Publications by authors named "Shuai Xu"

290 Publications

Impact of Laparoscopic Converted to Open Gastrectomy on Short- and Long-Term Outcomes of Patients with Locally Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

J Gastrointest Surg 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Surgery, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 127 Changle West Road, 710032, Xi'an, China.

Background: It remains unclear whether laparoscopic conversation to open gastrectomy causes higher morbidity and has an adverse effect on the long-term survival outcomes of patients with gastric cancer. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of the conversion on short and long-term outcomes of patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (AGC).

Methods: We retrospectively investigated 871 patients who initially underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) for pathologically confirmed diagnosis of AGC between February 2009 and April 2018. The patients were grouped as the conversion (CONV) group and completed laparoscopic (LAP) group. The 1:2 propensity score matching was performed to reduce the effect of bias due to the imbalanced baseline features between the two groups. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for conversion and poor survival.

Results: After propensity-score matching, 168 patients (56 in the CONV group and 112 in the LAP group) were studied. The CONV group was associated with significantly longer operation time (252.4 vs. 216.7 min, P < 0.001) and greater estimated blood loss (234.8 vs. 171.2 ml, P < 0.001) as compared with the LAP group. The time to first flatus (3.8 vs. 3.3 days, P = 0.043), time to start a liquid diet (4.1 vs. 3.5 days, P = 0.021), and postoperative hospital stay (8.7 vs. 7.6 days, P = 0.020) were significantly longer in the CONV group than that in the LAP group. The overall complication rate did not differ significantly between the CONV group and the LAP group (16.1% vs. 12.5%, P = 0.692). Both 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) did not differ significantly between the CONV group and the LAP group (P = 0.805, P = 0.945, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that lymphovascular invasion and stage III were independent prognostic factors for poor OS and DFS, whereas conversion was not.

Conclusions: The conversion from laparoscopic to open gastrectomy had no negative impact on morbidity and long-term survival outcomes for patients with locally AGC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-021-04975-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Diversity, distribution and conservation of seagrass in coastal waters of the Liaodong Peninsula, North Yellow Sea, northern China: Implications for seagrass conservation.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Mar 31;167:112261. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; CAS Engineering Laboratory for Marine Ranching, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Seagrass beds are highly productive coastal ecosystems that are widely distributed along temperate and tropical coastlines globally. Although seagrass distribution and diversity have been widely reported on a global scale, there have been few reports on seagrass distribution and diversity in northern China, especially for coastal waters of the Liaodong Peninsula in the North Yellow Sea. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and diversity of seagrass in coastal waters of the Liaodong Peninsula in the North Yellow Sea, northern China. Field surveys of seagrass wrack were conducted along shorelines, to identify whether seagrass beds occurred in nearby waters, and sonar methods were then used to collect data relating to seagrass bed extent. Also, we analyzed the major threats facing seagrass beds. The results of the study revealed that four species (Zostera marina L., Z. japonica Aschers. & Graebn., Z. caespitosa M., and Phyllospadix iwatensis M.) were found in study area, covering a total area of 1253.47 ha. Seagrass bed area significantly decreased with increasing water depth, and most seagrass was recorded at depths of 2-5 m. Due to the steep slope of the seabed, seagrass beds exhibited a zonal distribution in most of the study areas. In addition, the amount of seagrass wrack along shorelines could be used to infer the size and distance of seagrass beds. Human activities, such as clam harvesting, land reclamation, coastal aquaculture pose a threat to the seagrass beds. This study provides new information to fill knowledge gaps regarding seagrass distribution in northern China and it provides a baseline for further monitoring of these seagrass beds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112261DOI Listing
March 2021

Fermented Loose Dark Tea Ameliorates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Injury by MAPK Pathway and Enhances Hepatic Metabolic Detoxification by / Pathway in Mice.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 10;2021:6635080. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Key Laboratory of Tea Science of Ministry of Education, National Research Center of Engineering Technology for Utilization of Functional Ingredients from Botanicals, College of Horticulture, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China.

Cigarette smoke- (CS-) induced oxidative stress and inflammation in the lung are serious health problems. Primary and reprocessed tea products contain multiple antioxidants that have been reported to protect the lung against CS-induced injury. However, the beneficial effects of fermented loose dark tea (ECT) and particle metabolites (ECP) on CS-induced lung injury and its potential hepatic metabolic detoxification are still unclear. Therefore, sixty mice were randomly divided into six equal groups. CS-exposed mice were prevented or treated with ECP or ECT infusions for 12 or 8 weeks to determine the antioxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and potential metabolic detoxification of ECT and ECP. Thirty-six mice were randomly divided into six equal groups to observe the effects on hepatic metabolic detoxification by replacing daily drinking water with ECT. Results showed that CS significantly decreased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and upregulated the expressions of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1 in serum. These adverse effects were modulated by ECP and ECT. In addition, ECT upregulated the mRNA expression of pregnane X receptor () and cytochrome P450 () in the liver on daily free drinking ECT mice group. Western blot analysis further revealed that in CS-exposed mice, ECP and ECT significantly decreased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the lung but upregulated the protein expressions of and aryl hydrocarbon receptor () in the liver. Overall, our findings demonstrated that ECT and ECP protected against lung injury induced by CS via MAPK pathway and enhanced hepatic metabolic detoxification via and pathways. Therefore, daily intake of ECT and ECP can potentially protect against CS-induced oxidative and inflammatory injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6635080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7972846PMC
March 2021

An Automatic HFO Detection Method Combining Visual Inspection Features with Multi-Domain Features.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

College of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

As an important promising biomarker, high frequency oscillations (HFOs) can be used to track epileptic activity and localize epileptogenic zones. However, visual marking of HFOs from a large amount of intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) data requires a great deal of time and effort from researchers, and is also very dependent on visual features and easily influenced by subjective factors. Therefore, we proposed an automatic epileptic HFO detection method based on visual features and non-intuitive multi-domain features. To eliminate the interference of continuous oscillatory activity in detected sporadic short HFO events, the iEEG signals adjacent to the detected events were set as the neighboring environmental range while the number of oscillations and the peak-valley differences were calculated as the environmental reference features. The proposed method was developed as a MatLab-based HFO detector to automatically detect HFOs in multi-channel, long-distance iEEG signals. The performance of our detector was evaluated on iEEG recordings from epileptic mice and patients with intractable epilepsy. More than 90% of the HFO events detected by this method were confirmed by experts, while the average missed-detection rate was < 10%. Compared with recent related research, the proposed method achieved a synchronous improvement of sensitivity and specificity, and a balance between low false-alarm rate and high detection rate. Detection results demonstrated that the proposed method performs well in sensitivity, specificity, and precision. As an auxiliary tool, our detector can greatly improve the efficiency of clinical experts in inspecting HFO events during the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00659-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Heterotopic Ossification After Prestige-LP Cervical Disc Arthroplasty Is Related to Insufficient Sagittal Coverage of the Endplate By the Prosthesis.

Med Sci Monit 2021 03 22;27:e929890. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China

BACKGROUND Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a major complication after cervical disc arthroplasty (CDR) that has attracted the attention of spine surgeons. There remains a great deal of controversy regarding the surgical risk factors. The present study investigated the correlation between insufficient sagittal coverage of the prosthesis-endplate and HO after CDR and explored strategies to prevent it. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 73 patients who underwent Prestige-LP arthroplasty. Patients were divided into HO and non-HO groups. Related data, including radiological, clinical information, were collected. HO was graded using the McAfee classification. Analysis was performed to correlate HO to the surgical segmental range of motion (ROM) at last follow-up. To evaluate the insufficient sagittal coverage of the prosthesis-endplate and other factors for developing HO, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed for insufficient sagittal coverage. RESULTS Among 73 patients, 24 patients had HO at the last follow-up (HO incidence: 32.9%). The ROM in the HO group was significantly lower (P<0.001). The insufficient sagittal coverage of the upper and lower prosthesis-endplate, the height of intervertebral space, and the preoperative and postoperative ROM were related to HO (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only insufficient sagittal coverage of the upper prosthesis-endplate was related to HO (P=0.023), and ROC curve analysis revealed that HO was more likely to occur with insufficient sagittal coverage distance ≥2.5 mm. CONCLUSIONS HO after CDR causes a reduction in ROM, the occurrence of which is associated with insufficient sagittal coverage of the prosthesis-endplate. HO was more likely to occur with insufficient sagittal coverage distance ≥2.5 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.929890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995920PMC
March 2021

Rapid Screening of Physiological Changes Associated With COVID-19 Using Soft-Wearables and Structured Activities: A Pilot Study.

IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med 2021 11;9:4900311. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Shirley Ryan AbilityLabChicagoIL60611USA.

Objective: Controlling the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic largely depends on scaling up the testing infrastructure for identifying infected individuals. Consumer-grade wearables may present a solution to detect the presence of infections in the population, but the current paradigm requires collecting physiological data continuously and for long periods of time on each individual, which poses limitations in the context of rapid screening. Technology: Here, we propose a novel paradigm based on recording the physiological responses elicited by a short (~2 minutes) sequence of activities (i.e. "snapshot"), to detect symptoms associated with COVID-19. We employed a novel body-conforming soft wearable sensor placed on the suprasternal notch to capture data on physical activity, cardio-respiratory function, and cough sounds.

Results: We performed a pilot study in a cohort of individuals (n=14) who tested positive for COVID-19 and detected altered heart rate, respiration rate and heart rate variability, relative to a group of healthy individuals (n=14) with no known exposure. Logistic regression classifiers were trained on individual and combined sets of physiological features (heartbeat and respiration dynamics, walking cadence, and cough frequency spectrum) at discriminating COVID-positive participants from the healthy group. Combining features yielded an AUC of 0.94 (95% CI=[0.92, 0.96]) using a leave-one-subject-out cross validation scheme. Conclusions and Clinical Impact: These results, although preliminary, suggest that a sensor-based snapshot paradigm may be a promising approach for non-invasive and repeatable testing to alert individuals that need further screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JTEHM.2021.3058841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924653PMC
February 2021

Addition of Celebrex and Pregabalin to Ropivacaine for Posterior Spinal Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 22;15:735-742. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Serious pain commonly occurs after posterior spinal surgery. This study aims to evaluate the effect of preemptive and multimodal analgesia using celebrex, pregabalin and ropivacaine on pain control after this surgery.

Methods: Ninety-three patients undergoing posterior spinal surgery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. All patients were treated with patient- controlled analgesia (PCA, intravenous tramadol hydrochloride and flurbiprofen) as required. They were randomized to combination analgesia intervention (oral celebrex, pregabalin and subcutaneous infiltration of ropivacaine), ropivacaine intervention (only subcutaneous infiltration of ropivacaine), and control intervention (placebo). We compared postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores and PCA dose among the three groups.

Results: The VAS scores were significantly lower in the combination analgesia group than in the control group at 0 h, 2 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d and 14 d after posterior spinal surgery, while combination analgesia was also superior to ropivacaine in terms of VAS scores at 24 h and 14 d postoperatively. The combination analgesia group was also associated with significantly reduced PCA consumption compared with the control group, but there was no statistical difference in PCA consumption between the ropivacaine group and control group.

Conclusion: Combination analgesia using celebrex, pregabalin and ropivacaine is effective and safe to alleviate pain after posterior spinal surgery.

Clinical Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry No. ChiCTR2000031236.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S292847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910150PMC
February 2021

Wireless skin sensors for physiological monitoring of infants in low-income and middle-income countries.

Lancet Digit Health 2021 Apr 24;3(4):e266-e273. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Querrey Simpson Institute for Bioelectronics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA; Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA; Department of Neurological Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Globally, neonatal mortality remains unacceptability high. Physiological monitoring is foundational to the care of these vulnerable patients to assess neonatal cardiopulmonary status, guide medical intervention, and determine readiness for safe discharge. However, most existing physiological monitoring systems require multiple electrodes and sensors, which are linked to wires tethered to wall-mounted display units, to adhere to the skin. For neonates, these systems can cause skin injury, prevent kangaroo mother care, and complicate basic clinical care. Novel, wireless, and biointegrated sensors provide opportunities to enhance monitoring capabilities, reduce iatrogenic injuries, and promote family-centric care. Early validation data have shown performance equivalent to (and sometimes exceeding) standard-of-care monitoring systems in premature neonates cared for in high-income countries. The reusable nature of these sensors and compatibility with low-cost mobile phones have the future potential to enable substantially lower monitoring costs compared with existing systems. Deployment at scale, in low-income countries, holds the promise of substantial improvements in neonatal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00001-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Melanoma toolkit for early detection (MTED) for primary care providers: A pilot study.

Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Dermatology.

Introduction: Primary care providers have greater access to patients despite often lacking the appropriate training or time to implement effective skin cancer screenings in their busy practices. Through collaborative efforts with Oregon's War on Melanoma public health campaign and other primary care trainings, we created "Melanoma Toolkit for Early Detection" (MTED): a training curriculum and resource repository for primary care providers.

Methods And Results: MTED consisted of three self-paced modules. Each participant completed a pre- and post-test consisting of demographic, confidence, and image identification questions. A subsequent optional 6-month follow-up image identification test was also provided. Of the 96 participants, 40 completed all the modules, the pre, and post-test. On average, scores increased by 6.0 (95% CI: 3.5 to 8.6) percentage points (P<0.001, paired t-test). The percent of participants reporting confidence with melanoma identification increased significantly from the pre- (23.3%) to the post-test (67.4%), an increase of 44.2 (95% CI: 29.3 to 59.0,) percentage points (P<0.001, McNemar's test).

Discussion: This study shows that an online curriculum such as MTED has the potential to increase PCPs confidence and knowledge. This could subsequently lead to improved early melanoma diagnosis by primary care providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcmr.12968DOI Listing
February 2021

A de novo strategy to develop NIR precipitating fluorochrome for long-term in situ cell membrane bioimaging.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Feb;118(8)

Molecular Science and Biomedicine Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, 410082 Changsha, P. R. China.

Cell membrane-targeted bioimaging is a prerequisite for studying the roles of membrane-associated biomolecules in various physiological and pathological processes. However, long-term in situ bioimaging on the cell membrane with conventional fluorescent probes leads to diffusion into cells from the membrane surface. Therefore, we herein proposed a de novo strategy to construct an antidiffusion probe by integrating a fluorochrome characterized by strong hydrophobicity and low lipophilicity, with an enzyme substrate to meet this challenge. This precipitating fluorochrome HYPQ was designed by conjugating the traditionally strong hydrophobic solid-state fluorochrome 6-chloro-2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) quinazolin-4(3H)-one (HPQ) with a 2-(2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-ylidene) malononitrile group to obtain closer stacking to lower lipophilicity and elongate emission to the far-red to near-infrared wavelength. As proof-of-concept, the membrane-associated enzyme γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) was selected as a model enzyme to design the antidiffusion probe HYPQG. Then, benefiting from the precipitating and stable signal properties of HYPQ, in situ imaging of GGT on the membrane was successfully realized. Moreover, after HYPQG was activated by GGT, the fluorescence signal on the cell membrane remained unchanged, with incubation time even extending to 6 h, which is significant for in situ monitoring of enzymatic activity. In vivo testing subsequently showed that the tumor region could be accurately defined by this probe after long-term in situ imaging of tumor-bearing mice. The excellent performance of HYPQ indicates that it may be an ideal alternative for constructing universal antidiffusion fluorescent probes, potentially providing an efficient tool for accurate imaging-guided surgery in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2018033118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923636PMC
February 2021

The PB1 protein of influenza A virus inhibits the innate immune response by targeting MAVS for NBR1-mediated selective autophagic degradation.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Feb 12;17(2):e1009300. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Influenza A virus (IAV) has evolved various strategies to counteract the innate immune response using different viral proteins. However, the mechanism is not fully elucidated. In this study, we identified the PB1 protein of H7N9 virus as a new negative regulator of virus- or poly(I:C)-stimulated IFN induction and specifically interacted with and destabilized MAVS. A subsequent study revealed that PB1 promoted E3 ligase RNF5 to catalyze K27-linked polyubiquitination of MAVS at Lys362 and Lys461. Moreover, we found that PB1 preferentially associated with a selective autophagic receptor neighbor of BRCA1 (NBR1) that recognizes ubiquitinated MAVS and delivers it to autophagosomes for degradation. The degradation cascade mediated by PB1 facilitates H7N9 virus infection by blocking the RIG-I-MAVS-mediated innate signaling pathway. Taken together, these data uncover a negative regulatory mechanism involving the PB1-RNF5-MAVS-NBR1 axis and provide insights into an evasion strategy employed by influenza virus that involves selective autophagy and innate signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880438PMC
February 2021

Wireless, implantable catheter-type oximeter designed for cardiac oxygen saturation.

Sci Adv 2021 Feb 10;7(7). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Center for Bio-Integrated Electronics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.

Accurate, real-time monitoring of intravascular oxygen levels is important in tracking the cardiopulmonary health of patients after cardiothoracic surgery. Existing technologies use intravascular placement of glass fiber-optic catheters that pose risks of blood vessel damage, thrombosis, and infection. In addition, physical tethers to power supply systems and data acquisition hardware limit freedom of movement and add clutter to the intensive care unit. This report introduces a wireless, miniaturized, implantable optoelectronic catheter system incorporating optical components on the probe, encapsulated by soft biocompatible materials, as alternative technology that avoids these disadvantages. The absence of physical tethers and the flexible, biocompatible construction of the probe represent key defining features, resulting in a high-performance, patient-friendly implantable oximeter that can monitor localized tissue oxygenation, heart rate, and respiratory activity with wireless, real-time, continuous operation. In vitro and in vivo testing shows that this platform offers measurement accuracy and precision equivalent to those of existing clinical standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe0579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875528PMC
February 2021

Ultrafast laser-inscribed nanogratings in sapphire for geometric phase elements.

Opt Lett 2021 Feb;46(3):536-539

We systematically studied femtosecond laser-inscribed self-organized nanogratings and geometric phase elements such as a polarization diffraction focusing lens and Q-plate in sapphire crystal. Besides the void structures observed in the focus, nanogratings with periods of 150~300 nm were observed, depending on a nanoslit that took the role of a seeding effect by localized light field enhancement. The non-polarized refractive index change and birefringence were measured with values around 1∼2×10 and 6×10, respectively. Based on the laser-inscribed form birefringence, a geometric phase lens and Q-plate were successfully demonstrated in sapphire with high imaging and a focusing effect. We expect that our findings may promote the understanding of laser-induced nanogratings in bulk and potential applications in geometric phase elements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.413177DOI Listing
February 2021

Helmet chinstrap protective role in maxillofacial blast injury.

Technol Health Care 2020 Nov 13. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Background: The protective role of helmet accessories in moderating stress load generated by explosion shock waves of explosive devices is usually neglected.

Objective: In the presented study, the protective role of the helmet chinstrap against the impulse and overpressure experienced by the maxillofacial region were examined.

Methods: The explosion shock wave and skull interaction were investigated under three different configurations: (1) unprotected skull, (2) skull with helmet (3) skull with helmet and chinstrap. For this purpose, a 3D finite element model (FEM) was constructed to mimic the investigated biomechanics module. Three working conditions were set according to different explosive charges and distances to represent different load conditions. Case 1: 500 mg explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT), 3 cm, case 2: 1000 mg TNT, 3 cm, and case 3: 1000 mg TNT and 6 cm distance to the studied object. The explosion effect was discussed by examining the shock wave stress flow pattern. Three points were selected on the skull and the stress curve of each point position were illustrated for each case study.

Results: The results showed that the helmet chinstrap can reduce the explosive injuries and plays a protective role in the maxillofacial region, especially for the mandible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/THC-202406DOI Listing
November 2020

The prognostic value of MELD-XI in elderly patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: an observational study.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Jan 28;21(1):53. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Coronary Heart Disease, Fuwai Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shenzhen, Langshan Road 12, Shenzhen, 518000, China.

Background: The model for end-stage liver disease excluding international normalized ratio (MELD-XI) is a simple score for risk assessment. However, the prognostic role of MELD-XI and its additional value to current risk assessment in elderly patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is uncertain.

Methods: In all, 1029 elderly patients with STEMI undergoing PCI were consecutively included and classified into three groups according to the TIMI risk score: low-risk (≤ 3, n = 251); moderate-risk (4-6, n = 509); and high-risk (≥ 7, n = 269) groups. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors for adverse events.

Results: The overall in-hospital mortality was 5.3% and was significantly higher in the high-risk group (1.2% vs. 3.3% vs. 13.0%, p < 0.001). The optimal cut-off of the TIMI risk score and MELD-XI for in-hospital death was 7 and 13, respectively. MELD-XI was associated with in-hospital (adjusted odds ratio = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.04-1.14, p = 0.001) and one-year (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08, p = 0.005) mortality independently of the TIMI risk score. Combining TIMI risk score and MELD-XI exhibited better predictive power for in-hospital death than TIMI risk score (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.810 vs. 0.753, p = 0.008) or MELD-XI alone (AUC = 0.810 vs. 0.750, p = 0.018). Patients with TIMI risk score ≥ 7 and MELD-XI ≥ 13 had the worst prognosis.

Conclusion: MELD-XI could be considered as a risk-stratified tool for elderly patients with STEMI undergoing PCI. It had an additive prognostic value to TIMI risk score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-01862-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842073PMC
January 2021

Features correlated to improved enzymatic digestibility of corn stover subjected to alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 9;325:124688. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250353, China; Department of Bioengineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353, China.

As one of the leading pretreatment approaches, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment can enhance the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulose significantly. In this study, the glucan conversion of AHP pretreated corn stover (CS) without and with water-wash were 28.4% and 50.0% higher than that of raw material, respectively. In order to systematically understand its mechanism, analyses of the features of AHP pretreated and raw CS, such as specific surface area, crystallinity, zeta potential, water holding capacity and swelling capacity and others were performed. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of the sugars in the hydrolysate and the particle size distribution of the hydrolysis residue were also analyzed. These results explained why AHP-CS was more conducive to enzymatic hydrolysis. The deeper reason was that the removal of lignin and the destruction of hydrogen bonds within cellulose and hemicellulose increased the accessibility of cellulose and reduced the non-productive adsorption of cellulase, which significantly improved the enzymatic digestibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124688DOI Listing
April 2021

Wireless, soft electronics for rapid, multisensor measurements of hydration levels in healthy and diseased skin.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Feb;118(5)

Querrey-Simpson Institute for Bioelectronics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208;

Precise, quantitative measurements of the hydration status of skin can yield important insights into dermatological health and skin structure and function, with additional relevance to essential processes of thermoregulation and other features of basic physiology. Existing tools for determining skin water content exploit surrogate electrical assessments performed with bulky, rigid, and expensive instruments that are difficult to use in a repeatable manner. Recent alternatives exploit thermal measurements using soft wireless devices that adhere gently and noninvasively to the surface of the skin, but with limited operating range (∼1 cm) and high sensitivity to subtle environmental fluctuations. This paper introduces a set of ideas and technologies that overcome these drawbacks to enable high-speed, robust, long-range automated measurements of thermal transport properties via a miniaturized, multisensor module controlled by a long-range (∼10 m) Bluetooth Low Energy system on a chip, with a graphical user interface to standard smartphones. Soft contact to the surface of the skin, with almost zero user burden, yields recordings that can be quantitatively connected to hydration levels of both the epidermis and dermis, using computational modeling techniques, with high levels of repeatability and insensitivity to ambient fluctuations in temperature. Systematic studies of polymers in layered configurations similar to those of human skin, of porcine skin with known levels of hydration, and of human subjects with benchmarks against clinical devices validate the measurement approach and associated sensor hardware. The results support capabilities in characterizing skin barrier function, assessing severity of skin diseases, and evaluating cosmetic and medication efficacy, for use in the clinic or in the home.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2020398118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865173PMC
February 2021

Direct detection of Corynebacterium striatum, Corynebacterium propinquum, and Corynebacterium simulans in sputum samples by high-resolution melt curve analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jan 7;21(1):21. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Background: Pulmonary infections caused by non-diphtheriae corynebacteria are increasing. However, rapid identification of Corynebacterium species poses a challenge due to the low genetic variation within the genus.

Methods: Three reference strains and 99 clinical isolates were used in this study. A qPCR followed by high-resolution melting (HRM) targeting ssrA was performed to simultaneously identify C. striatum, C. propinquum and C. simulans. To further evaluate this assay's performance, 88 clinical sputum samples were tested by HRM and the detection results were compared with those of the traditional culture method and multiple cross-displacement amplification (MCDA) assay.

Results: The melting curve produced by a pair of universal primers generated species-specific HRM curve profiles and could distinguish the three target species from other related bacteria. The limit of detection of HRM assay for DNA from the three purified Corynebacterium species was 100 fg. Compared with the culture method, HRM detected 22 additional positive specimens, representing a 23.9% relative increase in detection rate. The HRM assay had 98.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.5-99.9%) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI, 82.8-100%) specificity. Additionally, 95.5% concordance between HRM and MCDA (κ = 0.89 [95% CI, 0.79-0.99]) was noted.

Conclusions: The HRM assay was a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tool for detecting C. striatum, C. propinquum, and C. simulans, with the potential to contribute to early diagnosis, epidemiological surveillance, and rapid response to outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05633-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788810PMC
January 2021

Ammonium nitrate is a risk for environment: A case study of Beirut (Lebanon) chemical explosion and the effects on environment.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Mar 2;210:111834. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

CAS Key Laboratory of High Magnetic Field and Ion Beam Physical Biology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences Hefei, Anhui 230031, PR China; Institutes of Physical Science and Information Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, PR China. Electronic address:

An attempt has been made in correspondence to explain the consequences of chemical pollution after the explosion of ammonium nitrate (AN) in Beirut (capital of Lebanon). The effects of chemicals in the air, soil, and water have been discussed. In addition, the study emphasizes on the research to restore the environment and enhanced safety measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111834DOI Listing
March 2021

Precipitated Fluorophore-Based Probe for Accurate Detection of Mitochondrial Analytes.

Anal Chem 2021 02 5;93(4):2235-2243. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Molecular Science and Biomedicine Laboratory (MBL), State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

Mitochondria-targeted fluorescent probes are highly important to obtain mitochondrial function information. However, the accuracy of the current mitochondria-targeted fluorescent probes is unsatisfactory owing to the following two reasons. In the first case, some probes that always have a mitochondria-targeting group, thus, would react with the analytes outside of mitochondria and enter mitochondria with the generated fluorophore signal, which leads to a false-positive result. In the other case, after response to the analytes in mitochondria, some probes could diffuse from mitochondria to other organelles, thus triggering a false-negative result. To avoid the two problems, herein, we develop a precipitated fluorophore-based probe, which precipitates in situ after reacting with analytes, for the accurate detection of mitochondrial analytes. The probe was modified with HQPQ, a novel solid-state fluorophore that is insoluble in water. As a proof of concept, we designed and synthesized a probe (HQPQ-B) for HO detection. Based on the different mitochondria-targeting capacities of quinoline salts and quinolone, HQPQ loses the mitochondria-targeting ability after reacting with analytes outside of mitochondria, thus avoiding a false-positive result. On the contrary, when the probe first localized in mitochondria and then reacted with analytes, HQPQ would precipitate and remain in mitochondria without diffusing to other sites, thus avoiding a false-negative result. Therefore, HQPQ enables the accurate detection of mitochondrial analytes. We believe that the novel strategy based on HQPQ will be a general strategy for accurate detection of mitochondrial analytes without interference from other sites, which enables an accurate study on mitochondrial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04094DOI Listing
February 2021

Lattice Defects and Exfoliation Efficiency of 6H-SiC via H Implantation at Elevated Temperature.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 15;13(24). Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Silicon carbide (SiC) is an important material used in semiconductor industries and nuclear power plants. SiC wafer implanted with H ions can be cleaved inside the damaged layer after annealing, in order to facilitate the transfer of a thin SiC slice to a handling wafer. This process is known as "ion-cut" or "Smart-Cut". It is worth investigating the exfoliation efficiency and residual lattice defects in H-implanted SiC before and after annealing. In the present paper, lattice damage in the 6H-SiC implanted by H to a fluence of 5 × 10 H/cm at 450 and 900 °C was investigated by a combination of Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Different levels of damage caused by dynamic annealing were observed by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy in the as-implanted sample. Atomic force microscopy and scanning white-light interferometry were used to observe the sample surface morphology. Surface blisters and exfoliations were observed in the sample implanted at 450 °C and then annealed at 1100 °C for 15 min, whereas surface blisters and exfoliation occurred in the sample implanted at 900 °C without further thermal treatment. This finding can be attributed to the increase in the internal pressure of platelets during high temperature implantation. The exfoliation efficiency, location, and roughness after exfoliation were investigated and possible reasons were discussed. This work provides a basis for further understanding and improving the high-efficiency "ion-cut" technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13245723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765353PMC
December 2020

Wireless sensors for continuous, multimodal measurements at the skin interface with lower limb prostheses.

Sci Transl Med 2020 12;12(574)

Querrey Simpson Institute for Bioelectronics, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Precise form-fitting of prosthetic sockets is important for the comfort and well-being of persons with limb amputations. Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressure and temperature at the skin-prosthesis interface can be valuable in the fitting process and in monitoring for the development of dangerous regions of increased pressure and temperature as limb volume changes during daily activities. Conventional pressure transducers and temperature sensors cannot provide comfortable, irritation-free measurements because of their relatively rigid construction and requirements for wired interfaces to external data acquisition hardware. Here, we introduce a millimeter-scale pressure sensor that adopts a soft, three-dimensional design that integrates into a thin, flexible battery-free, wireless platform with a built-in temperature sensor to allow operation in a noninvasive, imperceptible fashion directly at the skin-prosthesis interface. The sensor system mounts on the surface of the skin of the residual limb, in single or multiple locations of interest. A wireless reader module attached to the outside of the prosthetic socket wirelessly provides power to the sensor and wirelessly receives data from it, for continuous long-range transmission to a standard consumer electronic device such as a smartphone or tablet computer. Characterization of both the sensor and the system, together with theoretical analysis of the key responses, illustrates linear, accurate responses and the ability to address the entire range of relevant pressures and to capture skin temperature accurately, both in a continuous mode. Clinical application in two prosthesis users demonstrates the functionality and feasibility of this soft, wireless system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abc4327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775724PMC
December 2020

A cationic benzocorrole Cu(II) complex as a highly stable antiaromatic system.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jan;57(3):383-386

State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Here we report a highly stable 16π-electron antiaromatic system based on the ligand-oxidized Cu(ii)-tetrabenzocorrole. The antiaromaticity of the monocationic corrole complex was elucidated with the unique bond length alternation pattern of the crystal structure and the spectral diagnostic features. The NICS and GIMIC calculations clearly depicted its inner 15-membered-ring main pathway with a strong paratropic ring current.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc06703bDOI Listing
January 2021

Unexpected Boosted Solar Water Oxidation by Nonconjugated Polymer-Mediated Tandem Charge Transfer.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 Dec 15;142(52):21899-21912. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry and College of Chemistry, New Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, P. R. China.

Conjugated polymers are deemed as conductive carrier mediators for engendering the π electrons along the molecular framework, while the role of nonconjugated insulated polymers has been generally overlooked without the capability to participate in the solar-powered oxidation-reduction kinetics and charge-transfer process. Alternatively, considering the ultrashort charge lifetime and significant deficiency of metal nanocluster (NC)-based photosystems, the fine tuning of charge migration over atomically precise ultrasmall metal NCs as novel light-harvesting antennas has so far not yet been unleashed. Here, we unlock the charge-transfer capability of a nonconjugated polymer to modulate the charge flow over metal NCs (Au and Au) by such a solid-state nonconductive polymer via a conceptually new chemistry strategy by which l-glutathione (GSH)-capped gold (Au@GSH) NCs and poly(diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) were alternately self-assembled on the metal oxide (MO: WO, FeO, and TiO) substrates. The ultrathin nonconjugated PDDA interim layer periodically intercalated in-between Au (Au) NC layers concurrently serves as an unexpected charge-transfer mediator to foster the unidirectional electron flow from Au(Au) NCs to MOs by forming a tandem charge-transfer chain, hence endowing the multilayered MO/(PDDA-Au) heterostructures with significantly boosted photoelectrochemical water oxidation performance under light irradiation. The unanticipated role of PDDA as a cascade charge mediator is demonstrated to be universal. Our work would unlock the potential charge-transport capability of nonconjugated polymers as a novel charge mediator for solar-to-chemical conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c11057DOI Listing
December 2020

One-Pot Synthesis of FeO@BSA Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Enhanced T-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imagine Contrast Agents.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Dec 9;12(51):56701-56711. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

High Magnetic Field Laboratory, CAS Key Laboratory of High Magnetic Field and Ion Beam Physical Biology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, P.R. China.

Ultra-small-sized iron oxide nanoparticles with good biocompatibility are regarded as promising alternatives for the gadolinium-based contrast agents, which are widely used as a positive contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the current preparation of the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with small sizes usually involves organic solvents, increasing the complexity of hydrophilic ligand replacement and reducing the synthesis efficiency. It remains a great challenge to explore new iron oxide nanoparticles with good biocompatibility and a high T contrast effect. Here, we reported a cage-like protein architecture self-assembled by approximately 6-7 BSA (bovine serum albumin) subunits. The BSA nanocage was then used as a biotemplate to synthesize uniformed and monodispersed FeO@BSA nanoparticles with ultra-small sizes (∼3.5 nm). The FeO@BSA nanoparticle showed a high value of 6.8 mM s and a low / ratio of 10.6 at a 3 T magnetic field. Compared to Gd-DTPA, the brighter signal and prolonged angiographic effect of FeO@BSA nanoparticles could greatly benefit steady-state and high-resolution imaging. The further and assessments of stability, toxicity, and renal clearance indicated a substantial potential as a T contrast agent in preclinical MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c13825DOI Listing
December 2020

Wireless, skin-interfaced sensors for compression therapy.

Sci Adv 2020 12 4;6(49). Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Center for Bio-Integrated Electronics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.

Therapeutic compression garments (TCGs) are key tools for the management of a wide range of vascular lower extremity conditions. Proper use of TCGs involves application of a minimum and consistent pressure across the lower extremities for extended periods of time. Slight changes in the characteristics of the fabric and the mechanical properties of the tissues lead to requirements for frequent measurements and corresponding adjustments of the applied pressure. Existing sensors are not sufficiently small, thin, or flexible for practical use in this context, and they also demand cumbersome, hard-wired interfaces for data acquisition. Here, we introduce a flexible, wireless monitoring system for tracking both temperature and pressure at the interface between the skin and the TCGs. Detailed studies of the materials and engineering aspects of these devices, together with clinical pilot trials on a range of patients with different pathologies, establish the technical foundations and measurement capabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe1655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821894PMC
December 2020

Reliable, low-cost, fully integrated hydration sensors for monitoring and diagnosis of inflammatory skin diseases in any environment.

Sci Adv 2020 Dec 4;6(49). Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.

Present-day dermatological diagnostic tools are expensive, time-consuming, require substantial operational expertise, and typically probe only the superficial layers of skin (~15 μm). We introduce a soft, battery-free, noninvasive, reusable skin hydration sensor (SHS) adherable to most of the body surface. The platform measures volumetric water content (up to ~1 mm in depth) and wirelessly transmits data to any near-field communication-compatible smartphone. The SHS is readily manufacturable, comprises unique powering and encapsulation strategies, and achieves high measurement precision (±5% volumetric water content) and resolution (±0.015°C skin surface temperature). Validation on = 16 healthy/normal human participants reveals an average skin water content of ~63% across multiple body locations. Pilot studies on patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), psoriasis, urticaria, xerosis cutis, and rosacea highlight the diagnostic capability of the SHS ( = 0.0034) and its ability to study impact of topical treatments on skin diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd7146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821898PMC
December 2020

Programmed responses of different life-stages of the seagrass Ruppia sinensis to copper and cadmium exposure.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 8;403:123875. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; CAS Engineering Laboratory for Marine Ranching, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China.

Seagrass meadows are recognized as crucial and are among the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The aquatic plant genus Ruppia is tolerant of a wide salinity range, and high concentrations of trace metals. However, the tolerance of its early life stages to such trace metal exposure is unclear. Thus, the current study investigated the trace metal-absorbing capacity of three different life-history stages of Ruppia sinensis, a species that is widely distributed in China, by observing toxic symptoms at the individual, subcellular, and transcription levels. The seedling period was the most vulnerable, with visible toxic effects at the individual level in response to 50 μM copper and 500 μM cadmium after 4 days of exposure. The highest concentrations of trace metals occurred in the vacuoles and cytoplasmic structures of aboveground tissues. Genes related to signal identification and protein processing were significantly downregulated after 4 days of exposure to copper and cadmium. These results provide information relating to the strategies evolved by R. sinensis to absorb and isolate trace elements, and highlight the phytoremediation potential of this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123875DOI Listing
February 2021

An EPR-independent therapeutic strategy: Cancer cell-mediated dual-drug delivery depot for diagnostics and prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis.

Biomaterials 2021 Jan 17;268:120541. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, 5268 Renmin Street, Changchun, Jilin, 130024, PR China. Electronic address:

Motivated by the "self-seeding" of the cancer cells, the EPR-independent nanoparticles (NPs)-based therapeutic strategy have been explored to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis in this paper, the mechanism of anti-metastasis of the NPs was also evaluated. We firstly have established an aggressive whole-body spreading orthotopic LM3 tumour model closing to actual cases of human patients and the synthesized Trojan Horse-like amphiphilic nanobowls have been engineered with dual drugs with completely different pharmacokinetic profiles for cancer cell-mediated anti-metastasis therapy. These Trojan Horse-like nanobowls can serve as dual-drug delivery depots for site-specific pH/NIR dual-stimuli drug release with effectively suppressed primary tumor growth and metastases. Furthermore, the multi-mode UCL/MR/CT imaging is competent for providing comprehensive and valuable information for evaluating and adjusting the treatment. The employ of cancer cell-mediated anti-metastasis therapeutic strategy delivering drugs into metastatic cells to defeat tumor metastases provides directions in the fields of anti-metastasis therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120541DOI Listing
January 2021

Corrigendum: Correlation of Bromodomain Protein BRD4 Expression With Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Disease Severity in Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Nasal Polyps.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 29;7:604072. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Health Management Center, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2020.00413.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.604072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7660213PMC
October 2020