Publications by authors named "Shuang Song"

299 Publications

Biochar utilisation in the anaerobic digestion of food waste for the creation of a circular economy via biogas upgrading and digestate treatment.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 20;333:125190. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Energy and Environmental Sustainability for Megacities (E2S2) Phase II, Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise (CREATE), 1 Create Way, Singapore 138602, Singapore; Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, NUS, Singapore. Electronic address:

A wood waste-derived biochar was applied to food-waste anaerobic digestion to evaluate the feasibility of its utilisation to create a circular economy. This biochar was first purposed for the upgrading of the biogas from the said anaerobic digestion, before treating and recovering the nutrients in the solid fraction of the digestate, which was finally employed as a biofertilizer for the organic cultivation of three green leafy vegetables: kale, lettuce and rocket salad. Whilst the amount of CO the biochar could absorb from the biogas was low (11.17 mg g), it could potentially be increased by modifying through physical and chemical methods. Virgin as well as CO-laden biochar were able to remove around 31% of chemical oxygen demand, 8% of the ammonia and almost 90% of the total suspended solids from the digestate wastewater, which was better than a dewatering process via centrifugation but worse than the industry standard of a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane bioreactor. Nutrients were recovered in the solid fraction of the digestate residue filtered by the biochar, and utilised as a biofertilizer that performed similarly to a commercial complete fertilizer in terms of aerial fresh weight growth for all three vegetables cultivated. Contingent on the optimal upgrading of biogas, the concept of a circular economy based on biochar and anaerobic digestion appears to be feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125190DOI Listing
April 2021

Health effects of dietary sulfated polysaccharides from seafoods and their interaction with gut microbiota.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.

Various dietary sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) have been isolated from seafoods, including edible seaweeds and marine animals, and their health effects such as antiobesity and anti-inflammatory activities have attracted remarkable interest. Sulfate groups have been shown to play important roles in the bioactivities of these polysaccharides. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that the biological effects of dietary SPs are associated with the modulation of the gut microbiota. Dietary SPs could regulate the gut microbiota structure and, accordingly, affect the production of bioactive microbial metabolites. Because of their differential chemical structures, dietary SPs may specifically affect the growth of certain gut microbiota and associated metabolite production, which may contribute to variable health effects. This review summarizes the latest findings on the types and structural characteristics of SPs, the effects of different processing techniques on the structural characteristics and health effects of SPs, and the current understanding of the role of gut microbiota in the health effects of SPs. These findings might help in better understanding the mechanism of the health effects of SPs and provide a scientific basis for their application as functional food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12754DOI Listing
April 2021

Blocking polymerization of CTFs induces plentiful structural terminations for synchronous removal of organics and Cr(VI).

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology for Industrial Pollution Control of Zhejiang Province, College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032, P. R. China.

Herein, an ultramild block polymerization strategy was employed to precisely control the exposure of structural terminations in the skeleton of covalent triazine-based frameworks (CTFs). The generated structural terminations with cyano (-CN) and hydroxy (-OH) groups (STCHs) could serve as not only the optimal adsorption sites for enriching targets, but also π-conjugated electron donor-acceptor dyads to accelerate the charge transfer. With spatial separation of charge localization sites, STCH-CTF exhibited a photoactivity of 2.5-4 times higher than that of pristine CTFs in the simultaneous oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA) and the reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(vi)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc00780gDOI Listing
April 2021

[Advances in Ultrasound Tissue Characterization and Its Application in Thermal Ablation of Tumors].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2021 Apr;45(2):176-182

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Environmental and Life Sciences, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124.

The methods of monitoring the thermal ablation of tumor are compared and analyzed in recent years. The principle method results and insufficient of ultrasound elastography and quantitative ultrasound imaging are discussed. The results show that ultrasonic tissue signature has great development space in the field of real-time monitoring of thermal ablation, but there are still some problems such as insufficient monitoring accuracy difficulty in whole-course monitoring and insufficient experiments, so it is impossible to realize clinical application. It is necessary to further study the monitoring method which can realize accurate and real-time detection of ablation zone and transition zone and can be easily combined with the existing ultrasonic equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-7104.2021.02.012DOI Listing
April 2021

Reduction of Human Mobility Matters during Early COVID-19 Outbreaks: Evidence from India, Japan and China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 10;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Mobility restrictions have been a heated topic during the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, multiple recent findings have verified its importance in blocking virus spread. Evidence on the association between mobility, cases imported from abroad and local medical resource supplies is limited. To reveal the association, this study quantified the importance of inter- and intra-country mobility in containing virus spread and avoiding hospitalizations during early stages of COVID-19 outbreaks in India, Japan, and China. We calculated the time-varying reproductive number () and duration from illness onset to diagnosis confirmation (), to represent conditions of virus spread and hospital bed shortages, respectively. Results showed that inter-country mobility fluctuation could explain 80%, 35%, and 12% of the variance in imported cases and could prevent 20 million, 5 million, and 40 million imported cases in India, Japan and China, respectively. The critical time for screening and monitoring of imported cases is 2 weeks at minimum and 4 weeks at maximum, according to the time when the Pearson's Rs between and imported cases reaches a peak (>0.8). We also found that if local transmission is initiated, a 1% increase in intra-country mobility would result in 1430 (±501), 109 (±181), and 10 (±1) additional bed shortages, as estimated using the in India, Japan, and China, respectively. Our findings provide vital reference for governments to tailor their pre-vaccination policies regarding mobility, especially during future epidemic waves of COVID-19 or similar severe epidemic outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001886PMC
March 2021

Gasification biochar from horticultural waste: An exemplar of the circular economy in Singapore.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 19;781:146573. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585, Singapore. Electronic address:

Organic waste, the predominant component of global solid waste, has never been higher, resulting in increased landfilling, incineration, and open dumping that releases greenhouse gases and toxins that contribute to global warming and environmental pollution. The need to create and adopt sustainable closed-loop systems for waste reduction and valorization is critical. Using organic waste as a feedstock, gasification and pyrolysis systems can produce biooil, syngas, and thermal energy, while reducing waste mass by as much as 85-95% through conversion into biochar, a valuable byproduct with myriad uses from soil conditioning to bioremediation and carbon sequestration. Here, we present a novel case study detailing the circular economy of gasification biochar in Singapore's Gardens by the Bay. Biochar produced from horticultural waste within the Gardens was tested as a partial peat moss substitute in growing lettuce, pak choi, and pansy, and found to be a viable substitute for peat moss. At low percentages of 20-30% gasification biochar, fresh weight yields for lettuce and pak choi were comparable to or exceeded those of plants grown in pure peat moss. The biochar was also analyzed as a potential additive to concrete, with a 2% biochar mortar compound found to be of suitable strength for non-structural functions, such as sidewalks, ditches, and other civil applications. These results demonstrate the global potential of circular economies based on local biochar creation and on-site use through the valorization of horticultural waste via gasification, generating clean, renewable heat or electricity, and producing a carbon-neutral to -negative byproduct in the form of biochar. They also indicate the potential of scaled-up pyrolysis or gasification systems for a circular economy in waste management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146573DOI Listing
March 2021

Societal Cost of Opioid Use in Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Patients in the United States.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Orthopaedic and Arthritis Center for Outcomes Research, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (SKOA) is a chronic, disabling condition, requiring long-term pain management; over 800,000 SKOA patients in the USA use opioids chronically. We aim to characterize the societal economic burden of opioid use in this population.

Methods: We used the Osteoarthritis Policy Model, a validated computer simulation of SKOA, to estimate the opioid-related lifetime and annual cost generated by the USA SKOA population. We included direct medical, lost productivity, criminal justice, and diversion costs. We modeled the SKOA cohort with mean (SD) age 54 (14) years and Western Ontario and McMaster University pain score 29 (17) (0-100, 100-worst). We estimated annual costs of strong ($1,381) and weak ($671) opioid regimens using Medicare fee schedules, Red Book, the Federal Supply Schedule, and published literature. The annual lost productivity and criminal justice costs of opioid use disorder (OUD), obtained from published literature, were $11,387 and $4,264, per-person. The 2015-2016 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey provided OUD prevalence. We conducted sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of our estimates to uncertainty in input parameters.

Results: Assuming 5.1% prevalence of chronic strong opioid use, the total lifetime opioid-related cost generated by the USA SKOA population was estimated at $14.0 billion, of which only $7.45 billion (53%) were direct medical costs.

Conclusions: Lost productivity, diversion, and criminal justice costs comprise about half of opioid-related costs generated by the USA SKOA population. Reducing chronic opioid use may lead to a meaningful reduction in societal costs that can be used for other public health causes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.24581DOI Listing
February 2021

Evaluating the potential of okara-derived black soldier fly larval frass as a soil amendment.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 19;286:112163. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 16 Science Drive 4, 117558, Singapore. Electronic address:

Bioconversion of organic waste by the black soldier fly (BSF) larva yields a by-product commonly known as 'frass'. Although BSF larval frass has often been marketed as a biofertilizer, few studies have evaluated this claim. In this study, BSF larvae reared on a pure okara diet achieved an 85% waste reduction in the fresh weight of the okara. Subsequently, the frass was mixed with soil at concentrations of 10, 20, and 30% (vol/vol), and used to cultivate lettuce plants. At 10% concentration, the lettuce plants had biomasses comparable to those of the controls. Higher frass concentrations stunted the growth of the lettuce, likely because of the low C:N ratio of larval frass resulting from the rapid mineralization of nutrients. Larval frass was also found to be able to provide sufficient nutrients for lettuce growth as fertilizer application was only necessary after the first growth cycle, suggesting its suitability as a soil amendment. Analyses of the microbial community of all the growing media showed that the growth medium treatments with BSF larval frass tended to have a lower number of microbial species than the controls. Inherently higher micronutrient levels present in the frass resulted in the growth of lettuce plants. More importantly, the microbial analysis revealed that common foodborne pathogens were absent in the BSF larval frass and elemental analysis also indicated no heavy metal pollutants present. Overall, BSF larval frass was found to be a suitable soil amendment and more in-depth studies could facilitate its sensible use in agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112163DOI Listing
May 2021

Enhancement of Thermo-Physical Properties of Expanded Vermiculite-Based Organic Composite Phase Change Materials for Improving the Thermal Energy Storage Efficiency.

ACS Omega 2021 Feb 25;6(5):3891-3899. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Materials Utilization of Nonmetallic Minerals and Solid Wastes, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, PR China.

In this work, expanded vermiculite (EVM) was modified by acid leaching with different concentrations (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mol/L) of HCl solution to obtain three kinds of acid-modified EVM (AEVM-1, AEVM-2, and AEVM-3, respectively). In the composite, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was served as a phase change material (PCM), while EVM and AEVM were served as supporting matrixes. Then, graphite was served as an additive to enhance thermal conductivity, and a series of shape-stabilized composite PCMs (PEG/EVM, PEG/AEVM-1, PEG/AEVM-2, PEG/AEVM-3, and PEG-C/AEVM-3 ss-CPCMs) were prepared by physical impregnation. The latent heats of PEG/AEVM-3 and PEG-C/AEVM-3 in the melting process were 154.8 and 144.7 J/g, respectively, which increased by 22.7 and 14.7%, respectively, compared with that of PEG/EVM, indicating that acid modification effectively enhanced the heat storage capacity. The thermal conductivity of PEG-C/AEVM-3 was 0.43 W/mK, which was 65.4 and 48.3% higher than that of PEG and PEG/EVM, respectively. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and the thermal cycle test indicated that PEG-C/AEVM-3 reflected favorable chemical stability, thermal stability, and thermal reliability. Therefore, the prepared PEG-C/AEVM-3 with high latent heat and acceptable thermal conductivity was a promising composite PCM in the field of building energy storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876848PMC
February 2021

Water hyacinth for energy and environmental applications: A review.

Bioresour Technol 2021 May 4;327:124809. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585, Singapore. Electronic address:

This review is focused on the sustainable management of harvested water hyacinth (WH) via thermochemical conversion to carbonaceous materials (CMs), biofuels, and chemicals for energy and environmental applications. One of the major challenges in thermochemical conversion is to guarantee the phytoremediation performance of biochar and the energy conversion efficiency in biowaste-to-energy processes. Thus, a circular sustainable approach is proposed to improve the biochar and energy production. The co-conversion process can enhance the syngas, heat, and energy productions with high-quality products. The produced biochar should be economically feasible and comparable to available commercial carbon products. The removal and control of heavy and transition metals are essential for the safe implementation and management of WH biochar. CMs derived from biochar are of interest in wastewater treatment, air purification, and construction. It is important to control the size, shape, and chemical compositions of the CM particles for higher-value products like catalyst, adsorbent or conductor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124809DOI Listing
May 2021

Ecological Network Optimization in Urban Central District Based on Complex Network Theory: A Case Study with the Urban Central District of Harbin.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 3;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150000, China.

Habitat destruction and declining ecosystem service levels caused by urban expansion have led to increased ecological risks in cities, and ecological network optimization has become the main way to resolve this contradiction. Here, we used landscape patterns, meteorological and hydrological data as data sources, applied the complex network theory, landscape ecology, and spatial analysis technology, a quantitative analysis of the current state of landscape pattern characteristics in the central district of Harbin was conducted. The minimum cumulative resistance was used to extract the ecological network of the study area. Optimized the ecological network by edge-adding of the complex network theory, compared the optimizing effects of different edge-adding strategies by using robustness analysis, and put forward an effective way to optimize the ecological network of the study area. The results demonstrate that: The ecological patches of Daowai, Xiangfang, Nangang, and other old districts in the study area are small in size, fewer in number, strongly fragmented, with a single external morphology, and high internal porosity. While the ecological patches in the new districts of Songbei, Hulan, and Acheng have a relatively good foundation. And ecological network connectivity in the study area is generally poor, the ecological corridors are relatively sparse and scattered, the connections between various ecological sources of the corridors are not close. Comparing different edge-adding strategies of complex network theory, the low-degree-first strategy has the most outstanding performance in the robustness test. The low-degree-first strategy was used to optimize the ecological network of the study area, 43 ecological corridors are added. After the optimization, the large and the small ecological corridors are evenly distributed to form a complete network, the optimized ecological network will be significantly more connected, resilient, and resistant to interference, the ecological flow transmission will be more efficient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913767PMC
February 2021

OBF1 and Oct factors control the germinal center transcriptional program.

Blood 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Faculty of Sciences, University of Basel, Switzerland.

OBF1 is a specific coactivator of the POU family transcription factors OCT1 and OCT2. OBF1 and OCT2 are B cell-specific and indispensable for germinal center (GC) formation, but their mechanism of action is unclear. Here, we show by ChIP-seq that OBF1 extensively colocalizes with OCT1 and OCT2. We found that these factors also often colocalize with transcription factors of the ETS family. Furthermore, we showed that OBF1, OCT2 and OCT1 bind widely to the promoters or enhancers of genes involved in GC formation in mouse and human GC B cells. shRNA knockdown experiments demonstrated that OCT1, OCT2 and OBF1 regulate each other and are essential for proliferation of GC-derived lymphoma cell lines. OBF1 downregulation disrupts the GC transcriptional program: genes involved in GC maintenance -such as BCL6- are downregulated, while genes related to exit from the GC program -such as IRF4- are upregulated. Ectopic expression of BCL6 does not restore the proliferation of GC-derived lymphoma cells depleted of OBF1 unless IRF4 is also depleted, indicating that OBF1 controls an essential regulatory node in GC differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020010175DOI Listing
January 2021

Profiling of phospholipid molecular species in human breast milk of Chinese mothers and comprehensive analysis of phospholipidomic characteristics at different lactation stages.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 19;348:129091. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Phospholipids are critical for milk digestion and infant development. But the profile of phospholipid molecular species in human milk and its dynamic changes during the lactation period have never been reported. The present study elucidated precise qualitative and quantitative analysis of 258 phospholipid molecular species in 486 human milk samples. Phosphatidylcholine is the most abundant class, followed by phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin as the second abundant class in different lactation period. The plasmalogens declined along the lactation period, and the polyunsaturated-phospholipids decreased after 10-15 days. The decrease of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylglycerols, and the increase of lysophosphatidylethanolamines and lysophosphatidylcholines are critical changes from 0 to 5 days to 10-15 days; increase of phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylethanolamines and lysophosphatidylcholines is the key changes from 10-15 days to 40-45 days; the decrease of most phospholipid molecular species is the characteristic change from 40-45 days to 200-240 days; and the phospholipid profile achieved stability after 200 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129091DOI Listing
June 2021

Chitosan and Derivatives: Bioactivities and Application in Foods.

Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 2021 03 13;12:407-432. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

Chitosan is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and nontoxic aminopolysaccharide. This review summarizes and discusses the structural modifications, including substitution, grafting copolymerization, cross-linking, and hydrolysis, utilized to improve the physicochemical properties and enhance the bioactivity and functionality of chitosan and related materials. This manuscript also reviews the current progress and potential of chitosan and its derivatives in body-weight management and antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulatory activities as well as their ability to interact with gut microbiota. In addition, the potential of chitosan and its derivatives as functional ingredients in food systems, such as film and coating materials, and delivery systems is discussed. This manuscript aims to provide up-to-date information to stimulate future discussion and research to promote the value-added utilization of chitosan in improving the safety, quality, nutritional value and health benefits, and sustainability of our food system while reducing the environmental hazards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-food-070720-112725DOI Listing
March 2021

Low-Dimensional Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskites Single Crystals via Bifunctional Amino Acid Cross-Linkage: Structural Diversity and Properties Controllability.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 5;13(2):3325-3335. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, P. R. China.

Three-dimensional perovskite AMX has great potential in photoelectric applications, but the poor stability is a major problem that restricts its practical application. The emergence of lower dimensional perovskite solves this problem. Here, we have synthesized a group of novel low-dimensional perovskites with diverse structures. Different amino acids were incorporated in the perovskite cage. The formulas of the compounds are (A')PbI (A' = COOH(CH)NH, = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9). These families of materials demonstrate structure-related stability, tunable bandgap, and different photoluminescence. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicated that the five materials employ different structure types varying from edge-sharing structures to face- and corner-sharing Pb/I structures by adjusting the number of C atoms in organic cations, and the level of [PbI] octahedral distortion was also identified. The film prepared using these materials with longer carbon chains ( = 5, 7, 9) showed better stability, and they did not decompose within one year at 75% RH, 40 °C. The bifunctional organic ions containing carboxyl groups as spacer cations will form additional hydrogen bonding between perovskite layers, resulting in higher stability of the material. The band gaps of these materials vary from 2.19 to 2.6 eV depending on the octahedral connection mode and [PbI] octahedral distortion level, density functional theory calculations (DFT) are consistent with our experimental trends and suggest that the face-sharing structure has the maximum band gap due to its flatter electron band structure. Bright green fluorescence was observed in (COOH(CH)NH)PbI and (COOH(CH)NH)PbI when excited by 365 nm UV light. A thorough comprehension of the structure-property relationships is of great significance for further practical applications of perovskites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c16402DOI Listing
January 2021

Optimization of culture medium for Sanghuangporus vaninii and a study on its therapeutic effects on gout.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Mar 1;135:111194. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology & Engineering, The Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 130012, China; College of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 130012, China. Electronic address:

The increasing incidence of gout poses a very challenging management problem. However, the currently available drugs often have various toxic side effects. As a traditional edible and medicinal macrofungus, Sanghuangporus vaninii presents high medical research value. Therefore, to improve fermentation efficiency and identify novel anti-gout drugs, we optimized the culture medium of S. vaninii with lignin and further investigated its anti-gout effects. The results indicated that 0.06 g/L of lignin was most favorable for S. vaninii growth. In the hyperuricemia cell model, we found that S. vaninii could significantly induce the downregulation of xanthine oxidoreductase and the upregulation of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. Furthermore, following oral administration of the extracts, the serum uric acid levels of mice with hyperuricemia were effectively reduced. In a gouty arthritis rat model, S. vaninii also achieved strong suppression of synovial swelling, indicating its anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, the antioxidant assays suggested that S. vaninii shows a strong free radical scavenging capacity and can effectively alleviate cellular oxidative stress. This activity further enhances its anti-inflammatory activity and reduces the incidence of comorbidities. In summary, our results provide the basis for the utilization of S. vaninii to develop anti-gout drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111194DOI Listing
March 2021

5-Methoxy-2-mercaptobenzimidazole as an efficient inhibitor on tyrosinase: Inhibitory activity and mechanism.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 Apr 30;131(4):356-363. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

College of Life Science and Key Laboratory of Functional Small Organic Molecule, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330022, China.

In this study, 5-methoxy-2-mercaptobenzimidazole (5-M-2-MB) was confirmed as an efficient tyrosinase inhibitor by methods of enzyme kinetic, fluorescence quenching, ANS-binding, thermodynamics, energy transfer, and molecular docking in combination. The results proved that 5-M-2-MB significantly inhibited the tyrosinase (IC = 60 ± 2 nM) in a reversible and competitive way with the K value of 80 ± 1 nM. It quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of tyrosinase through a static mechanism, and caused conformational change of the enzyme by increasing the hydrophobic region. Moreover, this compound could bind to tyrosinase and form 5-M-2-MB-tyrosinase complex by hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction. The interactions were generated between 5-M-2-MB and specific amino acid residues (Trp-358, Thr-308, Glu-356, and Asp-357) located on the A chain of tyrosinase. Therefore, this study would offer a theoretical foundation for developing the new tyrosinase inhibitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2020.11.009DOI Listing
April 2021

Alkaloids Inhibited PC3 Cells Growth and Migration Through the COX-2 Mediated Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2020 12;11:523962. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Key Laboratory of Pu-er Tea Science, Ministry of Education, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, China.

Lam. () is valuable plant distributed in many tropical and subtropical countries. It has a number of medicinal uses and is highly nutritious. has been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth, but this effect has not been demonstrated on prostate cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of alkaloids (MOA) on proliferation and migration of PC3 human prostate cancer cells and . Furthermore, we elucidated the mechanism of these effects. The results showed that MOA inhibited proliferation of PC3 cells and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, MOA suppressed PC3 cell migration and inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9. In addition, MOA significantly downregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), β-catenin, phosphorylated glycogen synthase 3β, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and suppressed production of prostaglandin E (PGE). Furthermore, FH535 (β-catenin inhibitor) and MOA reversed PGE-induced PC3 cell proliferation and migration, and the effects of MOA and FH535 were not additive. experiments showed that MOA (150 mg/kg) significantly inhibited growth of xenograft tumors in mice, and significantly reduced the protein expression levels of COX-2 and β-catenin in tumor tissues. These results indicate that MOA inhibits the proliferation and migration, and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of PC3 cells. Additionally, MOA inhibits the proliferation and migration of PC3 cells through suppression of the COX-2 mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.523962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7741610PMC
November 2020

Synergistically enhanced heterogeneous activation of persulfate for aqueous carbamazepine degradation using FeO@SBA-15.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 8;760:144027. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, People's Republic of China; College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The exploration of low-cost, high-performance and stable catalytic materials for sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) is of great importance. This study presents FeO-wrapped SBA-15 mesoporous silica catalyst (FeO@SBA-15) for persulfate (PS) activation. The FeO@SBA-15 with an FeO to SBA-15 weight ratio of 3:1 exhibited an impressive carbamazepine (CBZ) removal efficiency of ~100% after 30 min of SR-AOP at an initial pH of 3.0, a temperature of 25 °C, an initial PS concentration of 300 mg L and a catalyst concentration of 0.50 g L. The primary oxidizing species produced in the system were identified as SO and HO by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and radical quenching experiments. Benefiting from the synergetic effects of improved FeO dispersion and enhanced adsorption of CBZ and PS by SBA-15, the as-obtained heterogeneous FeO@SBA-15 catalysts offer large numbers of active sites for free radical generation and high surface concentrations of CBZ and PS for SR-AOPs, as verified by physicochemical characterization and Langmuir-Hinshelwood model analysis. In addition, the activity of FeO@SBA-15 was maintained throughout six successive cycling tests. Various inorganic anions, including Cl, NO, HCO, and CO, as well as organic material in natural water, exert a negative impact on the FeO@SBA-15 catalyzed SR-AOPs and deserve special attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144027DOI Listing
March 2021

Interaction of sulfated polysaccharides with intestinal Bacteroidales plays an important role in its biological activities.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 13;168:496-506. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

School of Food Science and Technology, National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, PR China; National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Marine Bioactive Polysaccharide Development and Application, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, PR China. Electronic address:

The bioactivities of sulfated polysaccharides have shown to be associated with the gut microbiota, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the effect of sulfated polysaccharides from pacific abalone (AGSP) on the human gut microbiota was analyzed via an in vitro fermentation model. The results revealed that AGSP altered the overall structure of the gut microbiota and increased relative abundances of some Bacteroidales members, implying that intestinal Bacteroidales can play important roles in the bioactivities of AGSP. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, some species from the Bacteroides and Parabacteroides within Bacteroidales were isolated, and their characteristics on AGSP utilization were analyzed. It showed that AGSP utilization by intestinal Bacteroidales was species-dependent, and some species that liberated AGSP breakdown products promoted the growth of others unable to live in AGSP, forming an AGSP utilization network. The in vitro cell model showed that AGSP oligosaccharides had better anti-inflammatory activity and weaker cytotoxicity, implying that microbial degradation of AGSP can influence its reaction with host cells. These results indicated that the interaction between polysaccharides and gut microbes can together determine the beneficial effects of polysaccharides on the host health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.12.024DOI Listing
January 2021

Gentiopicroside prevents alcoholic liver damage by improving mitochondrial dysfunction in the rat model.

Phytother Res 2021 Apr 10;35(4):2230-2251. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin, China.

Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma is a medical plant that is widely cultivated in China, North Korea, Japan, and Russia, and gentiopicroside is one of its major active compounds. In this study, the hepatoprotective activity of gentiopicroside on rats with alcoholic liver damage (ALD) was evaluated using the transaminase and blood lipid levels and antioxidant capacity. The potential mechanism of hepatoprotective effect of gentiopicroside was evaluated by mitochondrial function detection, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomic analysis, and anti-apoptosis analysis. Results showed that the gentiopicroside exhibited good hepatoprotective activity on rats with ALD by decreasing the transaminase levels, regulating the blood lipid levels, and increasing the antioxidant capacity. The potential mechanisms were related to regulating mitochondrial dysfunction by recovering mitochondrial membrane potential level, adenosine triphosphate concentration, activities of key enzymes in tricarboxylic acid cycle, and activities of complex I-V, regulating micromolecular metabolism and anti-apoptosis. These findings supported the further exploration of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma as effective phytotherapy to prevent and treat ALD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6981DOI Listing
April 2021

Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Cadmium by a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Abalone.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Dec 3;68(50):14996-15004. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Qinggongyuan 1, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116034, Liaoning, China.

Consumption of seafood is a common route of cadmium ion (Cd) exposure to consumers. The seafood matrices may alter the toxicity profile of Cd due to the interaction between Cd and biomacromolecules in seafood. In this study, enhanced cytotoxicity of Cd was found in the presence of an abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide (AGSP) and the mechanism was investigated at a metabolic level. The formation of the AGSP-Cd complex was demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased and mitochondrial membrane potential reduced upon exposure to the AGSP-Cd complex as compared with those of Cd exposure. The decreased cell viability after incubation with the AGSP-Cd complex also suggested enhanced Cd toxicity induced by AGSP. The metabolomics and lipidomics analysis revealed that, compared with the Cd group, the AGSP-Cd downregulated the phospholipid metabolism and resulted in more serious damage in the cellular membrane. The lipid metabolism disorder, in turn, amplified the generation of ROS, leading to a decrease in cell viability. These results provided new evidence of the enhanced Cd toxicity upon interaction with seafood polysaccharides, and much attention should be paid to the effect of food ingredients on heavy metal ion toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06399DOI Listing
December 2020

In situ chloride-mediated synthesis of TiO thin film photoanode with enhanced photoelectrochemical activity for carbamazepine oxidation coupled with simultaneous cathodic H production and CO conversion to fuels.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 21;410:124563. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the simultaneous photoelectrochemical (PEC) degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ), reduction of CO and production of H using a TiO thin film as photoanode and Ag plate as cathode. The photoanode was fabricated using sequential hydrothermal and calcination processes. The use of chloride during the hydrothermal process enhanced formation of oxygen vacancies and defects on the TiO surface. Calcination not only further strengthened those features but also enhanced the crystallinity and anatase/rutile ratio, endowing the TiO photoanode with superior PEC capacity. Characterization of physicochemical and PEC properties revealed that photogenerated electrons-holes were rapidly generated and efficiently separated on the TiO surface during the PEC process. Hydroxyl radicals were the main active species responsible for anodic oxidation of carbamazepine, while hydrogen radicals and carbon dioxide radical anions mediated CO reduction and H production in the cathodic process. This work confirms the suitability of the prepared TiO photoanode for PEC degradation of organic pollutants coupled with CO reduction and H production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124563DOI Listing
May 2021

Evaluation of remodeling and regeneration of electrospun PCL/fibrin vascular grafts in vivo.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jan 25;118:111441. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

College of Life Science and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China. Electronic address:

The success of artificial vascular graft in the host to obtain functional tissue regeneration and remodeling is a great challenge in the field of small diameter tissue engineering blood vessels. In our previous work, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/fibrin vascular grafts were fabricated by electrospinning. It was proved that the PCL/fibrin vascular graft was a suitable small diameter tissue engineering vascular scaffold with good biomechanical properties and cell compatibility. Here we mainly examined the performance of PCL/fibrin vascular graft in vivo. The graft showed randomly arranged nanofiber structure, excellent mechanical strength, higher compliance and degradation properties. At 9 months after implantation in the rat abdominal aorta, the graft induced the regeneration of neoarteries, and promoted ECM deposition and rapid endothelialization. More importantly, the PCL/fibrin vascular graft showed more microvessels density and fewer calcification areas at 3 months, which was beneficial to improve cell infiltration and proliferation. Moreover, the ratio of M2/M1macrophage in PCL/fibrin graft had a higher expression level and the secretion amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines started to increase, and then decreased to similar to the native artery. Thus, the electrospun PCL/fibrin tubular vascular graft had great potential to become a new type of artificial blood vessel scaffold that can be implanted in vivo for long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445127PMC
January 2021

Does screening for depressive symptoms help optimize duloxetine use in knee OA patients with moderate pain? A cost-effectiveness analysis.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Orthopaedic and Arthritis Center for Outcomes Research (OrACORe) and Policy and Innovation eValuation in Orthopaedic Treatments (PIVOT) Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Objective: Duloxetine is an FDA-approved treatment for both osteoarthritis (OA) pain and depression, but uptake of duloxetine in knee OA management varies. We examined the cost-effectiveness of adding duloxetine to knee OA care with or without depression screening.

Methods: We used the Osteoarthritis Policy Model, a validated computer microsimulation of knee OA, to examine the value of duloxetine for knee OA patients with moderate pain by comparing three strategies: 1) usual care (UC); 2) duloxetine for those who screen positive for depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) + UC; and 3) universal duloxetine + UC. Outcomes included quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), lifetime direct medical costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), discounted at 3% annually. Model inputs, drawn from published literature and national databases, included: annual cost of duloxetine, $721-$937; average pain reduction for duloxetine, 17.5 points on the WOMAC pain scale (0-100); likelihood of depression remission with duloxetine, 27.4%. We considered two willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds of $50,000/QALY and $100,000/QALY. We varied parameters related to the PHQ-9 and duloxetine's cost, efficacy, and toxicities to address uncertainty in model inputs.

Results: The screening strategy led to an additional 17 QALYs per 1,000 subjects and increased costs by $289/subject (ICER=$17,000/QALY). Universal duloxetine led to an additional 31 QALYs per 1,000 subjects and $1,205/subject (ICER=$39,300/QALY). Under the majority of sensitivity analyses, universal duloxetine was cost-effective at the $100,000/QALY threshold.

Conclusion: Adding duloxetine to usual care for knee OA patients with moderate pain, regardless of depressive symptoms, is cost-effective at frequently-used WTP thresholds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.24519DOI Listing
November 2020

Biochar industry to circular economy.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 19;757:143820. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117585, Singapore. Electronic address:

Biochar, produced as a by-product of pyrolysis/gasification of waste biomass, shows great potential to reduce the environment impact, address the climate change issue, and establish a circular economy model. Despite the promising outlook, the research on the benefits of biochar remains highly debated. This has been attributed to the heterogeneity of biochar itself, with its inherent physical, chemical and biological properties highly influenced by production variables such as feedstock types and treating conditions. Hence, to enable meaningful comparison of results, establishment of an agreed international standard to govern the production of biochar for specific uses is necessary. In this study, we analyzed four key uses of biochar: 1) in agriculture and horticulture, 2) as construction material, 3) as activated carbon, and 4) in anaerobic digestion. Then the guidelines for the properties of biochar, especially for the concentrations of toxic heavy metals, for its environmental friendly application were proposed in the context of Singapore. The international status of the biochar industry code of practice, feedback from Singapore local industry and government agencies, as well as future perspectives for the biochar industry were explained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143820DOI Listing
February 2021

Ultrasensitive and Selective Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Using Thermotropic Liquid Crystals and Image-Based Machine Learning.

Cell Rep Phys Sci 2020 Dec 17;1(12):100276. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Rapid, robust virus-detection techniques with ultrahigh sensitivity and selectivity are required for the outbreak of the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we report that the femtomolar concentrations of single-stranded ribonucleic acid (ssRNA) of SARS-CoV-2 trigger ordering transitions in liquid crystal (LC) films decorated with cationic surfactant and complementary 15-mer single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) probe. More importantly, the sensitivity of the LC to the SARS ssRNA, with a 3-bp mismatch compared to the SARS-CoV-2 ssRNA, is measured to decrease by seven orders of magnitude, suggesting that the LC ordering transitions depend strongly on the targeted oligonucleotide sequence. Finally, we design a LC-based diagnostic kit and a smartphone-based application (app) to enable automatic detection of SARS-CoV-2 ssRNA, which could be used for reliable self-test of SARS-CoV-2 at home without the need for complex equipment or procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrp.2020.100276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7670228PMC
December 2020

Sulfated polysaccharides from Undaria pinnatifida improved high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota dysbiosis and inflammation in BALB/c mice.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 17;167:1587-1597. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

School of Food Science and Technology, National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, PR China; National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Marine Bioactive Polysaccharide Development and Application, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, PR China. Electronic address:

Undaria pinnatifida was shown to reduce serum lipids and fat accumulation and produce beneficial effect on type 2 diabetes, but its effect on intestinal micro-ecology remains unclear. This study showed that sulfated polysaccharides from U. pinnatifida (UPSP) reduced weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic disorders in mice fed with high fat diet (HFD). UPSP not only alleviated HFD-induced microbiota dysbiosis indicated as increased abundances of some Bacteroidales members that had positive correlations with the improvement of physiological indexes, but also maintained gut barrier integrity and reduced metabolic endotoxemia. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the dose of UPSP and its effect on some physiological indexes, gut microbiota community and nutrient utilization. The in vitro result showed that the use of Bacteroides species within Bacteroidales on UPSP was species-dependent, and the dose of UPSP affected the growth properties of some Bacteroides species. It implied that UPSP can be considered as prebiotic agent to prevent gut dysbiosis and obesity-related diseases in obese individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.116DOI Listing
January 2021

Preparation of PU/Fibrin Vascular Scaffold with Good Biomechanical Properties and Evaluation of Its Performance in vitro and in vivo.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 6;15:8697-8715. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

College of Life Science and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The development of tissue-engineered blood vessels provides a new source of donors for coronary artery bypass grafting and peripheral blood vessel transplantation. Fibrin fiber has good biocompatibility and is an ideal tissue engineering vascular scaffold, but its mechanical property needs improvement.

Methods: We mixed polyurethane (PU) and fibrin to prepare the PU/fibrin vascular scaffolds by using electrospinning technology in order to enhance the mechanical properties of fibrin scaffold. We investigated the morphological, mechanical strength, hydrophilicity, degradation, blood and cell compatibility of PU/fibrin (0:100), PU/fibrin (5:95), PU/fibrin (15:85) and PU/fibrin (25:75) vascular scaffolds. Based on the results in vitro, PU/fibrin (15:85) was selected for transplantation in vivo to repair vascular defects, and the extracellular matrix formation, vascular remodeling, and immune response were evaluated.

Results: The results indicated that the fiber diameter of the PU/fibrin (15:85) scaffold was about 712nm. With the increase of PU content, the mechanical strength of the composite scaffolds increased, however, the degradation rate decreased gradually. The PU/fibrin scaffold showed good hydrophilicity and hemocompatibility. PU/fibrin (15:85) vascular scaffold could promote the adhesion and proliferation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Quantitative RT-PCR experimental results showed that the expression of collagen, survivin and vimentin genes in PU/fibrin (15:85) was higher than that in PU/fibrin (25:75). The results in vivo indicated the mechanical properties and compliance of PU/fibrin grafts could meet clinical requirements and the proportion of thrombosis or occlusion was significantly lower. The graft showed strong vasomotor response, and the smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and ECM deposition of the neoartery were comparable to that of native artery after 3 months. At 3 months, the amount of macrophages in PU/fibrin grafts was significantly lower, and the secretion of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines decreased.

Conclusion: PU/fibrin (15:85) vascular scaffolds had great potential to be used as small-diameter tissue engineering blood vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S274459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656973PMC
December 2020

Inhibitory potential of 4-hexylresorcinol against α-glucosidase and non-enzymatic glycation: Activity and mechanism.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 Mar 13;131(3):241-249. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

College of Life Science and Key Laboratory of Functional Small Organic Molecule, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330022, People's Republic of China.

Inhibition of α-glucosidase as well as non-enzymatic glycation is thought as an effective method for treating type-2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory potential and mechanism of 4-hexylresorcinol against α-glucosidase and non-enzymatic glycation by using multispectroscopic analyses and molecular docking. The results of enzyme kinetics showed that 4-hexylresorcinol reversibly inhibited α-glucosidase activity in a noncompetitive way. Fluorescence quenching then revealed that it increased the hydrophobicity of α-glucosidase and changed the conformation of the enzyme by forming the α-glucosidase-hexylresorcinol complex. Thermodynamic analysis and molecular docking further demonstrated that the inhibition of 4-hexylresorcinol on the α-glucosidase was mainly dependent on hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction. Moreover, the 4-hexylresorcinol moderately inhibited the formation of fructosamine, and strongly suppressed the generation of α-dicarbonyl compounds and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The interaction between 4-hexylresorcinol and bovine serum albumin was mainly driven by hydrophobic interaction. This study showed a novel inhibitor of α-glucosidase as well as non-enzymatic glycation, and provided a drug candidate for the prevention and treatment of type-2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2020.10.011DOI Listing
March 2021