending on the source, the price of these crude drugs differs significantly. Therefore, a reliable fingerprint method is needed to analyze and distinguish these crude drugs with a similar composition. In this milieu, we aimed to establish a fingerprint chromatography method that can separate and detect several bile acids simultaneously. A high-performance liquid chromatography separation method was established with evaporative light scattering detection to detect the analytes. The main bioactive constituents of pig bile, cattle bile, sheep bile, bear bile, and three types of cow bezoar were analyzed using the proposed method. The fingerprint chromatography profile of 35 samples were obtained and analyzed using chemometric methods. Considering the differences among samples, a reference scaleplate method was used in the peak alignment procedure. Unsupervised methods (hierarchical cluster analysis and principle component analysis) and supervised methods (K-nearest neighbor, partial least squares discriminant analysis, support vector machine discriminant analysis, and soft independent modeling of class analogy) were used in the chemometric analysis. The results indicated that the fingerprint chromatograms of the seven crude drugs had fingerprint specificity and that they can be well distinguished. In addition, the reference scaleplate method using the chromatogram of a mixed standard solution is practically applicable for peak alignment in the analysis of samples with a large difference in chromatographic peaks. Overall, 17 bile acids can be separated and detected simultaneously using this method and some frequently used TCMMs derived from animal bile can be distinguished accurately.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2019.05.035DOI Listing
September 2019

[Discussion on evaluation mode of proficiency testing for heavy metal and harmful element detection in medicines].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Apr;44(8):1724-1728

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050,China.

This study aims to explore the evaluation model for the proficiency testing of heavy metal and harmful element residues in pharmaceuticals,and to provide reference for the proficiency testing program and proficiency testing result in the field of residue analysis. The proficiency test result of cadmium determination in honeysuckle as an example. The algorithm A,NIQR,and Horwitz function are used to calculate the assigned value and the standard deviation. Z was obtained at the same time. If | Z | ≤2,the result is satisfactory. If 2< | Z | <3,the result is questionable. If | Z | ≥3,the result is unsatisfactory. In addition,the median value is the assigned value,and deviation(D%) is used. If D% is not more than 16%,the result is satisfactory; if D% is more than 16%,the result is unsatisfactory. After analysis,in the results of questionable or dissatisfied laboratories calculated by algorithm A and NIQR,the deviation error of some data is within the scope of the standard. In the results of the satisfactory laboratory evaluated by the Horwitz function,some data deviation errors far exceed the standard range. The evaluation result of the D% meets the requirements. According to heavy metal and harmful element trace analysis methods,this study is the first to apply D% to the evaluation of the detection ability of heavy metals and harmful elements in pharmaceuticals. This method makes the evaluation result more reasonable,and has important reference significance for the evaluation of other proficiency test results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190118.003DOI Listing
April 2019

[Risk assessment of pesticide residues in domestic ginsengs].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2019 Apr;44(7):1327-1333

Intitute for Control of Chinese Traditional Medicine and Ethnic Medicine, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control Beijing 100050, China.

The study aims at taking risk assessment of pesticide residues in ginseng and high risk pesticides were picked up in order to provide a scientific basis for the establishment of maximum residue limits(MRLs) for pesticides in ginseng. Residues of 246 pesticides in 80 ginseng samples collected from different place were detected by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS method. Acute and chronic intake risks were evaluated by using deterministic approach, and the matrix ranking developed by the Veterinary Residues Committee of the United Kingdom was referred to assess risk score of pesticides. The 25 kinds of pesticide residues were detected in ginseng samples, the detection rate of quintozene(PCNB) was 78%, which was the most frequently detectable pesticide. The chronic dietary intake risks of 25 pesticide residues expressed as %ADI were 0.00%-2.6%, and their acute dietary intake risks expressed as %ARfD were 0.00%-104.2%. Among them the acute dietary intake risks of PCNB was 104%,which was the highest. The 25 pesticides were divided into 3 groups by risk score, high risk group(4 pesticides), medium risk group(6 pesticides), and low risk group(15 pesticides). Hexachlorobenzene, phorate, PCNB and BHC were classified as high risk group. It is necessary and effective to establish the limit of residual organic chlorine in ginseng from Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015 edition). MRLs for PCNB and hexachlorobenzene in ginseng were proposed to be revised based on the results of risk assessment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20190319.102DOI Listing
April 2019