Publications by authors named "Shuai Wu"

186 Publications

Breast Mass Detection in Mammography Based on Image Template Matching and CNN.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 18;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 18.

College of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), Shenzhen 518055, China.

In recent years, computer vision technology has been widely used in the field of medical image processing. However, there is still a big gap between the existing breast mass detection methods and the real-world application due to the limited detection accuracy. It is known that humans locate the regions of interest quickly and further identify whether these regions are the targets we found. In breast cancer diagnosis, we locate all the potential regions of breast mass by glancing at the mammographic image from top to bottom and from left to right, then further identify whether these regions are a breast mass. Inspired by the process of human detection of breast mass, we proposed a novel breast mass detection method to detect breast mass on a mammographic image by stimulating the process of human detection. The proposed method preprocesses the mammographic image via the mathematical morphology method and locates the suspected regions of breast mass by the image template matching method. Then, it obtains the regions of breast mass by classifying these suspected regions into breast mass and background categories using a convolutional neural network (CNN). The bounding box of breast mass obtained by the mathematical morphology method and image template matching method are roughly due to the mathematical morphology method, which transforms all of the brighter regions into approximate circular areas. For regression of a breast mass bounding box, the optimal solution should be searched in the feasible region and the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is suitable for solving the problem of searching the optimal solution within a certain range. Therefore, we refine the bounding box of breast mass by the PSO algorithm. The proposed breast mass detection method and the compared detection methods were evaluated on the open database Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is superior to all of the compared detection methods in detection performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21082855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072908PMC
April 2021

Improved Protein and PTM Characterization with a Practical Electron-Based Fragmentation on Q-TOF Instruments.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Agilent Technologies, Inc Santa Clara, California 95051, United States.

Electron-based dissociation (ExD) produces uncluttered mass spectra of intact proteins while preserving labile post-translational modifications. However, technical challenges have limited this option to only a few high-end mass spectrometers. We have developed an efficient ExD cell that can be retrofitted in less than an hour into current LC/Q-TOF instruments. Supporting software has been developed to acquire, process, and annotate peptide and protein ExD fragmentation spectra. In addition to producing complementary fragmentation, ExD spectra enable many isobaric leucine/isoleucine and isoaspartate/aspartate pairs to be distinguished by side-chain fragmentation. The ExD cell preserves phosphorylation and glycosylation modifications. It also fragments longer peptides more efficiently to reveal signaling cross-talk between multiple post-translational modifications on the same protein chain and cleaves disulfide bonds in cystine knotted proteins and intact antibodies. The ability of the ExD cell to combine collisional activation with electron fragmentation enables more complete sequence coverage by disrupting intramolecular electrostatic interactions that can hold fragments of large peptides and proteins together. These enhanced capabilities made possible by the ExD cell expand the size of peptides and proteins that can be analyzed as well as the analytical certainty of characterizing their post-translational modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jasms.0c00482DOI Listing
April 2021

Label-Free Ratiometric Upconversion Nanoprobe for Spatiotemporal pH Mapping in Living Cells.

Anal Chem 2021 May 27;93(18):6895-6900. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, P. R. China.

Sensing and imaging pH inside living cells are of paramount importance for better penetrating cellular functions and disease diagnostics. Herein, we engineered an original pH sensor by a simple one-step self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated phospholipid (DSPE-PEG) and a phenol red small molecule on the surface of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) to form a phospholipid monolayer for sensing and imaging the change of intracellular pH. The sensor showed excellent reversibility and rapid response to the pH variations. Furthermore, this pH sensing system could measure spatial and temporal pH changes during endocytosis and interrogate the pH fluctuations inside cells under external stimuli. Our experimental results revealed that the pH sensor was able to map spatial and temporal pH fluctuations inside living cells, showing its potential application in diagnostics and pH-related study of cell biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00321DOI Listing
May 2021

The high adaptability of Hyphantria cunea larvae to cinnamic acid involves in detoxification, antioxidation and gut microbiota response.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 May 25;174:104805. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, PR China; Key Laboratory of Sustainable Forest Ecosystem Management-Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, PR China. Electronic address:

Hyphantria cunea is one of the most destructive invasive agricultural and forest pests worldwide. In order to better understand the adaptation mechanism of H. cunea larvae to secondary metabolites of their highly diversified host plants, the physiological function and detoxification ability of midgut, as well as the gut microbial community were investigated in H. cunea larvae fed with cinnamic acid-treated artificial diets. Our results showed that cinnamic acid treatment could not affect the growth and food utilization of H. cunea larvae, as evidenced by a non-significantly altered larval body weight and efficiency of conversion of ingested food. Evaluation of oxidative stress-related parameters (e.g. malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide) and midgut histopathology also clearly confirmed that cinnamic acid treatment caused no significant oxidative damage and pathological changes in the larval midgut. Variance analysis showed that cinnamic acid treatment significantly increased the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione), the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) and detoxification enzyme (carboxylate esterase), as well as the abundance of several gut microbiota at the genus level (Hydrogenophaga and Acinetobacter) involved in the organic substance degradation in larval midgut. Further Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that these strongly altered gut microbiota at the genus level appeared to be significantly correlated with the detoxification and antioxidation parameters. These findings demonstrate the high adaptability of H. cunea larvae to cinnamic acid involves in detoxification, antioxidation and gut microbiota response, and indicate the existence of an extremely effective counter-defense mechanism for H. cunea larvae against the secondary metabolites of host plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2021.104805DOI Listing
May 2021

Lupeol induces autophagy and apoptosis with reduced cancer stem-like properties in retinoblastoma via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Ocular Fundus Disease, the Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: To evaluate the anticancer effects of lupeol in retinoblastoma cells.

Methods: WERI-Rb-1 and Y-79 cell lines were used to evaluate the anticancer effect of lupeol. After lupeol treatment, the viability, proliferation, apoptosis, cancer stem-like properties, autophagy and in vivo tumour xenograft formation were detected.

Key Findings: In this study, lupeol decreased cell viability in both WERI-Rb-1 and Y-79 cell lines. Lupeol could also inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of RB cells, with increased Bax level and decreased Ki67, survivin and Bcl-2 levels. Furthermore, lupeol could suppress the spheroid formation and stem-like properties of RB cells. Moreover, LC3 II/LC3 I ratio and the levels of Beclin1 and ATG7 were increased after lupeol treatment, indicating that lupeol could induce autophagy in RB cells. Next, the inhibitory effect of lupeol on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway was observed. In tumour-bearing mice, lupeol suppressed tumour growth, and this might relate to its role in cell apoptosis, autophagy and stem-like properties.

Conclusions: Lupeol suppressed proliferation and cancer stem-like properties, and promoted autophagy and apoptosis of RB cells by restraining the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgab060DOI Listing
April 2021

Multifunctional magnetic soft composites: a review.

Multifunct Mater 2020 Dec 8;3(4):042003. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, United States of America.

Magnetically responsive soft materials are soft composites where magnetic fillers are embedded into soft polymeric matrices. These active materials have attracted extensive research and industrial interest due to their ability to realize fast and programmable shape changes through remote and untethered control under the application of magnetic fields. They would have many high-impact potential applications in soft robotics/devices, metamaterials, and biomedical devices. With a broad range of functional magnetic fillers, polymeric matrices, and advanced fabrication techniques, the material properties can be programmed for integrated functions, including programmable shape morphing, dynamic shape deformation-based locomotion, object manipulation and assembly, remote heat generation, as well as reconfigurable electronics. In this review, an overview of state-of-the-art developments and future perspectives in the multifunctional magnetically responsive soft materials is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2399-7532/abcb0cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610551PMC
December 2020

Could upfront temozolomide chemotherapy postpone the need for radiotherapy in young patients with high-risk low-grade gliomas?

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China Department of Human Behavior and Psychiatry, Butler Hospital, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Department of Biostatistics, Medical School of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025, China Department of Neuropathology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China Department of Geriatrics, Shanghai 6th People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001434DOI Listing
March 2021

The Role of Surgery in IDH-Wild-Type Lower-Grade Gliomas: Threshold at a High Extent of Resection Should be Pursued.

Neurosurgery 2021 May;88(6):1136-1144

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: While maximizing extent of resection (EOR) is associated with longer survival in lower-grade glioma (LGG) patients, the number of cases remains insufficient in determining a EOR threshold to elucidate the clinical benefits, especially in IDH-wild-type LGG patients.

Objective: To identify the effects of EOR on the survival outcomes of IDH-wild-type LGG patients.

Methods: IDH-wild-type LGG patients were retrospectively reviewed. The effect of EOR and other predictor variables on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed using Cox regression models and the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: A total of 94 patients (median OS: 48.9 mo; median follow-up: 30.6 mo) were included in this study. In the multivariable Cox regression analysis, postoperative residual volume was associated with prolonged OS (HR = 2.238; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.130-4.435; P = .021) and PFS (HR = 2.075; 95% CI, 1.113-3.869; P = .022). Thresholds at a minimum EOR of 97.0% or a maximum residue of 3.0 cm3 were necessary to impact OS positively. For the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)p-wild-type group, such an association was absent. Significant differences in survival existed between the TERTp-wild-type and mutant patients who underwent relatively incomplete resections (residual ≥2.0 cm3 + TERTp wild type: median OS of 62.6 mo [95% CI: 39.7-85.5 mo]; residual ≥2.0 cm3 + TERTp mutant: median OS of 20.0 mo [95% CI:14.6-25.4 mo]).

Conclusion: Our results support the core role of maximal safe resection in the treatment of IDH-wild-type LGGs, especially for IDH-wild-type + TERTp-mutant LGGs. Importantly, the survival benefits of surgery could only be elucidated at a high EOR cut-off point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyab052DOI Listing
May 2021

[Effects of Nano-SiO combining with cold on cytotoxicity and secretion of inflammatory factors in A549 cells].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2020 Sep;36(5):394-399

Institute of Environmental and Operational Medicine, Institute of Military Medilal Sciences, Academy of Military Sciences, Tianjin 300050, China.

To investigate the effects of nano-SiO and cold on the cytotoxicity and secretion of inflammatory factors in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549. A549 was used as experimental subject, a single factor multilevel experiment was designed, A549 cells were exposed to 10, 50, 100, 200 μg/ml nano-SiO particles and/or cultured at 31℃, 33℃, 35℃ for 48 h. After that, cell morphology was observed and relative cell survival rate was detected. According to the results of single factor analysis and based on the selection of nano-SiO dose and temperature that significantly reduced the relative survival rate of A549 cells, the experiment was designed according to 2×2 factor analysis , they were divided into 4 groups: control group(37℃), Nano-SiO exposure group, low temperature exposure group, Nano-SiO and low temperature composite group. After exposure for 48 h, the supernatant of cell culture medium was collected for detecting the LDH activity by colorimetric method and the levels of cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were determined by ELISA. The mRNA levels of cellular IL-6 and IL-8 were detected by qRT-PCR. The activities of A549 cells in 100 μg/ml Nano-SiO group and 31℃ low temperature group were decreased significantly. Under the combined conditions, the activity of A549 cells was most inhibited (<0.01), and the levels of inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-8 and mRNA were significantly increased (<0.01). 100 μg/ml Nano-SiO combined with 31℃ cold exposure can synergistically reduce the activity of A549 cells and increase the expression level of inflammatory factors IL-6 and IL-8 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.5983.2020.084DOI Listing
September 2020

The susceptibility of Lymantria dispar larvae to Beauveria bassiana under Cd stress: A multi-omics study.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 12;276:116740. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150040, PR China; Key Laboratory of Sustainable Forest Ecosystem Management-Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150040, PR China. Electronic address:

Insect susceptibility to entomopathogenic microorganisms under heavy metal stress, as well as its regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the susceptibility of gypsy moth larvae to Beauveria bassiana under cadmium (Cd) stress (at 3.248 or 44.473 mg Cd/kg fresh food), and reveal the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the Cd effect on the larval susceptibility to B. bassiana via combined transcriptome and proteome analyses. Our results showed that pre-exposure to Cd increased the susceptibility of gypsy moth larvae to B. bassiana, and there was an additive effect between Cd exposure and B. bassiana infection on the larval mortality. Under the Cd stress at low and high concentrations, 138 and 899 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), as well as 514 and 840 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified, respectively. Immunotoxic effects induced by Cd exposure at the transcription level increased in a negative dose-response manner, with no immunity-related DEGs obtained at the low Cd concentration and a high number of immunity-related DEGs down-regulated at the high Cd concentration. In contrast, a potentially suppressed or stimulated trend in the Toll and Imd signaling pathway at protein level was revealed under low or high concentration of Cd treatment. Analysis of xenobiotics biodegradation-related pathways at both transcription and translation levels revealed that the gypsy moth larvae possessed an efficient homeostasis regulatory mechanism to the low-level Cd exposure, but exhibited a reduced xenobiotics biodegradation capability to the Cd stress at high levels. Together, these findings demonstrate Cd contamination promote the microbial-based biocontrol efficacy, and unravel the molecular regulatory network of heavy metal exposures that affects susceptibility of insects to pathogenic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116740DOI Listing
May 2021

Update: Innate Lymphoid Cells in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Tongzipo Road, Changsha, 410013, Hunan, China.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and nonspecific intestinal inflammatory condition with high relapse rate. Its pathogenesis has been linked to dysbacteriosis, genetic and environmental factors. In recent years, a new type of lymphocytes, termed innate lymphoid cells, has been described and classified into three subtypes of innate lymphoid cells-group 1, group 2 and group 3. An imbalance among these subsets' interaction with gut microbiome, and other immune cells affects intestinal mucosal homeostasis. Understanding the role of innate lymphoid cells may provide ideas for developing novel and targeted approaches for treatment of IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-06831-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Germline ALK variations are associated with a poor prognosis in glioma and IDH-wildtype glioblastoma.

J Neurooncol 2021 Mar 24;152(1):27-36. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor. Clear classification is crucial for accurate diagnosis and individualized treatment. Histopathological characteristics and genetic alterations have shown to be related to prognosis and treatment response. Germline variants are important components of genetic alterations. However, the distribution of germline variations in glioma patients and their association with survival remain unknown.

Methods: We carried out whole-exome sequencing on 99 cases to explore germline variants in glioma. We also analyzed the association of germline variants with clinicopathological features and other prognostic indicators.

Results: All the glioma cases harbored rare germline variants. Germline ALK variants (gALK-Mut) were identified in 12/99 (12.12%) patients. The gALK-Mut patients had significantly shorter overall survival than germline ALK wildtype (gALK-WT) patients in the all glioma group (99 cases) and the subset of patients with IDH-wildtype glioblastoma (IDH-WT-GBM, 39 cases) (P = 0.013 and 0.027, respectively). The gALK-Mut patients also had higher frequency of BIRC5, PIK3CA and RPN1 somatic mutations than the gALK-WT patients in IDH-WT-GBM. Other confounding factors appeared to contribute to patient survival. The subgroup of patients in IDH-WT-GBM with gALK-Mut/TP53-Mut had worse prognosis than the gALK-WT/TP53-Mut subgroup (P = 0.031); The gALK-Mut/TERT-WT and gALK-Mut/TERT-Mut subgroups both had a worse prognosis than the gALK-WT/TERT-Mut subgroup (P = 0.031 and 0.018, respectively).

Conclusions: Our study revealed ALK variation was an independent indicator of poor prognosis in glioma and IDH-WT-GBM. It could be a promising biomarker and tractable therapeutic target for this deadly disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-020-03676-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Diet-induced obesity promotes infection by impairment of the innate antimicrobial defense function of dermal adipocyte progenitors.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jan;13(577)

Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Infections are a major complication of obesity, but the mechanisms responsible for impaired defense against microbes are not well understood. Here, we found that adipocyte progenitors were lost from the dermis during diet-induced obesity (DIO) in humans and mice. The loss of adipogenic fibroblasts from mice resulted in less antimicrobial peptide production and greatly increased susceptibility to infection. The decrease in adipocyte progenitors in DIO mice was explained by expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) by mature adipocytes that then inhibited adipocyte progenitors and the production of cathelicidin in vitro. Administration of a TGFβ receptor inhibitor or a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist reversed this inhibition in both cultured adipocyte progenitors and in mice and subsequently restored the capacity of obese mice to defend against skin infection. Together, these results explain how obesity promotes dysfunction of the antimicrobial function of reactive dermal adipogenesis and identifies potential therapeutic targets to manage skin infection associated with obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abb5280DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparison of polyurethane foam dressing and hydrocolloid dressing in patients with pressure ulcers: A randomized controlled trial protocol.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(2):e24165

Diagnosis and Treatment Center for Chronic Wounds, Hangzhou Geriatric Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808478PMC
January 2021

Impact of a pandemic on surgical neuro-oncology-maintaining functionality in the early phase of crisis.

BMC Surg 2021 Jan 18;21(1):40. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518035, China.

Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has extraordinarily impacted global healthcare. Neuro-oncological surgery units have peculiar features that make them highly relevant in the strategic reaction to the pandemic. In this Chinese Society of Neuro-Oncology (CSNO) initiated survey, we appraise the changes implemented in neuro-oncological surgery hospitals across different Asian countries and provide expert recommendations for responses at different stages of the pandemic.

Methods: We performed a 42-question survey of the early experience of neuro-oncological surgery practice in hospitals across different Asian countries on April 1, 2020, with responses closed on April 18, 2020.

Results: 144 hospitals completed the questionnaire. Most were in WHO post-peak phase of the pandemic and reported a median reduction in neuro-oncological surgery volume of 25-50%. Most (67.4%) resumed elective surgery in only COVID-19 negative patients;11.1% performed only emergency cases irrespective of COVID-19 status;2.1% suspended all surgical activity. Ninety-one (63.2%) relocated personnel from neurosurgery to other departments. Fifty-two (36.1%) hospitals suspended post-operative adjuvant therapy and 94 (65.2%) instituted different measures to administer post-operative adjuvant therapy. Majority (59.0%) of the hospitals suspended research activity. Most (70%) respondents anticipate that current neurosurgery restrictions will continue to remain for > 1 month.

Conclusions: Majority of the respondents to our survey reported reduced neuro-oncological surgery activity, policy modification, personnel reallocation, and curtailment of educational/research activities in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The persistent widespread interruption of surgical neuro-oncology in even post-peak phases of the pandemic raises serious concerns about the long-term impact of the pandemic on neuro-oncological patients and highlights the essence of timely measures for pandemic preparedness, patient triage, and workforce protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-021-01055-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812331PMC
January 2021

Influence of tillage practices on phosphorus forms in aggregates of Mollisols from northeast China.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

College of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Background: Phosphorus (P) is an essential mineral nutrient for crop growth and development. Much remains unknown regarding the content and distribution of P forms in different soil aggregates as affected by tillage practices. A 3-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of no-tillage (NT), rotary tillage (RT), subsoiling (SS), and deep tillage (DT) on soil aggregate distribution pattern, aggregate-associated P content, and to understand the conversion trend.

Results: Tillage has the potential to accelerate the processes in transforming macro-aggregates (> 0.25 mm) into micro-aggregates (< 0.25 mm). Greatest aggregate stability was attained under RT. Total phosphorus (TP) and available phosphorus (AP) under NT were increased by 21.1-82.0% in contrast to other tillage treatments. The NT had high content in inorganic phosphorus (IP), aluminum phosphorus (Al-P), and iron phosphorus (Fe-P) with 416.7, 107.9, and 99.1 mg·kg on average, respectively. Aggregates with a size dimension of < 2 mm were more sensitive than other sizes of aggregates. IP was evenly distributed throughout all aggregates, ranging from 336.3 to 430.6 mg kg . No differences in organic phosphorus (OP) were found in all tillage treatments, while NT promoted the transformation of labile OP to IP. The AP and OP were generally more abundant in aggregates of 2 to 0.25 mm and < 0.25 mm.

Conclusion: Short-term NT can improve soil structure and increase P reserves, thus, enhancing the conversion of P from being scarce to available. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11093DOI Listing
January 2021

New Delivery Route of Gambogic Acid Via Skin for Topical Targeted Therapy of Cutaneous Melanoma and Reduction of Systemic Toxicity.

J Pharm Sci 2021 05 26;110(5):2167-2176. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024, China. Electronic address:

Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, and gambogic acid (GA) exhibits potent anti-melanoma activity. However, clinical application of GA via intravenous injection and oral administration is limited by systemic toxicity and rapid metabolism in the blood. Here, we developed a new, topical route of GA delivery for anti-melanoma activity and reduction of systemic toxicity. The results indicated that the barrier of the stratum corneum (SC) and low diffusion of GA in the hydrophilic viable skin (epidermis and dermis) limited the GA penetration through intact skin. The combination of azone (AZ) and propylene glycol (PG) showed obvious synergistic effects on skin penetration by GA via improving the permeability of the SC and greatly increasing the skin accumulation of GA, thereby forming a high drug concentration in the skin and achieving a topical targeted treatment of melanoma. In addition, GA (AZ-PG) achieved the same anti-melanoma effect via topical delivery as via intravenous injection. Intravenous injection and oral administration of GA induced remarkable pathological changes in various organs in mice, whereas GA was not toxic to various organs or to the skin via topical delivery. These findings indicated that topical administration of GA is an alternative route for melanoma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2020.12.024DOI Listing
May 2021

Study on the Anti-Biodegradation Property of Tunicate Cellulose.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Dec 21;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

College of Material Engineering, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350108, China.

Tunicate is a kind of marine animal, and its outer sheath consists of almost pure I crystalline cellulose. Due to its high aspect ratio, tunicate cellulose has excellent physical properties. It draws extensive attention in the construction of robust functional materials. However, there is little research on its biological activity. In this study, cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted on tunicate cellulose. During the hydrolysis, the crystalline behaviors, i.e., crystallinity index (), crystalline size and degree of polymerization (DP), were analyzed on the tunicate cellulose. As comparisons, similar hydrolyses were performed on cellulose samples with relatively low , namely α-cellulose and amorphous cellulose. The results showed that the of tunicate cellulose and α-cellulose was 93.9% and 70.9%, respectively; and after 96 h of hydrolysis, the crystallinity, crystalline size and DP remained constant on the tunicate cellulose, and the cellulose conversion rate was below 7.8%. While the crystalline structure of α-cellulose was significantly damaged and the cellulose conversion rate exceeded 83.8% at the end of 72 h hydrolysis, the amorphous cellulose was completely converted to glucose after 7 h hydrolysis, and the DP decreased about 27.9%. In addition, tunicate cellulose has high anti-mold abilities, owing to its highly crystalized I lattice. It can be concluded that tunicate cellulose has significant resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis and could be potentially applied as anti-biodegradation materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12123071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767540PMC
December 2020

Comparison of ashing and pyrolysis treatment on cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator plant: Effects on bioavailability and metal speciation in solid residues and risk assessment.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 21;272:116039. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang A&F University, Lin'an, Zhejiang, 311300, China. Electronic address:

Phytoremediation of metal(loid)s contaminated sites is widely used, while there is scarce of investigation on the metal-enriched biomass waste safely disposal which resulted in risks of causing secondary pollution to the soil and water bodies and even to human health. Thus, this study compared the effects of ashing and pyrolysis treatments on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation plant Sedum plumbizincicola. Chemical speciation, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction were employed to characterize the bioavailability and leachability of Cd and Zn in the solid residues after pyrolysis and ashing. The risk assessment code (RAC) and potential ecological risk index (RI) were subsequently used to evaluate the risk of the solid residues to the environment. The results showed that both ashing and pyrolysis treatments could transform the bioavailable Cd and Zn in S. plumbizincicola into a more stable form, and the higher the temperature the greater the stablility. Pyrolysis converted a maximum of 80.0% of Cd and 70.3% of Zn in S. plumbizincicola to the oxidisable and residual fractions, compared with ashing which achieved only a ∼42% reduction. The pyrolysis process minimised the risk level of Cd and Zn to the environment based on the RAC and RI assessments. The results of the TCLP test, and DTPA extraction confirmed that the leaching rate and the bioavailable portion of Cd and Zn in the biochars produced by pyrolysis were invariably significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the solid residues produced by ashing, and reached the lowest at 650 °C. In other words, pyrolysis was better than ashing for thermal treatment of the metal-enriched hyperaccumulator plant, in view of minimising the bioavailability and leachability of Cd and Zn from the solid residues to the environment. This study provides fundamental data on the choice of treatments for the disposal of metal-enriched plant biomass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116039DOI Listing
March 2021

CD38-expressing macrophages drive age-related NAD decline.

Nat Metab 2020 11;2(11):1186-1187

Immunology, Microenvironment & Metastasis Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-00292-5DOI Listing
November 2020

Study of the common activating mechanism of apoptosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in alveolar type II epithelial cells.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2021 02 13;284:103584. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Institute, Beijing, 101149, China.

Infection and severe trauma can result in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) and eventually pulmonary fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is related to pulmonary fibrosis. Our study found that pyocyanin (PCN) could promote apoptosis and EMT in alveolar type II epithelial A549 cells. We hypothesized that there might be a common mechanism related to both apoptosis and EMT in A549 cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by PCN is the common stimulus upstream of apoptosis and EMT as well as the relevant signalling pathways. A549 cells were challenged with PCN; ROS was then detected by immunofluorescence, and apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Caspases, EMT markers and the TGF-β/Smad pathway were assessed by Western blot, qPCR or ELISA. The results showed that PCN promoted ROS production, and the apoptosis rate was clearly increased. E-cadherin downregulation, vimentin and α-SMA upregulation in A549 cells, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3, TGF-β1 and activated Smad2/3 were also detected. Interestingly, the protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and vimentin was highly positively correlated. Inhibition of ROS could partially reverse PCN-induced EMT and apoptosis in A549 cells, and EMT could also be reversed by TGF-β1 inhibitors. In conclusion, ROS may be a common activating mechanism of apoptosis and EMT in alveolar epithelial cells, during which the degree of apoptosis is positively related to EMT. ROS may induce alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway or endoplasmic reticulum pathway. ROS activates TGF-β1, followed by SMADs, eventually inducing EMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2020.103584DOI Listing
February 2021

Photocatalytic ozonation of organic pollutants in wastewater using a flowing through reactor.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 22;405:124277. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWRE), School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, PR China. Electronic address:

Photocatalytic ozonation (PCO/O) process is a promising technology for mineralizing refractory organics in wastewater. In this study, we described an efficient approach to improve the mass-transfer performance of PCO/O by using a helical photocatalytic module (HPM) in an annular UVC reactor. Under hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 19 min and influent phenol concentration of 33 mg/L (TOC 26 mg/L), TOC removal of 91.5% was obtained during a PCO/O process with HPM, while TOC removal was only 58.1% without HPM (UVC/O). This flowing through reactor displayed good stability in a continuous test lasting 20 h. The electric energy required to reduce TOC by one order of magnitude per cubic meter of solution was calculated to be 10.23 kWh/(m order), which supported that the PCO/O process in this flowing through reactor was energy-efficient compared with other processes (24.30-68.75 kWh/(m order)). The steel-rolling wastewater after biological treatment was taken as a target. Under the HRT of 57 min and initial COD of 124 mg/L, COD in effluent dropped to 45.8 mg/L and met the discharge standard of pollutants for municipal wastewater treatment plant of China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124277DOI Listing
March 2021

Detection of colorectal cancer-derived exosomes based on covalent organic frameworks.

Biosens Bioelectron 2020 Dec 21;169:112638. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, PR China; Center for Molecular Recognition and Biosensing, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, PR China. Electronic address:

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have attracted more and more attention due to their diverse structures and multifunctionality. Their unique physicochemical properties make them exhibit great application potential in the field of biosensing. In this work, we have designed and fabricated a novel COFs-based nanoprobe named HRP-pSC-AuNPs@COFs, where spherical COFs are functionalized with para-sulfocalix [4] arene hydrate (pSC)-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Then, we have applied it for the electrochemical detection of colorectal cancer (CRC)-derived exosomes. In this design, pSC as amicable linker can recognize and bind with various amino acid residues on the exosomes surface, while AuNPs with excellent conductivity can accelerate the migration of charge carriers and improve the response of biosensors. Noteworthy, the high porosity of COFs allows them to load a large amount of HRP, endowing COF with high catalytic activity. Meanwhile, the exoskeleton of COFs can maintain the functionality of HRP with significantly elevated stability. With such design, the proposed method shows excellent analytical performance for the detection of CRC-derived exosomes in the linear range from 5 × 10 to 10 particles/μL with a detection limit down to 160 particles/μL. Further, this method has also been used to analyze clinical serum sample, and can successfully distinguish CRC patients from healthy people, indicating the promising potential in clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112638DOI Listing
December 2020

Peptide-functionalized metal-organic framework nanocomposite for ultrasensitive detection of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine with practical application.

Biosens Bioelectron 2020 Dec 15;169:112613. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, PR China; Center for Molecular Recognition and Biosensing, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, PR China. Electronic address:

In this work, we have prepared peptide-functionalized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as signal-amplifying tags for the detection of secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Furthermore, enzyme-MOF nanocomposites are fabricated via a coprecipitation strategy between horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and ZIF-90, where ZIF-90 is used as a protective support for HRP immobilization. Meanwhile, the peptide sequence has been designed as SPARC-binding peptide, which imparts biorecognition functionality to HRP@ZIF-90 for performing a colorimetric sensor. Therefore, during the test, HRP molecules can be quickly released from nanocomposites by acidic condition to catalyze chromogenic reaction, enabling the ultrasensitive detection of SPARC with a low detection limit of 30 fg/mL. Moreover, the content of SPARC in colon cancer tissues with different degrees of differentiation can be determined with this sensor, demonstrating that the expression of SPARC is closely related to the occurrence, invasion and metastasis of human colon cancer. These results may show the potential applications of this biosensor in SPARC fundamental research as well as clinical diagnosis in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112613DOI Listing
December 2020

Untethered control of functional origami microrobots with distributed actuation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 14;117(39):24096-24101. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210

Deployability, multifunctionality, and tunability are features that can be explored in the design space of origami engineering solutions. These features arise from the shape-changing capabilities of origami assemblies, which require effective actuation for full functionality. Current actuation strategies rely on either slow or tethered or bulky actuators (or a combination). To broaden applications of origami designs, we introduce an origami system with magnetic control. We couple the geometrical and mechanical properties of the bistable Kresling pattern with a magnetically responsive material to achieve untethered and local/distributed actuation with controllable speed, which can be as fast as a tenth of a second with instantaneous shape locking. We show how this strategy facilitates multimodal actuation of the multicell assemblies, in which any unit cell can be independently folded and deployed, allowing for on-the-fly programmability. In addition, we demonstrate how the Kresling assembly can serve as a basis for tunable physical properties and for digital computing. The magnetic origami systems are applicable to origami-inspired robots, morphing structures and devices, metamaterials, and multifunctional devices with multiphysics responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2013292117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7533839PMC
September 2020

Magnetic Multimaterial Printing for Multimodal Shape Transformation with Tunable Properties and Shiftable Mechanical Behaviors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 8;13(11):12639-12648. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, United States.

Magnetic soft materials (MSMs) have shown potential in soft robotics, actuators, metamaterials, and biomedical devices because they are capable of untethered, fast, and reversible shape reconfigurations as well as controllable dynamic motions under applied magnetic fields. Recently, magnetic shape memory polymers (M-SMPs) that incorporate hard magnetic particles in shape memory polymers demonstrated superior shape manipulation performance by realizing reprogrammable, untethered, fast, and reversible shape transformation and shape locking in one material system. In this work, we develop a multimaterial printing technology for the complex structural integration of MSMs and M-SMPs to explore their enhanced multimodal shape transformation and tunable properties. By cooperative thermal and magnetic actuation, we demonstrate multiple deformation modes with distinct shape configurations, which further enable active metamaterials with tunable physical properties such as sign-change Poisson's ratio. Because of the multiphysics response of the M-MSP/MSM metamaterials, one distinct feature is their capability of shifting between various global mechanical behaviors such as expansion, contraction, shear, and bending. We anticipate that the multimaterial printing technique opens new avenues for the fabrication of multifunctional magnetic materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c13863DOI Listing
March 2021

Reduced Energy Barrier for Li Transport Across Grain Boundaries with Amorphous Domains in LLZO Thin Films.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2020 Jul 25;15(1):153. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

School of Materials and Energy, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, Sichuan, China.

The high-resistive grain boundaries are the bottleneck for Li transport in LiLaZrO (LLZO) solid electrolytes. Herein, high-conductive LLZO thin films with cubic phase and amorphous domains between crystalline grains are prepared, via annealing the repetitive LLZO/LiCO/GaO multi-nanolayers at 600 °C for 2 h. The amorphous domains may provide additional vacant sites for Li, and thus relax the accumulation of Li at grain boundaries. The significantly improved ionic conductivity across grain boundaries demonstrates that the high energy barrier for Li migration caused by space charge layer is effectively reduced. Benefiting from the Li transport paths with low energy barriers, the presented LLZO thin film exhibits a cutting-edge value of ionic conductivity as high as 6.36 × 10 S/cm, which is promising for applications in thin film lithium batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-020-03378-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382668PMC
July 2020

Artificial intelligence neuropathologist for glioma classification using deep learning on hematoxylin and eosin stained slide images and molecular markers.

Neuro Oncol 2021 01;23(1):44-52

Glioma Surgery Division, Neurologic Surgery Department, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Pathological diagnosis of glioma subtypes is essential for treatment planning and prognosis. Standard histological diagnosis of glioma is based on postoperative hematoxylin and eosin stained slides by neuropathologists. With advancing artificial intelligence (AI), the aim of this study was to determine whether deep learning can be applied to glioma classification.

Methods: A neuropathological diagnostic platform is designed comprising a slide scanner and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to classify 5 major histological subtypes of glioma to assist pathologists. The CNNs were trained and verified on over 79 990 histological patch images from 267 patients. A logical algorithm is used when molecular profiles are available.

Results: A new model of the squeeze-and-excitation block DenseNet with weighted cross-entropy (named SD-Net_WCE) is developed for the glioma classification task, which learns the recognizable features of glioma histology CNN-based independent diagnostic testing on data from 56 patients with 17 262 histological patch images demonstrated patch level accuracy of 86.5% and patient level accuracy of 87.5%. Histopathological classifications could be further amplified to integrated neuropathological diagnosis by 2 molecular markers (isocitrate dehydrogenase and 1p/19q).

Conclusion: The model is capable of solving multiple classification tasks and can satisfactorily classify glioma subtypes. The system provides a novel aid for the integrated neuropathological diagnostic workflow of glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850049PMC
January 2021

CaCl-Promoted Dehydroxytrifluoromethylselenolation of Alcohols with [MeN][SeCF].

Org Lett 2020 Aug 9;22(15):6016-6020. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Science, Wuhan University of Technology, 205 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070, China.

A direct trifluoromethylselenolation of alcohols with the readily accessible [MeN][SeCF] salt has been reported. The reaction is significantly promoted by CaCl and proceeds smoothly through unprecedented carbonoselenoate intermediates to form the corresponding alkyl trifluoromethyl selenoethers in good yields. This protocol is also applicable to the late-stage dehydroxytrifluoromethylselenolation of complex alcohols owing to its mildness, good compatibility, high efficiency, and broad functional group tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c02109DOI Listing
August 2020

A novel gradient composition spreading and nanolayer stacking process for combinatorial thin-film materials library fabrication.

Rev Sci Instrum 2020 Jun;91(6):065107

School of Electronic Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 611731, China.

A novel magnetron sputtering process is proposed to fabricate a combinatorial thin-film materials library with highly precise composition spreading. In order to produce a gradient composition spreading for a specific target, a moving shutter is used to cover the deposition substrate step by step with a fixed step-length. By rotating the substrate and repeating the step-by-step masked deposition with different targets in turn, a heterogeneous precursor structure is obtained with alternate stacking of different material layers, each of which is in a step-by-step wedge-shaped thickness cross section. By controlling the thickness of each layer at the nanometer scale, a multilayer structure is formed to facilitate the interlayer diffusion between different precursor layers. It may also define the boundaries of individual sample pixels, resulting in improved composition spreading resolutions for the prepared materials library. A combinatorial magnetron sputtering system is designed with reciprocating rectangular targets, a narrow slit between the substrate and the target, and a quartz crystal microbalance feedback to control the deposition uniformity, resulting in a variation better than 3% across a 76 × 76 mm substrate. Three individual deposition chambers are designed in an annular distribution with 90° angle between each other. Moreover, a step-by-step moving shutter and a rotating substrate holder are incorporated. Combinatorial materials libraries with more than 10 000 individual compositions could be obtained using this system. A Ti-Zr-Ni ternary alloy library was fabricated for demonstration in which the sheet resistance spreading diagram of the Ti-Zr-Ni library was studied as a function of the composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0011119DOI Listing
June 2020