Publications by authors named "Shuai Lan"

44 Publications

Callous-unemotional traits in Chinese preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2021 Jul 10;15(1):35. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.

Background: Children with early onset of Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits are at a higher risk for long-term, persistent psychosocial problems. The current study aimed to explore the characteristics of CU in preschool children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the diagnostic significance of CU traits in ADHD.

Methods: A total of 176 preschool children (89 with ADHD and 87 Typically Developing Children [TDC]) aged 4-5 years old were recruited to the study. The participants were assessed for CU traits, emotional and behavioral problems, and how their executive functioning was associated with ADHD using multiple assessment scales. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the incremental validity of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU), adjusting for possible covariates by child's sex, conduct problems, and oppositional defiant symptoms.

Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference of ICU scores between the ADHD and TDC groups (F = 30.12, P < 0.001). In terms of callousness, ADHD + Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) group showed a significant high score, and the ADHD only group scored significantly higher than the TDC group (F = 20.42, P < 0.001). The ICU was negatively associated with the prosocial behaviour subscale (γ = - 0.57, P < 0.01) and showed low to moderate positive correlations with emotional and behavioural problems, as well as executive function (γ = 0.24-0.67, P < 0.05). The ICU scores explained 6% of the incremental validity in ADHD symptoms. The diagnostic value of the ICU for ADHD was medium and acceptable.

Conclusions: The current study indicated that early identification of CU traits may help clinicians better understand symptoms and behavioural problems in children with ADHD. CU traits therefore could be considered as a useful assessment tool for ADHD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13034-021-00388-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8272896PMC
July 2021

The Controlled Synthesis of Birnessite Nanoflowers HO Reducing KMnO For Efficient Adsorption and Photooxidation Activity.

Front Chem 2021 26;9:699513. Epub 2021 May 26.

Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Watershed Agricultural Resources and Ecology of Jiangxi Province, College of Land Resources and Environment, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, China.

Birnessite nanoflowers composed of layers have been proven to be the strongest adsorbent and oxidant in the surface environment. However, the current synthesis methods of birnessite nanoflowers are suffering from long reaction time and high reaction temperature. Based on these, this paper explores a new method for the rapid and controlled synthesis of layered manganese oxides. The method relies on the molar ratios of KMnO and HO redox reacting species to drive the production of birnessite nanoflowers under acidic conditions. The molar ratios of KMnO and HO are the key to the crystal structure of the as-prepared. It was found that when the molar ratios of KMnO and HO is from 1:1.25 to 1:1.90, the sample is birnessite nanoflowers, and when the ratio is increased to 1:2.0, the sample is a mixture of birnessite nanoflowers and feitknechtite nanoplates. Among the as-prepared samples, BF-1.85 (molar ratios of KMnO and HO is 1:1.85) shows the highest capacity for Pb adsorption (2,955 mmol/kg) and greatest degradation efficiency of phenol and TOC. The method proposed herein is economical and controllable, and it yields products with high efficiency for the elimination of inorganic and organic pollutants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.699513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187863PMC
May 2021

Kinetics of Mn(II) adsorption and catalytic oxidation on the surface of ferrihydrite.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 4;791:148225. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Basin Agricultural Resource and Ecology of Jiangxi Province, College of Land Resource and Environment, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China. Electronic address:

Mn(II) adsorption-oxidation on iron (Fe) oxides (e.g., ferrihydrite) occurs in various soils and sediments, significantly affecting the toxicities and bioavailabilities of Mn and other associated elements. However, the detailed processes of Mn(II) adsorption-oxidation on ferrihydrite remain elusive. In this study, the Mn(II) (2 mM) adsorption-oxidation kinetics on different masses of ferrihydrite (0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 1.25 g) at pH 7 were determined using batch kinetic studies combined with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and wet chemistry analyses. The results indicated that the low-concentration Mn(II) adsorption-oxidation on ferrihydrite occurred in two steps. First, Mn(II) was adsorbed onto ferrihydrite, where it was partially oxidized by the catalytic effect of ferrihydrite, within ~0-60 min; subsequently, the remaining Mn(II) underwent autocatalytic oxidation on the previously generated Mn (oxyhydr)oxides. The initial adsorption-oxidation behaviors of Mn(II) on the ferrihydrite surface determined the kinetics of Mn(II) removal and oxidation, and therefore the amounts and types of Mn (oxyhydr)oxides formed. Furthermore, the specific characteristics of Mn(II) adsorption-oxidation on ferrihydrite showed a strong dependence on the Fe/Mn molar ratio. When this ratio was below 16.35, the initial process was dominated by Mn(II) adsorption onto ferrihydrite, with slight oxidation generating hausmannite (~0-60 min), followed by the catalytic oxidation of Mn(II) on the formed hausmannite, generating manganite or groutite. Conversely, when the Fe/Mn molar ratio was above 32.7, the reactions primarily involved Mn(II) adsorption onto ferrihydrite with minor oxidation to form Mn(III/IV) (oxyhydr)oxides (~0-60 min), followed by the autocatalytic oxidation of Mn(II) on the freshly-generated Mn(III/IV) (oxyhydr)oxides, forming Mn(III) (oxyhydr)oxides, i.e., feitknechtite. These results provide further insight into the interaction between Fe and Mn, Mn(II) removal, and Mn (oxyhydr)oxide formation in the environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148225DOI Listing
June 2021

Influences of digital media use on children and adolescents with ADHD during COVID-19 pandemic.

Global Health 2021 04 19;17(1):48. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Medical Psychology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Xinhua Hospital, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Objective: To explore the influences of digital media use on the core symptoms, emotional state, life events, learning motivation, executive function (EF) and family environment of children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Method: A total of 192 participants aged 8-16 years who met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD were included in the study. Children scoring higher than predetermined cut-off point in self-rating questionnaires for problematic mobile phone use (SQPMPU) or Young's internet addiction test (IAT), were defined as ADHD with problematic digital media use (PDMU), otherwise were defined as ADHD without PDMU. The differences between the two groups in ADHD symptoms, EF, anxiety and depression, stress from life events, learning motivation and family environment were compared respectively.

Results: When compared with ADHD group without PDMU, the group with PDMU showed significant worse symptoms of inattention, oppositional defiant, behavior and emotional problems by Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP), more self-reported anxiety by screening child anxiety-related emotional disorders (SCARED) and depression by depression self-rating scale for children (DSRSC), more severe EF deficits by behavior rating scale of executive function (BRIEF), more stress from life events by adolescent self-rating life events checklist (ASLEC), lower learning motivation by students learning motivation scale (SLMS), and more impairment on cohesion by Chinese version of family environment scale (FES-CV). The ADHD with PDMU group spent significantly more time on both video game and social media with significantly less time spend on physical exercise as compared to the ADHD without PDMU group.

Conclusion: The ADHD children with PDMU suffered from more severe core symptoms, negative emotions, EF deficits, damage on family environment, pressure from life events, and a lower motivation to learn. Supervision of digital media usage, especially video game and social media, along with increased physical exercise, is essential to the management of core symptoms and associated problems encountered with ADHD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-021-00699-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054232PMC
April 2021

Functional connectivity in the developing language network in 4-year-old children predicts future reading ability.

Dev Sci 2021 03 28;24(2):e13041. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, USA.

Understanding how pre-literate children's language abilities and neural function relate to future reading ability is important for identifying children who may be at-risk for reading problems. Pre-literate children are already proficient users of spoken language and their developing brain networks for language become highly overlapping with brain networks that emerge during literacy acquisition. In the present longitudinal study, we examined language abilities, and neural activation and connectivity within the language network in pre-literate children (mean age = 4.2 years). We tested how language abilities, brain activation, and connectivity predict children's reading abilities 1 year later (mean age = 5.2 years). At Time 1, children (n = 37) participated in a functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) experiment of speech processing (listening to words and pseudowords) and completed a standardized battery of language and cognitive assessments. At Time 2, children (n = 28) completed standardized reading assessments. Using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses, we observed significant connectivity between the left IFG and right STG in pre-literate children, which was modulated by task (i.e., listening to words). Neural activation in left IFG and STG and increased task-modulated connectivity between the left IFG and right STG was predictive of multiple reading outcomes. Increased connectivity was associated later with increased reading ability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/desc.13041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186432PMC
March 2021

Executive Function Training for Preschool Children With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Atten Disord 2020 Sep 23:1087054720956723. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China.

Objective: This randomized controlled study explored the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of executive function training (EFT) for preschool children with ADHD.

Method: The current study design was an 8 week randomized parallel groups, single-blinded trial, using EFT-P. A total of 96 children with an ADHD diagnosis at age 4 to 5 years old were randomized into the intervention group and waitlist group. In the intervention group, 46 out of 50 participants completed the 8-week program, compared with 39 out of 46 in the waiting group. The level of ADHD symptoms and the executive function (EF) were evaluated by both neuropsychological tests from NEPSY Second Edition (NEPSY-II) and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool version (BRIEF-P).

Results: The EFT is feasible to administer and is acceptable for preschool children, with a 93% retention rate. Results showed that following the intervention, the visual-motor precision ( = .024), ADHD diagnostic state ( = .01), and oppositional defiant symptoms ( = .023) improved significantly in preschool children. However, the symptoms of ADHD and other EF evaluations were found to be insignificant.

Conclusion: The EFT is feasible, acceptable, and potentially effective to reduce symptoms and improve EF for preschool children with ADHD. The next step is to extend the program time and provide more frequent practice of activities between the children and the therapist and/or parent, to improve the effectiveness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054720956723DOI Listing
September 2020

Acute stress, behavioural symptoms and mood states among school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Asian J Psychiatr 2020 Jun 9;51:102077. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Central South University, National Clinical Research Centre on Mental Disorders (Xiangya), Hunan Medical Center for Mental Health, Changsha, Hunan, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195413PMC
June 2020

Modeling coupled kinetics of arsenic adsorption/desorption and oxidation in ferrihydrite-Mn(II)/manganese (oxyhydr)oxides systems.

Chemosphere 2020 Apr 2;244:125517. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, People's Republic of China; The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The speciation and mobility of As are controlled by both Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides through a series of surface complexation and redox reactions occurring in the environment, which is also complicated by the solution chemistry conditions. However, there is still a lack of quantitative tools for predicting the coupled kinetic processes of As reactions with Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides. In this study, we developed a quantitative model for the coupled kinetics of As adsorption/desorption and oxidation in ferrihydrite-Mn (oxyhydr)oxides and ferrihydrite-Mn(II)-O systems. This model also accounted for the variations in solution chemistry conditions and binding site heterogeneity. Our model suggested that Mn (oxyhydr)oxide and ferrihydrite mainly served as an oxidant and an adsorbent, respectively, when they coexisted. Among the three types of binding sites of ferrihydrite, the adsorbed As(V) was mainly distributed on the nonprotonated bidentate sites. Our model quantitatively showed that the oxidation rates of different reaction systems varied significantly. The rates of As(III) oxidation were enhanced with higher pH values and higher molar ratios of Mn(II)/As(III) in the ferrihydrite-Mn(II)-O system. This study provides a modeling framework for predicting the kinetic behavior of As when multiple adsorption/desorption and oxidation reactions are coupled in the environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125517DOI Listing
April 2020

No Morphological Markers, No Problem: ERP Study Reveals Semantic Contribution to Distinct Neural Substrates Between Noun and Verb Processing in Online Sentence Comprehension.

Front Neurosci 2019 10;13:957. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Department of Linguistics and Translation, School of International Studies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Neural mechanisms behind noun and verb processing during the course of language comprehension are ubiquitously separate, yet it remains highly controversial as to which factor, syntax or semantics, should be responsible for this separation. This paper conducted an event-related potential (ERP), sentence comprehension experiment as an attempt to resolve this issue. The experiment used Chinese sentences in the configuration of noun phrase + ("not/no") + noun/verb/noun-verb-ambiguous-word, which excluded grammatical or syntactic factors that could hint at the lexical categories of sentence-final target words. Results showed significantly distinct ERP components of P200, N400, and P600 between noun and verb processing in native speakers, indicating that semantic factors are essential for the differentiated neural mechanisms behind noun and verb processing. Distinct P200, N400, and P600 also manifested between noun and noun-verb-ambiguous-word processing, but not between verb and noun-verb-ambiguous-word processing. This suggests that lacking clues on lexical category renders the dynamic properties of the ambiguous words more salient than the static properties, thus causing interpretation of such words more likely as verbs. This further elaborates the crucial role of semantic factors in noun and verb processing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746947PMC
September 2019

The acceptability judgment of Chinese pseudo-modifiers with and without a sentential context.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(7):e0219896. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Department of Linguistics and Translation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

This paper investigates a particular type of non-canonical construction in Mandarin Chinese displaying an apparent semantics-syntax mismatch. We conducted an acceptability judgment experiment on native Mandarin speakers to evaluate whether such sequences could stand out of context as acceptable fragments. Analyses on experimental results revealed that: both semantic and syntactic acceptability of these sequences were significantly lower than those of canonical nominal classifier phrases; whereas if contextualized, the syntactic acceptability of those sequences became similar to that of canonical nominal phrases. This suggests that the non-canonical sequences are grammatically not on the same footing as canonical expressions; and it is the sentential context that makes these sequences appear structurally well-formed. These findings contribute to general discussions on relationship between constituency and grammaticality by demonstrating the gradient nature of grammaticality, and advocate a dynamic perspective in linguistic analysis that looks at a sequence of words in interaction with other elements in a sentence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0219896PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6638940PMC
March 2020

Perceptual constraints on colours induce the universality of linguistic colour categorisation.

Sci Rep 2019 05 22;9(1):7719. Epub 2019 May 22.

Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ, USA.

The universal linguistic colour categorisation pattern as evident in the World Colour Survey (WCS) has been a principal focus of investigations on the relationship between language and cognition, yet most existing studies have failed to clarify whether this universality resulted primarily from individual perceptual constraints and/or socio-cultural transmissions. This paper designed an agent-based, unsupervised learning model to address the relative importance of these two aspects to linguistic colour categorisation. By directly comparing with the empirical data in the WCS, our study demonstrated that: the physical colour stimuli that reflect human perceptual constraints on colours trigger a categorisation pattern quantitatively resembling the WCS data, the randomised stimuli that distort such constraints lead to distinct categorisation patterns, and the processes of linguistic categorisation in both cases follow similar dynamics. These results reveal how perceptual and socio-cultural factors interact with each other to trigger linguistic universality, and serve as decisive evidence that human perceptual constraints induce the universality in linguistic categorisation, yet socio-cultural transmissions, though imperative, play an auxiliary role of transcribing perceptual constraints into common linguistic categories with slight variations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44202-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6531495PMC
May 2019

Extending research on language foundations and evolution: Reply to comments on "Rethinking foundations of language from a multidisciplinary perspective".

Phys Life Rev 2018 11 10;26-27:184-197. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of linguistics and translation, School of International Studies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2018.09.001DOI Listing
November 2018

Rethinking foundations of language from a multidisciplinary perspective.

Phys Life Rev 2018 11 21;26-27:120-138. Epub 2018 Apr 21.

Department of Linguistics and Translation, School of International Studies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The issue of language foundations has been of great controversy ever since it was first raised in Lenneberg's (1967) monograph Biological Foundations of Language. Based on a survey of recent findings relevant to the study of language acquisition and evolution, we propose that: (i) the biological predispositions for language are largely domain-general, not necessarily language-specific or human-unique; (ii) the socio-cultural environment of language serves as another important foundation of language, which helps shape language components, induce and drive language shift; and (iii) language must have coevolved with the cognitive mechanisms associated with it through intertwined biological and cultural evolution. In addition to theoretical issues, this paper also evaluates the primary approaches recently joining the endeavor of studying language foundations and evolution, including human experiments and computer simulations. Most of the evidence surveyed in this paper comes from a variety of disciplines, and methodology therein complements each other to form a global picture of language foundations. These reflect the complexity of the issue of language foundations and the necessity of taking a multidisciplinary perspective to address it.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2018.04.004DOI Listing
November 2018

Cortical Responses to Chinese Phonemes in Preschoolers Predict Their Literacy Skills at School Age.

Dev Neuropsychol 2018 9;43(4):356-369. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

a State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research , Beijing Normal University , Beijing , China.

We investigated whether preschoolers with poor phonological awareness (PA) skills had impaired cortical basis for detecting speech feature, and whether speech perception influences future literacy outcomes in preschoolers. We recorded ERP responses to speech in 52 Chinese preschoolers. The results showed that the poor PA group processed speech changes differentially compared to control group in mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). Furthermore, speech perception in kindergarten could predict literacy outcomes after literacy acquisition. These suggest that impairment in detecting speech features occurs before formal reading instruction, and that speech perception plays an important role in reading development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/87565641.2018.1439946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986580PMC
June 2018

Neuropsychological Profile Related with Executive Function of Chinese Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Neuropsychological Measures and Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Mar;131(6):648-656

Ministry of Education and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Environment Health; Department of Developmental Behavioral and Child Healthcare, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China.

Background:: Previous studies have found that schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed difficulties in neuropsychological function. This study aimed to assess neuropsychological function in Chinese preschoolers with ADHD using broad neuropsychological measures and rating scales and to test whether the pattern and severity of neuropsychological weakness differed among ADHD presentations in preschool children.

Methods:: The 226 preschoolers (163 with ADHD and 63 controls) with the age of 4-5 years were included and assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and a series of tests to investigate neuropsychological function.

Results: Preschoolers with ADHD showed higher scores in all domains of the BRIEF-P (inhibition: 30.64 ± 5.78 vs.20.69 ± 3.86, P < 0.001; shift: 13.40 ± 3.03 vs.12.41 ± 2.79, P = 0.039; emotional control:15.10 ± 3.53 vs.12.20 ± 2.46, P < 0.001; working memory: 28.41 ± 4.99 vs.20.95 ± 4.60, P < 0.001; plan/organize: 17.04 ± 3.30 vs.13.29 ± 2.40, P < 0.001) and lower scores of Statue (23.18 ± 7.84 vs.28.27 ± 3.18, P = 0.001), Word Generation (15.22 ± 6.52 vs.19.53 ± 7.69, P = 0.025), Comprehension of Instructions (14.00 ± 4.44 vs.17.02 ± 3.39, P = 0.016), Visuomotor Precision (P < 0.050), Toy delay (P = 0.048), and Matrices tasks (P = 0.011), compared with normal control. In terms of the differences among ADHD subtypes, all ADHD presentations had higher scores in several domains of the BRIEF-P (P < 0.001), and the ADHD-combined symptoms (ADHD-C) group had the poorest ratings on inhibition and the ability to Plan/Organize. For neuropsychological measures, the results suggested that the ADHD-C group had poorer performances than the ADHD-predominantly inattentive symptoms (ADHD-I) group on Statue tasks (F = 7.34, η = 0.12, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive symptoms group had significantly poorer performances compared to the ADHD-C group in the Block Construction task (F = 4.89, η = 0.067, P = 0.003). However, no significant group differences were found between the ADHD-I group and normal control.

Conclusion:: Based on the combined evaluation of performance-based neuropsychological tests and the BRIEF-P, preschoolers with ADHD show difficulties of neuropsychological function in many aspects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.226893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865309PMC
March 2018

Efficient catalytic As(III) oxidation on the surface of ferrihydrite in the presence of aqueous Mn(II).

Water Res 2018 01 23;128:92-101. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River) Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Arsenic is a carcinogenic element that exists primarily as arsenate [As(V)] and arsenite [As(III)] in the nature environment, with As(III) being more toxic and mobile of the two species. In addition, ferrihydrite, which is widely distributed in soils and aquatic environments, can catalyze the oxidation of Mn(II) and accelerate the formation of high-valence Mn, which can significantly influence the speciation, toxicity, and mobility of As when these species co-exist. In this context, we herein explored the mechanism of As(III) oxidation in the presence of ferrihydrite and Mn(II) using a kinetic approach combined with multiple spectroscopic techniques, including X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, in situ horizontal attenuated total-reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and in situ quick scanning X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Our results indicate that efficient As(III) oxidation by dissolved O occurs on the surface of ferrihydrite in the presence of aqueous Mn(II). Compared with As(III) oxidation in the presence of ferrihydrite and Mn oxides (i.e., Mn oxides/hydroxides), the degree of As(III) oxidation in the ferrihydrite-Mn(II) system was significantly higher, and the majority of generated As(V) was adsorbed on the mineral (i.e., ferrihydrite) surface. Furthermore, As(III) oxidation was enhanced upon increasing both the molar ratio of Mn(II)/As(III) and the solution pH. The greater As(III) oxidation by O in the ferrihydrite-Mn(II) system was mainly attributed to the formation of a strong oxidant of the instantaneous intermediate Mn(III) species via Mn(II) oxidation under catalysis by the ferrihydrite surface. Moreover, As(III) oxidation occurred mainly on the ferrihydrite surface and was accompanied by the regeneration of Mn(II), thereby rendering it recyclable. These results therefore provide new insights into the mechanism of As(III) oxidation on the surfaces of Fe oxides (i.e., Fe oxides/hydroxides) in the presence of aqueous Mn(II) as well as the new details regarding the electron transfer mechanisms between the As(III)-Mn(II, III)-O species at the ferrihydrite surface, and could lead to novel approaches for As(III) contaminant remediation in the environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.10.045DOI Listing
January 2018

Effect of an Ecological Executive Skill Training Program for School-aged Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 Jul;130(13):1513-1520

Child Psychiatric Research Center, Peking University Sixth Hospital (Institute of Mental Health), National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health (Peking University), Beijing 100191, China.

Background: As medication does not normalize outcomes of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially in real-life functioning, nonpharmacological methods are important to target this field. This randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive executive skill training program for school-aged children with ADHD in a relatively large sample.

Methods: The children (aged 6-12 years) with ADHD were randomized to the intervention or waitlist groups. A healthy control group was composed of gender- and age-matched healthy children. The intervention group received a 12-session training program for multiple executive skills. Executive function (EF), ADHD symptoms, and social functioning in the intervention and waitlist groups were evaluated at baseline and the end of the final training session. The healthy controls (HCs) were only assessed once at baseline. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to compare EF, ADHD symptoms, and social function between intervention and waitlist groups.

Results: Thirty-eight children with ADHD in intervention group, 30 in waitlist group, and 23 healthy children in healthy control group were included in final analysis. At posttreatment, intervention group showed significantly lower Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) total score (135.89 ± 16.80 vs. 146.09 ± 23.92, P= 0.04) and monitoring score (18.05 ± 2.67 vs. 19.77 ± 3.10, P= 0.02), ADHD-IV overall score (41.11 ± 7.48 vs. 47.20 ± 8.47, P< 0.01), hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) subscale score (18.92 ± 5.09 vs. 21.93 ± 4.93, P= 0.02), and inattentive subscale score (22.18 ± 3.56 vs. 25.27 ± 5.06, P< 0.01), compared with the waitlist group. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed significant interactions between time and group on the BRIEF inhibition subscale (F = 5.06, P= 0.03), working memory (F = 4.48, P= 0.04), ADHD-IV overall score (F = 21.72, P< 0.01), HI subscale score (F = 19.08, P< 0.01), and inattentive subscale score (F = 12.40, P< 0.01). Multiple-way analysis of variance showed significant differences on all variables of BRIEF, ADHD-rating scale-IV, and WEISS Functional Impairment Scale-Parent form (WFIRS-P) among the intervention and waitlist groups at posttreatment and HCs at baseline.

Conclusions: This randomized controlled study on executive skill training in a relatively large sample provided some evidences that the training could improve EF deficits, reduce problematic symptoms, and potentially enhance the social functioning in school-aged children with ADHD.

Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02327585.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.208236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5494912PMC
July 2017

Adapting an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder parent training intervention to different cultural contexts: The experience of implementing the New Forest Parenting Programme in China, Denmark, Hong Kong, Japan, and the United Kingdom.

Psych J 2017 Mar;6(1):83-97

Academic Unit of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is a parenting program developed for parents who have a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is a manualized program that is delivered in a parent's home over 8 weeks, or in a group format, or through a self-help manual. Three randomized controlled trials have been carried out in the United Kingdom. The NFPP group has adapted the program according to feedback from parents and therapists, and for use with different populations, both within the United Kingdom and internationally. The first international trial took place in New York, United States. Trials in Denmark, Hong Kong, and Japan followed. More recently, a trial of the self-help manual has been carried out in mainland China. This paper will outline the adaptions that were needed in order to be able to deliver the program in different countries with their own expectations of parenting, culture, and language. Training had to be differently focused; manuals and handouts had to be revised, translated and back-translated; and supervision had to be delivered at a distance to maintain the fidelity of the program. The international group will outline their experience of running trials in their own countries with the NFPP in a face-to-face format (Denmark), a group format (Hong Kong and Japan), and a self-help format (mainland China).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pchj.159DOI Listing
March 2017

Executive Function Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 03;130(5):549-558

Department of Children's Psychiatry, Robusprout Children's Clinic, Beijing 100022, China.

Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with core deficits in executive function (EF) which predicts poorer academic and occupational functioning. This makes early intervention targeting EF impairments important to prevent long-term negative outcomes. Cognitive training is a potential ADHD treatment target. The present study aimed to explore the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a cognitive training program (targeting child's multiple EF components and involving parent support in daily life), as a nonpharmacological intervention for children with ADHD.

Methods: Forty-four school -age children with ADHD and their parents participated in 12 sessions of EF training (last for 12 weeks) and 88 health controls (HC) were also recruited. Training effects were explored using both neuropsychological tests (Stroop color-word test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, trail making test, tower of Hanoi, and false-belief task) and reports of daily life (ADHD rating scale-IV, Conners' parent rating scale, and behavior rating inventory of executive function [BRIEF]) by analysis of paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences on EF performances between children with ADHD after training and HC were explored using multivariate analysis.

Results: The results (before vs. after EF training) showed that after intervention, the children with ADHD presented better performances of EF both in neuropsychological tests (word interference of Stroop: 36.1 ± 14.6 vs. 27.1 ± 11.1, t = 4.731, P < 0.001; shift time of TMT: 194.9 ± 115.4 vs. 124.8 ± 72.4, Z = -4.639, P < 0.001; false-belief task: χ2 = 6.932, P = 0.008) and reports of daily life (global executive composite of BRIEF: 148.9 ± 17.5 vs. 127.8 ± 17.5, t = 6.433, P < 0.001). The performances on EF tasks for children with ADHD after EF training could match with the level of HC children. The ADHD symptoms (ADHD rating scale total score: 32.4 ± 8.9 vs. 22.9 ± 8.2, t = 6.331, P < 0.001) and behavioral problems of the children as reported by parents also reduced significantly after the intervention. Participants reported that the EF training program was feasible to administer and acceptable.

Conclusions: The EF training program was feasible and acceptable to children with ADHD and parents. Although replication with a larger sample and an active control group are needed, EF training program with multiple EF focus and parent involving in real-life activities could be a potentially promising intervention associated with significant EF (near transfer) and ADHD symptoms improvement (far transfer).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.200541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5339928PMC
March 2017

Influence of Perceptual Saliency Hierarchy on Learning of Language Structures: An Artificial Language Learning Experiment.

Front Psychol 2016 21;7:1952. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Haskins Laboratories, New Haven CT, USA.

Psychological experiments have revealed that in normal visual perception of humans, color cues are more salient than shape cues, which are more salient than textural patterns. We carried out an artificial language learning experiment to study whether such perceptual saliency hierarchy (color > shape > texture) influences the learning of orders regulating adjectives of involved visual features in a manner either congruent (expressing a salient feature in a salient part of the form) or incongruent (expressing a salient feature in a less salient part of the form) with that hierarchy. Results showed that within a few rounds of learning participants could learn the compositional segments encoding the visual features and the order between them, generalize the learned knowledge to unseen instances with the same or different orders, and show learning biases for orders that are congruent with the perceptual saliency hierarchy. Although the learning performances for both the biased and unbiased orders became similar given more learning trials, our study confirms that this type of individual perceptual constraint could contribute to the structural configuration of language, and points out that such constraint, as well as other factors, could collectively affect the structural diversity in languages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5174136PMC
December 2016

Encoding lexical tones in jTRACE: a simulation of monosyllabic spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese.

Behav Res Methods 2017 02;49(1):230-241

Haskins Laboratories, 300 George Street Suite 900, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA.

Despite its prevalence as one of the most highly influential models of spoken word recognition, the TRACE model has yet to be extended to consider tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. A key reason for this is that the model in its current state does not encode lexical tone. In this report, we present a modified version of the jTRACE model in which we borrowed on its existing architecture to code for Mandarin phonemes and tones. Units are coded in a way that is meant to capture the similarity in timing of access to vowel and tone information that has been observed in previous studies of Mandarin spoken word recognition. We validated the model by first simulating a recent experiment that had used the visual world paradigm to investigate how native Mandarin speakers process monosyllabic Mandarin words (Malins & Joanisse, 2010). We then subsequently simulated two psycholinguistic phenomena: (1) differences in the timing of resolution of tonal contrast pairs, and (2) the interaction between syllable frequency and tonal probability. In all cases, the model gave rise to results comparable to those of published data with human subjects, suggesting that it is a viable working model of spoken word recognition in Mandarin. It is our hope that this tool will be of use to practitioners studying the psycholinguistics of Mandarin Chinese and will help inspire similar models for other tonal languages, such as Cantonese and Thai.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-015-0690-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4975679PMC
February 2017

Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin.

Authors:
Tao Gong Lan Shuai

PLoS One 2015 6;10(11):e0142281. Epub 2015 Nov 6.

Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0142281PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4636343PMC
June 2016

Neural correlates of acoustic cues of English lexical stress in Cantonese-speaking children.

Brain Lang 2014 Nov 11;138:61-70. Epub 2014 Oct 11.

Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

The present study investigated the temporal course of neural discriminations of acoustic cues of English lexical stress (i.e., pitch, intensity and duration) in Cantonese-speaking children. We used an event-related potential (ERP) measure with a multiple-deviant oddball paradigm to record auditory mismatch responses to four deviants, namely, a change in pitch, intensity, or duration, or a change in all three acoustic dimensions, of English lexical stress in familiar words. In the time window of 170-270 ms, we found that the pitch deviant elicited significant positive mismatch responses (p-MMRs) and that the duration deviant elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN) response as compared with the standard. In the time window of 270-400 ms, the intensity deviant elicited a significant p-MMR, whereas both the duration and the three-dimension changed deviants elicited significant MMNs. These results suggest that Cantonese-speaking children are sensitive to either single or convergent acoustic cues of English words, and that the relative weighting of pitch, intensity and duration in stress processing may correlate with different ERP components at different time windows in Cantonese second graders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2014.09.004DOI Listing
November 2014

Task-dependent neural representations of salient events in dynamic auditory scenes.

Front Neurosci 2014 21;8:203. Epub 2014 Jul 21.

Laboratory of Computational Audio Perception, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Speech and Language Processing, Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, USA.

Selecting pertinent events in the cacophony of sounds that impinge on our ears every day is regulated by the acoustic salience of sounds in the scene as well as their behavioral relevance as dictated by top-down task-dependent demands. The current study aims to explore the neural signature of both facets of attention, as well as their possible interactions in the context of auditory scenes. Using a paradigm with dynamic auditory streams with occasional salient events, we recorded neurophysiological responses of human listeners using EEG while manipulating the subjects' attentional state as well as the presence or absence of a competing auditory stream. Our results showed that salient events caused an increase in the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) irrespective of attentional state or complexity of the scene. Such increase supplemented ASSR increases due to task-driven attention. Salient events also evoked a strong N1 peak in the ERP response when listeners were attending to the target sound stream, accompanied by an MMN-like component in some cases and changes in the P1 and P300 components under all listening conditions. Overall, bottom-up attention induced by a salient change in the auditory stream appears to mostly modulate the amplitude of the steady-state response and certain event-related potentials to salient sound events; though this modulation is affected by top-down attentional processes and the prominence of these events in the auditory scene as well.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2014.00203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4104552PMC
August 2014

Language as an emergent group-level trait.

Authors:
Lan Shuai Tao Gong

Behav Brain Sci 2014 Jun;37(3):274-5

Department of Linguistics,University of Hong Kong,Pokfulam Road,Hong

Following Smaldino's definition, we claim that language is also an emergent group-level trait, and propose two facets (human groups tend to organize in a way to efficiently trigger language and linguistic interactions can render formation of certain social organization) to verify this statement, both of which also provide a general framework to address the future work about group-level traits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X13003026DOI Listing
June 2014

Segmental and suprasegmental features in speech perception in Cantonese-speaking second graders: an ERP study.

Psychophysiology 2014 Nov 23;51(11):1158-68. Epub 2014 Jun 23.

Psychology Department, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Using a multiple-deviant oddball paradigm, this study examined second graders' brain responses to Cantonese speech. We aimed to address the question of whether a change in a consonant or lexical tone could be automatically detected by children. We measured auditory mismatch responses to place of articulation and voice onset time (VOT), reflecting segmental perception, as well as Cantonese lexical tones including level tone and contour tone, reflecting suprasegmental perception. The data showed that robust mismatch negativities (MMNs) were elicited by all deviants in the time window of 300-500 ms in second graders. Moreover, relative to the standard stimuli, the VOT deviant elicited a robust positive mismatch response, and the level tone deviant elicited a significant MMN in the time window of 150-300 ms. The findings suggest that Hong Kong second graders were sensitive to neural discriminations of speech sounds both at the segmental and suprasegmental levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12257DOI Listing
November 2014

Extending network approach to language dynamics and human cognition: comment on "approaching human language with complex networks" by Cong and Liu.

Phys Life Rev 2014 Dec 16;11(4):639-40. Epub 2014 May 16.

Centre for the Study of Language and Cognition, Zhejiang University, China. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2014.05.002DOI Listing
December 2014

Key issues for the prosperity of modelling research of language evolution: Reply to comments on "Modelling language evolution: Examples and predictions".

Phys Life Rev 2014 Jun 8;11(2):324-8. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Institute of Linguistics, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2014.04.001DOI Listing
June 2014

Exploring the effect of power law social popularity on language evolution.

Authors:
Tao Gong Lan Shuai

Artif Life 2014 14;20(3):385-408. Epub 2014 Apr 14.

University of Hong Kong.

We evaluate the effect of a power-law-distributed social popularity on the origin and change of language, based on three artificial life models meticulously tracing the evolution of linguistic conventions including lexical items, categories, and simple syntax. A cross-model analysis reveals an optimal social popularity, in which the λ value of the power law distribution is around 1.0. Under this scaling, linguistic conventions can efficiently emerge and widely diffuse among individuals, thus maintaining a useful level of mutual understandability even in a big population. From an evolutionary perspective, we regard this social optimality as a tradeoff among social scaling, mutual understandability, and population growth. Empirical evidence confirms that such optimal power laws exist in many large-scale social systems that are constructed primarily via language-related interactions. This study contributes to the empirical explorations and theoretical discussions of the evolutionary relations between ubiquitous power laws in social systems and relevant individual behaviors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00138DOI Listing
September 2014

Temporal relation between top-down and bottom-up processing in lexical tone perception.

Authors:
Lan Shuai Tao Gong

Front Behav Neurosci 2014 25;8:97. Epub 2014 Mar 25.

Department of Linguistics, University of Hong Kong Hong Kong, China.

Speech perception entails both top-down processing that relies primarily on language experience and bottom-up processing that depends mainly on instant auditory input. Previous models of speech perception often claim that bottom-up processing occurs in an early time window, whereas top-down processing takes place in a late time window after stimulus onset. In this paper, we evaluated the temporal relation of both types of processing in lexical tone perception. We conducted a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments that recruited Mandarin participants and adopted three experimental paradigms, namely dichotic listening, lexical decision with phonological priming, and semantic violation. By systematically analyzing the lateralization patterns of the early and late ERP components that are observed in these experiments, we discovered that: auditory processing of pitch variations in tones, as a bottom-up effect, elicited greater right hemisphere activation; in contrast, linguistic processing of lexical tones, as a top-down effect, elicited greater left hemisphere activation. We also found that both types of processing co-occurred in both the early (around 200 ms) and late (around 300-500 ms) time windows, which supported a parallel model of lexical tone perception. Unlike the previous view that language processing is special and performed by dedicated neural circuitry, our study have elucidated that language processing can be decomposed into general cognitive functions (e.g., sensory and memory) and share neural resources with these functions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3971173PMC
April 2014
-->