Publications by authors named "Shuai Liu"

1,001 Publications

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Optimization of constant-current operation in membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) using variable discharging operations.

Water Res 2021 Sep 9;204:117646. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

UNSW Centre for Transformational Environmental Technologies, Yixing, Jiangsu 214206, PR China; School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Electronic address:

Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an emerging electric field-driven technology for brackish water desalination involving the removal of charged ions from saline source waters. While the desalination performance of MCDI under different operational modes has been widely investigated, most studies have concentrated on different charging conditions without considering discharging conditions. In this study, we investigate the effects of different discharging conditions on the desalination performance of MCDI electrode. Our study demonstrates that low-current discharge (1.0 mA/cm) can increase salt removal by 20% and decrease volumetric energy consumption by 40% by improving electrode regeneration and increasing energy recovery, respectively, while high-current discharge (3.0 mA/cm) can improve productivity by 70% at the expense of electrode regeneration and energy recovery. Whether discharging electrodes at the low current or high current is optimal depends on a trade-off between productivity and energy consumption. We also reveal that stopped flow discharge (85%) can achieve higher water recovery than continuous flow discharge (35-59%). However, stopped flow discharge caused a 20-30% decrease in concentration reduction and a 25-50% increase in molar energy consumption, possibly due to the higher ion concentration in the macropores at the end of discharging step. These results reveal that an optimal discharging operation should be obtained from achieving a balance among productivity, water recovery and energy consumption by varying discharging current and flow rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117646DOI Listing
September 2021

Proteomic profiling of saliva reveals association of complement system with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Experimental Center of Clinical Research, Scientific Research Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Introduction: To compare the saliva proteomes of experimental Sjögren's syndrome (ESS) model mice and healthy controls to identify potential diagnostic biomarkers for primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS).

Methods: Proteins were extracted from the saliva of three ESS and three normal control mice using the data-independent acquisition technique. R language was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses were performed to functionally annotate the DEPs. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and the core proteins were identified with the STRING website and Cytoscape software. The concentrations of Serpin family G member 1 (SERPING1), C3, complement factor H (CFH), fibrinogen alpha (FGA), and fibrinogen gamma (FGG) in saliva were determined by ELISA.

Results: A total of 1722 DEPs were identified in the saliva of the ESS mice relative to the controls, of which 50 showed significantly different expression levels between the two groups. SERPING1, C3, CFH, FGA, and FGG were significantly downregulated, and keratin 4 (Krt4) and transglutaminase 3 (TGM3) were upregulated in the saliva of ESS mice. The PPI network showed that SERPING1, C3, FGG, FGA, TGM3, and hemopexin (HPX) were the core proteins. ELISA results showed that the expression of C3, CFH, FGA, and SERPING1 were significantly downregulated in the saliva of ESS mice. However, the expression of FGG was a little downregulated but with no significant difference. SERPING1, FGG, and FGA may downregulate the complement C3 by inhibiting immune complement system, thereby promoting pSS progression.

Conclusions: The salivary proteome of ESS mice was markedly different from that of healthy controls, suggesting that salivary proteomics is a promising noninvasive diagnostic tool for pSS. SERPING1, C3, CFH, FGA, and FGG are potential biomarkers of pSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iid3.529DOI Listing
September 2021

lncRNA RMRP predicts poor prognosis and mediates tumor progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by regulating miR-613/ neuropilin 2 (NRP2) axis.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):6913-6922

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, China.

The RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease (RMRP) has been reported to play a role in the development of various human diseases. The clinical significance and biological function of RMRP in the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the potential mechanism were investigated in this study.A total of 118 ESCC patients were included in this study. The expression of RMRP in ESCC was analyzed with the help of the polymerase chain reaction. The cell counting kit 8 assay was employed to evaluate the role of RMRP in cell proliferation, and its functions in cell migration and invasion were assessed by the Transwell assays. Meanwhile, the clinical significance of RMRP in ESCC was estimated with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis.RMRP was significantly upregulated in ESCC, which was associated with the lymph node metastasis status, the TNM stage of patients, and a poor outcome of ESCC patients. Moreover, RMRP promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ESCC cells via regulating miR-613/NRP2.RMRP was involved in the progression of ESCC through regulating the miR-613/NRP2 axis, which provides a potential target for the treatment of ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1974656DOI Listing
December 2021

Dissecting Tumor Antigens and Immune Subtypes of Glioma to Develop mRNA Vaccine.

Front Immunol 2021 27;12:709986. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Nowadays, researchers are leveraging the mRNA-based vaccine technology used to develop personalized immunotherapy for cancer. However, its application against glioma is still in its infancy. In this study, the applicable candidates were excavated for mRNA vaccine treatment in the perspective of immune regulation, and suitable glioma recipients with corresponding immune subtypes were further investigated.

Methods: The RNA-seq data and clinical information of 702 and 325 patients were recruited from TCGA and CGGA, separately. The genetic alteration profile was visualized and compared by cBioPortal. Then, we explored prognostic outcomes and immune correlations of the selected antigens to validate their clinical relevance. The prognostic index was measured GEPIA2, and infiltration of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was calculated and visualized by TIMER. Based on immune-related gene expression, immune subtypes of glioma were identified using consensus clustering analysis. Moreover, the immune landscape was visualized by graph learning-based dimensionality reduction analysis.

Results: Four glioma antigens, namely ANXA5, FKBP10, MSN, and PYGL, associated with superior prognoses and infiltration of APCs were selected. Three immune subtypes IS1-IS3 were identified, which fundamentally differed in molecular, cellular, and clinical signatures. Patients in subtypes IS2 and IS3 carried immunologically cold phenotypes, whereas those in IS1 carried immunologically hot phenotype. Particularly, patients in subtypes IS3 and IS2 demonstrated better outcomes than that in IS1. Expression profiles of immune checkpoints and immunogenic cell death (ICD) modulators showed a difference among IS1-IS3 tumors. Ultimately, the immune landscape of glioma elucidated considerable heterogeneity not only between individual patients but also within the same immune subtype.

Conclusions: ANXA5, FKBP10, MSN, and PYGL are identified as potential antigens for anti-glioma mRNA vaccine production, specifically for patients in immune subtypes 2 and 3. In summary, this study may shed new light on the promising approaches of immunotherapy, such as devising mRNA vaccination tailored to applicable glioma recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.709986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429949PMC
August 2021

Somatization Symptoms Regulate Emotional Memory Bias in Adolescents With Major Depressive Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:656198. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Affiliated Psychological Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Somatization symptoms are commonly comorbid with depression. Furthermore, people with depression and somatization have a negative memory bias. We investigated the differences in emotional memory among adolescent patients with depressive disorders, with and without functional somatization symptoms (FSS). We recruited 30 adolescents with depression and FSS, 38 adolescents with depression but without FSS, and 38 healthy participants. Emotional memory tasks were conducted to evaluate the emotional memory of the participants in the three groups. The clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI). The valence ratings and recognition accuracy rates for positive and neutral images of adolescent patients were significantly lower than those of the control group ( = 12.208, < 0.001; = 6.801, < 0.05; = 14.536, < 0.001; = 6.306, < 0.05, respectively); however, the recognition accuracy rate for negative images of adolescent patients of depression without FSS was significantly lower than that of patients with FSS and control group participants ( = 10.316, < 0.001). These differences persisted after controlling for HDRS scores. The within-group analysis revealed that patients of depression with FSS showed significantly higher recognition accuracy rates for negative images than the other types ( = 5.446, < 0.05). The recognition accuracy rate for negative images was positively correlated with CSI scores ( = 0.352, < 0.05). Therefore, emotional memory impairment exists in adolescent patients of depression and FSS are associated with negative emotional memory retention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.656198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428275PMC
August 2021

Amelioration of Hippocampal Insulin Resistance Reduces Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Cognitive Decline Induced by Isoflurane in Mice.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 25;13:686506. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Medical Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

General anesthetics can induce cognitive impairments and increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Our previous studies shown that long-term isoflurane exposure induced peripheral and central insulin resistance (IR) in adult mice and aggravated IR in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice. Clinical and preclinical studies revealed an association between impaired insulin signaling and tau pathology in AD and other tauopathies. We investigated if alleviation of hippocampal IR by the antidiabetic agent metformin could reduce tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive decline induced by isoflurane in mice. The effects of prolonged (6 h) isoflurane anesthesia on hippocampal IR, hippocampal tau hyperphosphorylation, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive function were evaluated in wild type (WT) adult mice and the high-fat diet plus streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) mouse model of T2DM. Here we shown that isoflurane and HFD/STZ dramatically and synergistically induced hippocampal IR and fear memory impairment. Metformin pretreatment strongly ameliorated hippocampal IR and cognitive dysfunction caused by isoflurane in WT mice, but was less effective in T2DM mice. Isoflurane also induced hippocampal tau hyperphosphorylation and metformin reversed this effect. In addition, isoflurane significantly increased blood glucose levels in both adult and T2DM mice, and metformin reversed this effect as well. Administration of 25% glucose to metformin-pretreated mice induced hyperglycemia, but surprisingly did not reverse the benefits of metformin on hippocampal insulin signaling and fear memory following isoflurane anesthesia. Our findings show hippocampal IR and tau hyperphosphorylation contribute to acute isoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction. Brief metformin treatment can mitigate these effects through a mechanism independent of glycemic control. Future studies are needed to investigate whether long-term metformin treatment can also prevent T2DM-induced hippocampal IR and cognitive decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.686506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425557PMC
August 2021

Smart chemistry of enzyme immobilization using various support matrices - A review.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 7;190:396-408. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Monterrey 64849, Mexico. Electronic address:

The surface chemistry, pendent functional entities, and ease in tunability of various materials play a central role in properly coordinating with enzymes for immobilization purposes. Due to the interplay between the new wave of support matrices and enzymes, the development of robust biocatalytic constructs via protein engineering expands the practical scope and tunable catalysis functions. The concept of stabilization via functional entities manipulation, the surface that comprises functional groups, such as thiol, aldehyde, carboxylic, amine, and epoxy have been the important driving force for immobilizing purposes. Enzyme immobilization using multi-functional supports has become a powerful norm and presents noteworthy characteristics, such as selectivity, specificity, stability, resistivity, induce activity, reaction efficacy, multi-usability, high catalytic turnover, optimal yield, ease in recovery, and cost-effectiveness. There is a plethora of literature on traditional immobilization approaches, e.g., intramolecular chemical (covalent) attachment, adsorption, encapsulation, entrapment, and cross-linking. However, the existing literature is lacking state-of-the-art smart chemistry of immobilization. This review is a focused attempt to cover the literature gap of surface functional entities that interplay between support materials at large and enzyme of interest, in particular, to tailor robust biocatalysts to fulfill the growing and contemporary needs of several industrial sectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.09.006DOI Listing
September 2021

Association of Serum Potassium Levels with Mortality and Cardiovascular Events: Findings from the Chinese Multi-provincial Cohort Study.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Epidemiology, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Dyskalemia involves critical electrolyte abnormalities and increases mortality risk in patients with acute clinical conditions. However, the association between dyskalemia and adverse outcomes in the general population is less well established.

Objective: To investigate the association of serum potassium levels with mortality and cardiovascular events in the general population and to explore the characteristics of individuals at high risk.

Design: A prospective cohort study.

Participants: A total of 5220 participants aged 50-79 years in the Chinese Multi-provincial Cohort Study.

Main Measures: Serum potassium levels were measured by the ion-selective electrode method. The outcomes were incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD death, non-CVD death, and total death.

Key Results: Of the 5220 participants, 48.2% were men, and the mean age was 62.3 (SD 7.6) years. Hyperkalemia was found in 8.7% of the participants and was significantly associated with total death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.23) and CVD death (HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.25-3.61) after adjustment. Furthermore, the HRs (95% CIs) of hyperkalemia combined with 2 and ≥ 3 risk factors were 2.37 (1.50-3.74) and 4.06 (2.37-6.95) for total death and 3.26 (1.56-6.80) and 8.42 (4.06-17.50) for CVD death, respectively. The 10-year cumulative incidence of total death was 17.4% for participants with 2 or more risk factors.

Conclusion: Hyperkalemia is associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD death, and this risk is more pronounced in patients with multiple risk factors. Our findings suggest that early identification and management of hyperkalemia in the general population are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-021-07111-xDOI Listing
September 2021

Enhancing Fenton-like process at neutral pH by Fe(III)-GLDA complexation for the oxidation removal of organic pollutants.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 11;416:126077. Epub 2021 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Resource and Environment, College of New Energy and Environment, Jilin University, 2519 Jiefang Road, Changchun 130021, PR China. Electronic address:

N,N-bis(carboxymethyl)glutamic acid (GLDA) was utilized in this study to significantly enhance the Fe(III) mediated Fenton-like oxidation removal of organic pollutants at neutral pH, in which ciprofloxacin (CIP) was used as the model pollutant. The CIP degradation rate in the GLDA/Fe(III)/HO system reached 96.5% within 180 min and was nearly 14 times higher than that in the Fe(III)/HO system. This enhancement was contributed to the acceleration of the cycle of Fe(III)/Fe(II) caused by GLDA, which was verified by UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and radical quenching experiments. The results proved that the GLDA could complex with Fe(III) and greatly modify the redox potential of Fe(III)/Fe(II). Moreover, radical quenching experiments confirmed that •OH and O were the mainly species for CIP degradation, and O was responsible for 81.9% •OH generation. In addition, HO utilization kinetic modeling was also investigated. The optimum parameters of the 100 μM Fe(III)-GLDA complex and 15 mM HO were attained by lot-size optimization experiments. Two possible CIP degradation pathways were proposed on the basis of the intermediates identified by MS/MS. The GLDA/Fe(III)/HO system performed better than common chelating agents at the same condition, manifesting good potential for environmental concerns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126077DOI Listing
August 2021

Association of DGAT1 With Cattle, Buffalo, Goat, and Sheep Milk and Meat Production Traits.

Front Vet Sci 2021 16;8:712470. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Beijing Engineering Technology Research Center of Raw Milk Quality and Safety Control, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Milk fatty acids are essential for many dairy product productions, while intramuscular fat (IMF) is associated with the quality of meat. The triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major components of IMF and milk fat. Therefore, understanding the polymorphisms and genes linked to fat synthesis is important for animal production. Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and genes associated with milk and meat production traits has been the objective of various mapping studies in the last decade. Consistently, the QTLs on chromosomes 14, 15, and 9 have been found to be associated with milk and meat production traits in cattle, goat, and buffalo and sheep, respectively. Diacylglycerol -acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene has been reported on chromosomes 14, 15, and 9 in cattle, goat, and buffalo and sheep, respectively. Being a key role in fat metabolism and TAG synthesis, the DGAT1 has obtained considerable attention especially in animal milk production. In addition to milk production, DGAT1 has also been a subject of interest in animal meat production. Several polymorphisms have been documented in DGAT1 in various animal species including cattle, buffalo, goat, and sheep for their association with milk production traits. In addition, the DGAT1 has also been studied for their role in meat production traits in cattle, sheep, and goat. However, very limited studies have been conducted in cattle for association of DGAT1 with meat production traits in cattle. Moreover, not a single study reported the association of DGAT1 with meat production traits in buffalo; thus, further studies are warranted to fulfill this huge gap. Keeping in view the important role of DGAT1 in animal production, the current review article was designed to highlight the major development and new insights on DGAT1 effect on milk and meat production traits in cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat. Moreover, we have also highlighted the possible future contributions of DGAT1 for the studied species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.712470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415568PMC
August 2021

Regulation of anaerobic fermentation for producing short-chain fatty acids from primary sludge in WWTPs by different alkalis.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 1;299:113623. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Low-carbon Water Environmental Technology Center, School of Environment & Natural Resource, Renmin University of China, 59 Zhongguancun Street, Beijing, 100872, PR China.

Carbon source production from primary sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) via anaerobic fermentation process has been paid more attention. However, slow hydrolysis rate and low yield of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) limited its application. This study aimed at improving the anaerobic fermentation efficiency of primary sludge by alkali regulation (NaOH, NaCO and Ca(OH)), and revealing the mechanism. Results showed that three kinds of alkalis allowed enhancing hydrolysis and acidification, and reducing methane production in the anaerobic fermentation process of primary sludge. The NaCO regulation contributed to highest yield and productivity of SCFAs, reaching 1626 mg COD/L and 0.189 g COD/g VSS at 4th day, respectively. Microbial community structure analysis indicated that the relative abundance of fermentative microbial community was improved in the alkali regulation system, where methanogenic archaea was effectively inhibited. The continuous flow experiment further verified that the NaCO regulation could steadily increase yield of SCFAs in the anaerobic fermentation process of primary sludge, and the yield was also the highest among three kinds of alkali regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113623DOI Listing
September 2021

EPIHC: Improving Enhancer-Promoter Interaction Prediction by using Hybrid features and Communicative learning.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2021 Sep 2;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Enhancer-promoter interactions (EPIs) regulate the expression of specific genes in cells, which help facilitate understanding of gene regulation, cell differentiation and disease mechanisms. EPI identification approaches through wet experiments are often costly and time-consuming, leading to the design of high-efficiency computational methods is in demand. In this paper, we propose a deep neural network-based method named EPIHC to predict Enhancer-Promoter Interactions with Hybrid features and Communicative learning. EPIHC extracts enhancer and promoter sequence-derived features using convolutional neural networks (CNN), and then we design a communicative learning module to capture the communicative information between enhancer and promoter sequences. Besides, EPIHC takes the genomic features of enhancers and promoters into account, incorporating with the sequence-derived features to predict EPIs. The computational experiments show that EPIHC outperforms the existing state-of-the-art EPI prediction methods on the benchmark datasets and chromosome-split datasets, and the study reveals that the communicative learning module can bring explicit information about EPIs, which is ignored by CNN, and provide explainability about EPIs to some degree. Moreover, we consider two strategies to improve the performances of EPIHC in the cross-cell line prediction, and experimental results show that EPIHC constructed on some cell lines can exhibit good performances for other cell lines. The codes and data are available at https://github.com/BioMedicalBigDataMiningLab/EPIHC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2021.3109488DOI Listing
September 2021

Constructing Graphitic-Nitrogen-Bonded Pentagons in Interlayer-Expanded Graphene Matrix toward Carbon-Based Electrocatalysts for Acidic Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 31:e2103133. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China.

Metal-free carbon-based materials with high electrocatalytic activity are promising catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in several renewable energy systems. However, the performance of carbon-based materials is far inferior to that of Pt-based catalysts in acid electrolytes. Here, a novel carbon-based electrocatalyst is reported toward ORR in 0.1 m HClO with half-wave potential of 0.81 V and better durability (100 h reaction time) than commercial 20 wt% Pt/C. It is achieved by constructing graphitic-nitrogen (GN)-bonded pentagons in graphitic carbon to improve the intrinsic activity of the carbon sites and increasing the amount of active sites via expanding the interlayer spacing. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and aberration-corrected electron microscopy characterizations confirm the formation of GN-bonded pentagons in this carbon material. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that the activity is linearly associated with the amounts of both pentagons and adjacent GN atoms. Density function theory further demonstrates that adjacent GN atoms significantly increase the charge density at the carbon atom of a GN-bonded pentagon, which is the activity origin for the ORR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202103133DOI Listing
August 2021

Recombinant Interleukin-19 Suppresses the Formation and Progression of Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Sep 28;10(17):e022207. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Divison of Vascular Surgery Department of Surgery Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford CA.

Background Interleukin-19 is an immunosuppressive cytokine produced by immune and nonimmune cells, but its role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathogenesis is not known. This study aimed to investigate interleukin-19 expression in, and influences on, the formation and progression of experimental AAAs. Methods and Results Human specimens were obtained at aneurysm repair surgery or from transplant donors. Experimental AAAs were created in 10- to 12-week-old male mice via intra-aortic elastase infusion. Influence and potential mechanisms of interleukin-19 treatment on AAAs were assessed via ultrasonography, histopathology, flow cytometry, and gene expression profiling. Immunohistochemistry revealed augmented interleukin-19 expression in both human and experimental AAAs. In mice, interleukin-19 treatment before AAA initiation via elastase infusion suppressed aneurysm formation and progression, with attenuation of medial elastin degradation, smooth-muscle depletion, leukocyte infiltration, neoangiogenesis, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 expression. Initiation of interleukin-19 treatment after AAA creation limited further aneurysmal degeneration. In additional experiments, interleukin-19 treatment inhibited murine macrophage recruitment following intraperitoneal thioglycolate injection. In classically or alternatively activated macrophages in vitro, interleukin-19 downregulated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, chemokine C-C motif ligand 2, and metalloproteinases 2 and 9 without apparent effect on cytokine-expressing helper or cytotoxic T-cell differentiation, nor regulatory T cellularity, in the aneurysmal aorta or spleen of interleukin-19-treated mice. Interleukin-19 also suppressed AAAs created via angiotensin II infusion in hyperlipidemic mice. Conclusions Based on human evidence and experimental modeling observations, interleukin-19 may influence the development and progression of AAAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.022207DOI Listing
September 2021

Efficacy of three COS protocols and predictability of AMH and AFC in women with discordant ovarian reserve markers: a retrospective study on 19,239 patients.

J Ovarian Res 2021 Aug 28;14(1):111. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei, China.

Background: Recent studies have consistently shown that AFC and serum AMH are good predictors of ovarian response and have shown strong correlations. However, it is not unusual for reproductive medicine specialists to encounter discordance between them. This is the first study to investigate the efficacies of the different COS protocols when the AFC and AMH levels are discordant. Based on the association between COS protocols and pregnancy outcomes, we attempt to explain the controversial results and clarify the predictive value of AMH and AFC in this context.

Methods: 19,239 patients undergoing their first fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with GnRH antagonist protocols, GnRH-a long protocols or GnRH-a ultra-long protocols between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2019, were enrolled and then divided into four groups in accordance with the boundaries for the AFC and serum AMH level provided by the Poseidon Classification. Our study was divided into two parts. Firstly, we retrospectively compared the effects of the three COS protocols in patients with discordant AMH and AFC. Multivariate logistic regression models were conducted in a forward manner to exclude the influence of confounding factors. Afterward, to increase comparability between Group 2 (low AMH and normal AFC) and Group 3 (normal AMH and low AFC), propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed based on age, BMI, the number of embryos transferred, and COS protocol. IVF intermediate and reproductive outcomes were compared between Group 2 and Group 3.

Results: For people with low AMH and normal AFC (Group 2), the number of total oocytes, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), live birth rate (LBR) and cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) were significantly higher in GnRH-a ultra-long protocol compared with GnRH antagonist protocol. In multivariate logistic regression models, significant associations of COS protocol with fresh LBR and CPR were found after adjusting for age, BMI, AFC, AMH and the number of embryos transferred. Whereas, in patients with normal AMH and low AFC (Group 3), the number of total oocytes, CLBR, LBR and CPR were highest in the long GnRH-a protocol although there was no statistically significant difference. After PSM, the results showed that although oocytes yield and available embryos in patients with normal AMH and low AFC were significantly higher, there was no significant difference in reproductive outcomes between Group 2 and Group 3.

Conclusions: We found that women with normal AFC and low AMH may benefit from the GnRH-a ultra-long protocol. Nevertheless, for women with normal AMH and low AFC, the long GnRH-a protocol seems to be associated with better clinical outcomes. Furthermore, after eliminating the confounding factors including the COS protocol, we found that AMH can only predict the number of oocytes but not the quality of oocytes when there was discordance between AFC and AMH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13048-021-00863-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403432PMC
August 2021

Identification of and expression as novel candidate biomarkers for predicting the benefit of immunotherapy in lung squamous cell carcinoma.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(13):1081

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Background: Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) accounts for about 30% of all non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). However, only a small percentage of LUSC patients gain benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).

Methods: This study analyzed LUSC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which were divided into 2 groups: PD-L1 high-expression/TMB-high (TPH) and PD-L1 low-expression/TMB-low (TPL) group based on programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor mutational burden (TMB) status. The differences in tumor-infiltrating immune cells were estimated between the 2 groups. The overlap of differentially expressed genes and proteins (DEGs and DEPs) between 2 groups were used as candidate biomarkers. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate the association between risk score and overall survival (OS).

Results: More abundant immune infiltration fractions were found in TPH group. Janus kinase 2 () and forkhead box protein M1 () were identified as DEGs between the TPH and TPL groups. Subsequently, we developed a risk score that combined the expression of and in an effort to accurately determine the survival risk of LUSC patients. Patients with high-risk [hazard ratio (HR), median OS, 43.1 months 1.924; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.256 to 2.945; P=0.002) had shorter survival than those with low-risk (median OS, 70.0 months). External data verification found that and were significantly expressed at a higher level in the responders receiving immunotherapy (P=0.038 and P=0.009, respectively).

Conclusions: The expressions of and can be used as novel candidate biomarkers for predicting the benefit of immunotherapy in LUSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339858PMC
July 2021

Distinct roles of ICOS and CD40L in human T-B cell adhesion and antibody production.

Cell Immunol 2021 Oct 6;368:104420. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Shanghai Institute of Immunology, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address:

CD40-CD40L and inducible co-stimulatory molecule (ICOS)-ICOSL ligations are demonstrated to play critical roles in CD4T-B interaction for B cell activation and differentiation in mouse models. Herein, by using a micropipette adhesion assay and an in vitro CD4T-B cell coculture system simultaneously, we intended to dissect their roles in human CD4T-B adhesion and IgG/IgM production. With the upregulation of CD40L and ICOS expressions on CD4 T cells upon TCR/CD28 stimulation in vitro, activated CD4 T cells exhibited enhanced adhesion with autologous B cells at a single cell level when compared to the resting counterparts. Blockade of ICOS dramatically damped the adhesion between CD4 T and B cells whereas less effect of CD40L blockade was observed. On the contrary, blockade of CD40L led to the dramatic decrease in IgG/IgM production when B cells were cocultured with activated CD4 T cells together with the decrease in the induction of CD19 B cells. However, ICOS blockade displayed less attenuation on IgG/IgM production. Distinct roles of CD40-CD40L and ICOS-ICOSL in cell adhesion and IgG/IgM production were also observed in CD4T-B cell interaction in system lupus erythematosus patients. The blockade of CD40L, rather than ICOS, led to the dramatic decrease in the phosphorylation of Pyk2 in CD19 B cells and total B cells. Our study thus provides the evidence that CD40L and ICOS on activated CD4 T cells either upon in vitro activation or at the pathogenic state function diversely during CD4T-B cell interactions. While ICOS-ICOSL ligation is more likely to be engaged in cell adhesion, CD40-CD40L provides indispensable signal for B cell differentiation and IgG/IgM production. Our results are thus indicative for the segregating costimulation of CD40-CD40L and ICOS-ICOSL on CD4 T cells for B cell activation and differentiation, which might be helpful for the dissection of SLE pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2021.104420DOI Listing
October 2021

Bio-inspired hydrogel-based bandage with robust adhesive and antibacterial abilities for skin closure.

Sci China Mater 2021 Aug 12:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 211816 China.

Although conventional suturing techniques are commonly used in assisting wound closure, they do pose limited conduciveness and may lead to secondary injury to wound tissues. Inspired by marine organism mussels, we designed and manufactured a bio-inspired hydrogel-based bandage with tough wet tissue adhesion to substitute traditional surgical suture, accelerate wound healing and avoid infection. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) was modified with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and glycidyl methacylate, then introduced into the acrylic acid--acrylamide hydrogel matrix with robust mechanical properties. The hydrogel bandage showed strong chemical linkage adhesion (70 ± 2.1 kPa), which is 2.8 times that of commercial tissue adhesive fibrin glue (25 ± 2.2 kPa). The hydrogel bandage can not only maintain the self-stability, but is also capable of self-tuning adhesive strength in the range of 14-70 kPa to achieve different adhesion effects by tuning constituent ratio. The bandage has desirable compression properties (0.7 ± 0.11 MPa) and tensile elongation (about 25 times), which ensures its resistance to damages, especially in joint spaces. Secondly, the bandage was endowed with antioxidant and endogenous broad-spectrum antibacterial properties with its catechol structure. Results also demonstrated excellent cell compatibility and blood compatibility, certifying its eligible biological safety profile. In a rat full-thickness cutaneous deficiency model, we can clearly observe that the bandage possesses the ability to promote wound healing (only need 6 days). Above all, this research provides a new strategy for the emergency treatment of liver hemostasis and myocardial repair during disaster rescue.

Supplementary Information: Experimental details and supporting data are available in the online version of the paper10.1007/s40843-021-1724-8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40843-021-1724-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362644PMC
August 2021

Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 antagonists as potent 5-FU-resistance reversal agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Aug 12;225:113775. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Marine Drugs, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, China. Electronic address:

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and its prodrugs are the essential clinical drugs for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment. However, the drug resistance of 5-FU has caused high mortality of CRC patients. Thus, it is urgent to develop reversal agents of 5-FU resistance. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) was proved to be a potential target for reversing 5-FU resistance, but the activity of known S1PR2 antagonists JTE-013 were weak in 5-FU-resistant cell lines. To develop more potent S1PR2 antagonists to treat 5-FU-resistant cancer, a series of JTE-013 derivatives were designed and synthesized. The most promising compound 40 could markedly reverse the resistance in 5-FU-resistant HCT116 cells and 5-FU-resistant SW620 cells via inhibiting the expression of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). The key was that compound 40 with improved pharmacokinetic properties significantly increased the inhibitory rate of 5-FU in the SW620/5-FU cells xenograft model with no observable toxicity by inhibiting the expression of DPD in tumor and liver tissues. Altogether, these results suggest that compound 40 may be a promising drug candidate to reverse 5-FU resistance in the treatment of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113775DOI Listing
August 2021

Genetic Diversity Relationship Between Grain Quality and Appearance in Rice.

Front Plant Sci 2021 2;12:708996. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, Key Laboratory for Research and Utilization of Heterosis in Indica Rice, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Grain quality is an important breeding objective in rice, and the appearance of the grain also affects its commercial value in the market. The aim of this study was to decode the rice grain qualities and appearances, such as gelatinization temperature (GT), amylose content (AC), grain protein content (GPC), pericarp color (PC), length/width ratio (LWR), and grain volume (GV) at phenotypic and genetic levels, as well as the relationships among them. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was used to identify the quantitative trait locus (QTLs) associated with the target traits using mixed linear model (MLM) and Bayesian-information and linkage-disequilibrium iteratively nested keyway (BLINK) methods. In general, AC was negatively correlated with GPC and GV, while it was positively correlated with LWR and PC. GPC was positively correlated with LWR. Using the rice diversity panel 1 (RDP1) population, we identified 11, 6, 2, 7, 11, and 6 QTLs associated with GT, AC, GPC, PC, LWR, and GV, respectively. Five germplasm lines, superior in grain qualities and appearances for basic breeding materials or improvement, were identified. Notably, an F-box gene was located in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) block of , which specifically expresses in endosperm and seed tissues, suggesting that this gene may regulate the seed development in rice grain. Besides, different haplotypes of showed significant differences in AC, indicating that this gene may be related to AC in rice grain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.708996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365354PMC
August 2021

The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Lockdown on Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia With Lewy Bodies in China: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 28;12:711658. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology, China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

While the lockdown strategies taken by many countries effectively limited the spread of COVID-19, those were thought to have a negative impact on older people. This study aimed to investigate the impact of lockdown on cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms over a 1-year follow-up period in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We enrolled consecutive patients with MCI, probable AD or DLB who were receiving outpatient memory care before the COVID-19 pandemic and followed-up with them after 1 year by face-to-face during the COVID-19 pandemic to assess changes in physical activity, social contact, cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Total 105 probable AD, 50 MCI and 22 probable DLB patients were included and completed the 1-year follow-up between October 31 and November 30, 2020. Among the respondents, 42% of MCI, 54.3% of AD and 72.7% of DLB patients had a decline in MMSE scores and 54.4% of DLB patients had worsening Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) scores. Patients with DLB showed a more rapid decline of MMSE than those with AD. Diminished physical activity and social contact might have hastened the deterioration of cognition and the worsening of NPS. Social isolation and physical inactivity even after strict lockdown for at least 6 months were correlated with accelerated decline of cognitive function and NPS in patients with AD and DLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.711658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8355429PMC
July 2021

Immunotoxicity of F53B, an alternative to PFOS, on zebrafish (Danio rerio) at different early life stages.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 31;790:148165. Epub 2021 May 31.

Research Institute of Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330012, China. Electronic address:

As an alternative to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F53B) has emerged in the Chinese market in recent years and has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment, but its ecological risk assessment is limited. In this study, zebrafish embryos and larvae were separately exposed to F53B, and their 96-h LC values were estimated to be 15.1 mg/L and 2.4 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that embryos were more resistant to F53B than larvae. The bioconcentration factor in larvae was basically higher than that of embryos, and the body growth of larvae was significantly affected by F53B rather than embryos, indicating that F53B may cause more severe toxicity to larvae. In addition to the excessive production of ROS and NO, the expression of many immune-related genes was increased in both embryos and larvae, but the number of dysregulated genes in larvae was more than that in embryos. Finally, the results of Point of Departure (PoD) indicated that the immunotoxicity of F53B was more sensitive to larvae than embryos at the molecular level. Our findings revealed the ecological risk of F53B by exploring the adverse effects of immunoregulation at different early life stages of zebrafish and indicated that the zebrafish larvae were more sensitive than embryos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148165DOI Listing
October 2021

Multi-locus genome-wide association studies for five yield-related traits in rice.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Aug 10;21(1):364. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, Key Laboratory for Research and Utilization of Heterosis in Indica Rice, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China, 430072.

Background: Improving the overall production of rice with high quality is a major target of breeders. Mining potential yield-related loci have been geared towards developing efficient rice breeding strategies. In this study, one single-locus genome-wide association studies (SL-GWAS) method (MLM) in conjunction with five multi-locus genome-wide association studies (ML-GWAS) approaches (mrMLM, FASTmrMLM, pLARmEB, pKWmEB, and ISIS EM-BLASSO) were conducted in a panel consisting of 529 rice core varieties with 607,201 SNPs.

Results: A total of 152, 106, 12, 111, and 64 SNPs were detected by the MLM model associated with the five yield-related traits, namely grain length (GL), grain width (GW), grain thickness (GT), thousand-grain weight (TGW), and yield per plant (YPP), respectively. Furthermore, 74 significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) were presented across at least two ML-GWAS methods to be associated with the above five traits successively. Finally, 20 common QTNs were simultaneously discovered by both SL-GWAS and ML-GWAS methods. Based on genome annotation, gene expression analysis, and previous studies, two candidate key genes (LOC_Os09g02830 and LOC_Os07g31450) were characterized to affect GW and TGW, separately.

Conclusions: These outcomes will provide an indication for breeding high-yielding rice varieties in the immediate future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03146-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353822PMC
August 2021

Iron-Catalyzed Thiolation and Selenylation of Cycloalkyl Hydroperoxides via C-C Bond Cleavage.

J Org Chem 2021 Sep 10;86(17):11987-11997. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Xi'an Key Laboratory of Sustainable Energy Material Chemistry, and MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

A cheap iron-catalyzed C-C bond cleavage/thiolation and selenylation of cycloalkyl hydroperoxides are presented. This redox-neutral protocol provides efficient access to diverse distal keto-functionalized thioethers and selenium compounds. Remarkably, only some amounts of disulfides are required for this transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c01366DOI Listing
September 2021

Copper-catalyzed radical ring-opening halogenation with HX.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Sep 10;57(69):8652-8655. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Xi'an Key Laboratory of Sustainable Energy Material Chemistry and MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

An efficient copper-catalyzed radical ring-opening halogenation with HX (aq) is described. This protocol features redox-neutral conditions, green halogen sources, and a broad substrate scope, providing practical access to distally chlorinated, brominated and iodinated alkyl ketones and alkyl nitriles with moderate to good yields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03013bDOI Listing
September 2021

Porous Materials Confining Single Atoms for Catalysis.

Front Chem 2021 21;9:717201. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Atmospheric Environmental Management and Pollution Control, China University of Mining & Technology (Beijing), Beijing, China.

In recent years, single-atom catalysts (SACs) have received extensive attention due to their unique structure and excellent performance. Currently, a variety of porous materials are used as confined single-atom catalysts, such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), or carbon nitride (CN). The support plays a key role in determining the coordination structure of the catalytic metal center and its catalytic performance. For example, the strong interaction between the metal and the carrier induces the charge transfer between the metal and the carrier, and ultimately affects the catalytic behavior of the single-atom catalyst. Porous materials have unique chemical and physical properties including high specific surface area, adjustable acidity and shape selectivity (such as zeolites), and are rational support materials for confined single atoms, which arouse research interest in this field. This review surveys the latest research progress of confined single-atom catalysts for porous materials, which mainly include zeolites, CN and MOFs. The preparation methods, characterizations, application fields, and the interaction between metal atoms and porous support materials of porous material confined single-atom catalysts are discussed. And we prospect for the application prospects and challenges of porous material confined single-atom catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.717201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8333616PMC
July 2021

Characterization of novel gliotoxin biosynthesis-related genes from deep-sea-derived fungus Geosmithia pallida FS140.

Biochimie 2021 Aug 5;191:1-10. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, China. Electronic address:

Gliotoxins are epipolythiodioxopiperazine toxins produced by the filamentous fungi, which show great potential in the treatment of liver and lung cancer because of its cytotoxicity. In this study, three novel genes related to gliotoxin biosynthesis, gliT, gliM and gliK encoding thioredoxin reductase, O-methyltransferase and gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase, respectively, from the deep-sea-derived fungus Geosmithia pallida were cloned from G. pallida and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant GliT, GliM and GliK proteins were expressed and purified by Ni affinity column, which was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The inclusion bodies of GliT were renatured and the corresponding enzymatic properties of the two enzymes were further investigated. Using DTNB as a substrate, GliT showed the highest enzymatic activity of 11041 mU/L at pH 7.0, and the optimal reaction temperature was 40 °C. Using EGCG as a substrate, GliM showed the highest enzymatic activity of 239.19 mU/mg at pH 7.0, the optimum temperature was 35 °C. GliK from G. pallida was firstly reported to show bi-function of glutymal cyclotransferase and acetyltransfearse actvity with highest enzymatic activity of 615.5 U/mg in this study. The results suggested the important enzymatic function of GliT, GliM and GliK in the gliotoxin biosynthesis in G. pallida, which would lay a foundation for the mechanism elucidation of the gliotoxin biosynthesis in G. pallida and the exploitation of novel gliotoxin derivaties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2021.08.001DOI Listing
August 2021

Gradient chondroitin sulfate/poly (γ-glutamic acid) hydrogels inducing differentiation of stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Oct 11;270:118330. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Food, Science and Light Industry, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China; Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China. Electronic address:

Based on the gradient distribution of structure and composition in biological cartilage tissue, we designed a gradient hydrogel scaffold by the moving photomask, using chondroitin sulfate and poly (γ-glutamic acid) as crude materials. The hydrogel scaffold had a gradient distribution of cross-linking density, which can be verified from the results of SEM and swelling behavior. Besides, the hydrogel exhibited great viscoelastic, toughness (70% strain), and strength properties (600 kPa). Additionally, the gradient hydrogel's superior cell compatibility was proved through the MTT, live/dead staining assays, and 3D cell culture experiments. Remarkably, the results of in vitro stem cell differentiation experiments showed that the duration of light directly affected the differentiation extent of stem cells, demonstrating that the gradient hydrogel scaffold can better simulate the function of natural cartilage than the homogeneous one. Due to these outstanding characteristics, this gradient hydrogel is a potential scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118330DOI Listing
October 2021

A Single, Acute Astragaloside IV Therapy Protects Cardiomyocyte Through Attenuating Superoxide Anion-Mediated Accumulation of Autophagosomes in Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Front Pharmacol 2021 19;12:642925. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, characterized by myocardial cell death (e.g., apoptosis) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O ) and hydrogen peroxide (HO), is a serious threat to human health and property. Saponin astragaloside IV (ASIV), extracted from Chinese herbal medicine astragalus, is effective in resolving multiple pathological issues including myocardial I/R injury. Recent studies have shown that autophagy is regulated by ROS and plays an important role in myocardial I/R injury. However, regulation of autophagy by ASIV during myocardial I/R injury and the role of specific ROS involved in the process have been rarely reported. In the present study, we found that SOD2 was downregulated and O was upregulated in HO-induced H9C2 cardiac myocyte injury and myocardial I/R injury , while such alterations were reversed by ASIV. ASIV possessed the ability to alleviate myocardial I/R injury via attenuating I/R-caused autophagosome accumulation. Upregulate of O by 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) reversed the effect of ASIV-mediated autophagy regulation, which suggested that O was vital in this process. In conclusion, our results contribute to understanding the mechanism of ASIV-induced cardioprotective effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.642925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8327213PMC
July 2021
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