Publications by authors named "Shu Zhang"

1,598 Publications

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Green tea consumption is associated with annual changes in hippocampal volumes: A longitudinal study in community-dwelling middle-aged and older Japanese individuals.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Jun 1;96:104454. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan.

Background: To investigate the association between green tea consumption and the annual rate of change of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and hippocampal volumes in community-dwelling middle-aged and older Japanese individuals.

Methods: A prospective cohort study with two years of follow-up was conducted as part of the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA) project. A total of 1693 participants (862 men and 831 women, aged 40-89 years) were included. Green tea consumption (mL/day) data were collected with a 3-day dietary record. Volumes of GM, WM, and the hippocampus were estimated by T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging and FreeSurfer software. The GM ratio, WM ratio, and hippocampal ratio (HR) were calculated as the percentages of total intracranial volume, respectively.

Results: The mean (SD) annual rate of change of hippocampal volume [(HR at baseline - HR at follow-up)/HR at baseline/follow-up years×100%] was 0.499 (1.128) (%). In the multivariable-adjusted general linear model, green tea consumption was negatively associated only with the annual rate of change of hippocampal volume (%) [β (95% CI) for each 1 mL/day increase in green tea consumption = -20.2E-5 (-35.0E-5 to -5.3E-5); P-value = 0.008]. No associations were observed for the annual rate of change of GM or WM volumes. The results remained significant when the analysis was limited to those with stable green tea consumption and were especially evident among individuals aged 65 years and older and among women.

Conclusions: In this study, higher green tea consumption was associated with less annual hippocampal atrophy, and each additional 100 mL/day of green tea intake was related to a reduction of approximately 5% in annual hippocampal atrophy. This association was especially evident among older individuals and among women. Further study in different settings is needed to confirm this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2021.104454DOI Listing
June 2021

Co-hydrothermal carbonization of swine manure and cellulose: Influence of mutual interaction of intermediates on properties of the products.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 29;791:148134. Epub 2021 May 29.

School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China. Electronic address:

Co-hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of livestock manure and biomass might improve the fuel properties of the hydrochar due to the high reactivity of the biomass-derived intermediates with the abundant oxygen-containing functionalities. However, the complicated compositions make it difficult to explicit the specific roles of the individual components of biomass played in the co-HTC process. In this study, cellulose was used for co-HTC with swine manure to investigate the influence on the properties of the hydrochar. The yield of hydrochar obtained from co-HTC reduced gradually with the cellulose proportion increased, and the solid yield was lower than the theoretical value. This was because the cellulose-derived intermediates favored the stability of the fragments from hydrolysis of swine manure. The increased temperature resulted in the reduction of the hydrochar yield whereas the prolonged time enhanced the formation of solid product. The interaction of the co-HTC intermediates facilitated the formation of O-containing species, thus making the solid more oxygen- and hydrogen-rich with a higher volatility. In addition, the co-HTC affected the evolution of functionalities like -OH and CO during the thermal treatment of the hydrochar and altered its morphology by stuffing the pores from swine manure-derived solid with the microspheres from HTC of cellulose. The interaction of the varied intermediates also impacted the formation of amines, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, aromatics and the polymeric products in distinct ways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148134DOI Listing
May 2021

Complete mitogenome of the entomopathogenic fungus and phylogenetic analysis of Hypocreales.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 May 19;6(6):1689-1690. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute of Applied Chemistry, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China.

, with a narrow host range, is an entomopathogenic fungus in the family Clavicipitaceae. Its nuclear genome has been sequenced, whereas its mitogenome is still unknown. In this study, the complete mitogenome of was assembled and annotated. This circular mitogenome was 68,425 bp in length and encodes two rRNA genes, 26 tRNA genes, 14 standard protein-coding genes of the oxidative phosphorylation system, and seven intergenic ORFs. A total of 23 introns invaded ten genes, including (1 intron), (2), (9), (1), (1), (2), (1), (1), (2), and (3). Except for one group II intron (i.e. mL2060), others were all group I introns and involved four subgroups (i.e. IA, IB, IC2 and ID). Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial nucleotide sequences confirmed in the family Clavicipitaceae, being closely related to its congeneric .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1914229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143629PMC
May 2021

RIP3 impedes transcription factor EB to suppress autophagic degradation in septic acute kidney injury.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jun 8;12(6):593. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Autophagy is an important renal-protective mechanism in septic acute kidney injury (AKI). Receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) has been implicated in the renal tubular injury and renal dysfunction during septic AKI. Here we investigated the role and mechanism of RIP3 on autophagy in septic AKI. We showed an activation of RIP3, accompanied by an accumulation of the autophagosome marker LC3II and the autophagic substrate p62, in the kidneys of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic AKI mice and LPS-treated cultured renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). The lysosome inhibitor did not further increase the levels of LCII or p62 in LPS-treated PTECs. Moreover, inhibition of RIP3 attenuated the aberrant accumulation of LC3II and p62 under LPS treatment in vivo and in vitro. By utilizing mCherry-GFP-LC3 autophagy reporter mice in vivo and PTECs overexpression mRFP-GFP-LC3 in vitro, we observed that inhibition of RIP3 restored the formation of autolysosomes and eliminated the accumulated autophagosomes under LPS treatment. These results indicated that RIP3 impaired autophagic degradation, contributing to the accumulation of autophagosomes. Mechanistically, the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of the lysosome and autophagy pathway, was inhibited in LPS-induced mice and LPS-treated PTECs. Inhibition of RIP3 restored the nuclear translocation of TFEB in vivo and in vitro. Co-immunoprecipitation further showed an interaction of RIP3 and TFEB in LPS-treated PTECs. Also, the expression of LAMP1 and cathepsin B, two potential target genes of TFEB involved in lysosome function, were decreased under LPS treatment in vivo and in vitro, and this decrease was rescued by inhibiting RIP3. Finally, overexpression of TFEB restored the autophagic degradation in LPS-treated PTECs. Together, the present study has identified a pivotal role of RIP3 in suppressing autophagic degradation through impeding the TFEB-lysosome pathway in septic AKI, providing potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of septic AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03865-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Extreme resistance to potato virus A in potato cultivar Barbara is independently mediated by Ra and Rysto.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 850 Lincoln Road, P.O. Box 20280, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, E3B0E2;

Potato virus A (PVA) and potato virus Y (PVY) are two common members of Potyvirus genus infecting potato crops worldwide. Host resistance offers an economical and effective means for the control and/or management of these viruses. In this study, 20 potato clones were screened for their resistance against PVA and PVY by mechanical and/or graft inoculation assay, and were explored for the relationship between extreme resistance genes Ra and Ry by the detection of molecular markers linked respectively to Ryadg, Rysto, and Rychc. Six clones, including Barbara, Jizhangshu 8, Longshu 7, Longshu 8, M6, and Solara, were found to be extremely resistant to both PVA and PVY; three clones (AC142, Eshu 3, and Shepody) were deemed to be extremely resistant to PVA but susceptible to PVY. To further reveal the inheritance of the extreme resistance (ER) against PVA, a tetraploid F1 population of Barbara × F58050 (susceptible to both PVY and PVA) and a tetraploid BC1 population of BF145 (a PVA-resistant but PVY-susceptible progeny of Barbara × F58050) × F58050 were obtained, and phenotyping of the F1 and BC1 population by graft-inoculation with PVA showed segregation ratios of 3:1 and 1:1 (R:S), respectively. These results suggested that two independent loci control ER against PVA in Barbara: one confers ER to both PVA and PVY, and the other confers ER to PVA only. The deduced genotype of Barbara is RyryryryRararara.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-21-0233-SCDOI Listing
June 2021

A targeted ancestry informative InDels panel on capillary electrophoresis for ancestry inference in Asian populations.

Electrophoresis 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

West China School of Basic Medical Sciences & Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, P. R. China.

CE is the primary methodology used in forensic DNA typing. Alleles of commonly used types of genetic markers could be separated and detected via CE based on dye color and migration time. Insertion/deletion (InDel) is an ideal genetic marker for forensic DNA analysis due to their abundance in the human genome, low mutation rate, availability of their allele types via CE, and elimination of stutter peaks. Moreover, InDels could be used as ancestry informative markers since allele frequencies of InDels is different among geographically separated populations. Several ancestry informative insertion/deletion panels have been established based on CE platform to achieve the intercontinental populations distinction. However, improvements to differentiate intracontinental populations is few. In this study, 21 InDels with fixation index (F ) > 0.15 were selected and assembled into one ancestry informative insertion/deletion panel. Using well-designed primers, those 21 InDels could be amplified successfully and genotyped on the CE platform accurately and completely. The panel showed a large F distance distinction among the ten Asian populations. Using clustering analysis, ten Asian populations were classified into three subgroups: East Asian, Southeast Asian, and South Asian subgroups. To evaluate the panel's capability in ancestry inference, a validation experiment was undertaken with 319 individuals from four geographically separated populations in China. Four Chinese populations were classified into different ancestry subgroups and 81.8% test individuals' ancestry could be inferred correctly. Our result showed that development of high ancestry informative InDels panel based on CE platform is a potential for individual ancestry inference among intracontinental populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.202100016DOI Listing
June 2021

Correction to: Comprehensive genetic characteristics of dystrophinopathies in China.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Jun 2;16(1):252. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Research Institute of Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases and Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01853-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173831PMC
June 2021

FMS-Related Tyrosine Kinase 3 Ligand Promotes Radioresistance in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Pharmacol 2021 10;12:659735. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

The FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FL) has an important role in regulating FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt-3) activity. Serum FL levels are markedly increased among patients with hematopoietic disease. However, its role in radiation treatment remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of FL on radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). KYSE150 and KYSE450 cells were stimulated with FL (200 ng/ml). mRNA expression was analyzed using qRT-PCR. Cell viability was checked using CCK-8 assay kits. Proliferation was determined using the EdU assay. Radiosensitivity was detected through a colony-forming assay. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. The number of γH2AX foci was verified using an immunofluorescence assay. The change in relative proteins was determined by western blot analysis. The growth of transplanted tumors was demonstrated in nude mice. Our results showed that FL increased the radiation resistance of ESCC cells by promoting clone formation, increasing EdU incorporation, enhancing DNA damage repair, and inhibiting apoptosis. Moreover, the Flt-3 receptor expression significantly increased in ESCC cells after radiation, which may have been an important factor in their radioresistance. Our results suggest that FL increases the radioresistance of esophageal cancer cells and that FL-Flt-3 could be a potential target for enhancing radiosensitivity in ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.659735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141745PMC
May 2021

Association of Venous Thromboembolism and Early Mortality in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 18;13:4031-4040. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To explore the relationship between venous thromboembolism (VTE) and early mortality (within six months) in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after entering the era of precision treatment.

Methods: A cohort of 706 consecutive subjects with newly diagnosed metastatic NSCLC were prospectively observed. Clinical and survival data were recorded over a six-month follow-up period. The predictive factors for the occurrence of VTE and the relationship with early mortality were evaluated through univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: During the six-month follow-up period, VTE events occurred in 12.2% (86/706) of the enrolled patients. In the multivariate analyses for VTE, an age older than 70 years (vs < 70: sub-distribution hazard radio [SHR], 1.678; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.073-2.600; =0.022), an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥2 (vs 0/1: SHR, 1.946; 95% CI, 1.277-2.970; =0.002), and having an rearrangement (vs non-rearrangement: SHR, 2.377; 95% CI, 1.186-4.760; =0.015) were significantly associated with the occurrence of VTE. Within six months, 116 subjects (16.4%) died, and the occurrence of VTE (vs no VTE: adjusted HR: 1.863; 95% CI: 1.178-2.947, =0.008) was remarkably associated with early mortality. Further analysis showed 98 patients (13.9%) with early mortality had / wild-type genes, with a risk of early mortality 5.935-fold higher than that of patients with an mutation/ rearrangement. Finally, subgroup analyses showed that VTE occurrence was a significant factor for predicting early mortality in patients with / wild-type genes (adjusted HR: 1.682; 95% CI: 1.023-2.768, =0.041).

Conclusion: Patients with an mutation/ rearrangement had a significantly decreased risk of early mortality in the era of targeted therapy; however, VTE occurrence remained an important predictor for early mortality in metastatic NSCLC patients, especially in patients with / wild-type genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S301088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140886PMC
May 2021

The variability and burden of severe sleep apnea and the relationship with atrial fibrillation occurrence: analysis of pacemaker-detected sleep apnea.

Sleep Breath 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Center of Arrhythmia, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beilishi Road 167#, Xicheng Qu, Beijing, 100037, China.

Study Objectives: This was a pilot study to evaluate the long-term variability and burden of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) detected by pacemaker and to investigate the relationship between RDI and atrial fibrillation (AF) event in patients with pacemakers.

Methods: This was a prospective study enrolling patients implanted with a pacemaker that could calculate the night-to-night RDI. The mean follow-up was 348 ± 34 days. The RDI variability was defined as the standard deviation of RDI (RDI-SD). RDI burden was referred to as the percentage of nights with RDI ≥ 26. The patient with RDI ≥ 26 in more than 75% nights was considered to have a high sleep apnea (SA) burden. An AF event was defined as a daily AF duration > 6 h.

Results: Among 30 patients, the mean RDI of the whole follow-up period was 24.5 ± 8.6. Nine (30%) patients were diagnosed with high SA burden. Patients with high SA burden had a higher BMI (26.7 ± 4.8 vs 23.2 ± 3.9, p = 0.036), a higher prevalence of hypertension (86% vs 39%, p = 0.031), and a larger left ventricular diastolic diameter (49.2 mm vs 46.7 mm, p = 0.036). The RDI-SD in patients with a higher burden was significantly greater than that in the patients with less burden (10.7 ± 4.9 vs 5.7 ± 1.4, p = 0.036). Linear regression showed that participants with a higher RDI tended to have a higher SD (R = 0.661; p < 0.001). The mean RDI (OR = 1.118, 95%CI 1.008-1.244, p = 0.044) was associated with AF occurrence.

Conclusion: Using a metric such as burden of severe SA may be more appropriate to demonstrate a patient's true disease burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-021-02385-1DOI Listing
May 2021

The Importance of SPECT/CT in Preoperative Localization of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in 2 Patients With Acral Melanoma in the Foot.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

From the Departments of Dermatology Nuclear Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital Beijing Key Laboratory of Molecular Targeted Diagnosis and Therapy in Nuclear Medicine; and Departments of General Surgery Orthopedics, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Abstract: A 68-year-old woman with melanoma in the left heel underwent sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy and radioguided biopsy. The sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy with SPECT/CT detected 3 foci of increased activity in the popliteal fossa and inguinal region. When coregistered to CT, the sentinel node was localized in the inguinal region, and the popliteal foci were considered tracer retention in lymphatic vessel. In another patient with melanoma in the foot, sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy detected 3 foci of increased activity in the popliteal fossa and inguinal region, which were all identified to be nodal uptake in SPECT/CT. The sentinel node was finally localized in popliteal fossa in this patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003700DOI Listing
May 2021

Plasma-Derived Exosomal ALIX as a Novel Biomarker for Diagnosis and Classification of Pancreatic Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 5;11:628346. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Nanjing University Medical School Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China.

Background: Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a dismal prognosis due to its insidious early symptoms and poor early detection rate. Exosomes can be released by various cell types and tend to be a potential novel biomarker for PC detection. In this study, we explored the proteomic profiles of plasma exosomes collected from patients with PC at different stages and other pancreatic diseases.

Methods: Plasma samples were collected from six groups of patients, including PC at stage I/II, PC at stage III/IV, well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (P-NET), pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs), chronic pancreatitis (CP), and healthy controls (HCs). Plasma-derived exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation and identified routinely. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based proteomic analysis along with bioinformatic analysis were performed to elucidate the biological functions of proteins. The expression of exosomal ALIX was further confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a larger cohort of patients. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was applied to evaluate the potential of ALIX as a novel diagnostic biomarker.

Results: The proteomic profile revealed a total of 623 proteins expressed among the six groups, and 16 proteins with differential degrees of abundance were found in PC other pancreatic diseases (including P-NET, PCLs, and CP). Based on the results of proteomic and bioinformatic analyses, exosomal ALIX was subsequently selected as a novel biomarker for PC detection and validated in another clinical cohort. We noticed that ALIX expression was elevated in PC patients compared with patients with other pancreatic diseases or HC, and it was also closely associated with TNM stage and distant metastasis. Interestingly, the combination of exosomal ALIX and serum CA199 has greater values in differentiating both early late PC (AUC value 0.872) and PC other pancreatic diseases (AUC value 0.910) than either ALIX or CA199 alone.

Conclusion: In summary, our study demonstrated that based on proteomic profiling, proteins isolated from the plasma-derived exosomes may function as ideal non-invasive biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of PC. Importantly, exosomal ALIX combined with CA199 has great potentials in detection of PC, especially in distinguishing PC patients at early stages from advanced stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.628346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131866PMC
May 2021

Targeted Inhibition of FTO Demethylase Protects Mice Against LPS-Induced Septic Shock by Suppressing NLRP3 Inflammasome.

Front Immunol 2021 4;12:663295. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Sepsis refers to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection. It is a major clinical problem and cause of death for patients in intensive care units worldwide. The Fat mass and obesity-related protein (FTO) is the primary -methyladenosine demethylase. However, the role of FTO in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases remains unclear. We herein show that nanoparticle-mediated -siRNA delivery or FTO inhibitor entacapone administration dramatically inhibited macrophage activation, reduced the tissue damage and improved survival in a mouse model of LPS-induced endotoxic shock. Importantly, ablation of FTO could inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome through FoxO1/NF-κB signaling in macrophages. In conclusion, FTO is involved in inflammatory response of LPS-induced septic shock and inhibition of FTO is promising for the treatment of septic shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.663295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128997PMC
May 2021

Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Early Stage of Acute Myocardial Infarction Prevent Ventricular Arrhythmias and Cardiac Remodeling.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 26;8:648910. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Arrhythmia Center, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

To evaluate whether low level left vagus nerve stimulation (LLVNS) in early stage of myocardial infarction (MI) could effectively prevent ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and protect cardiac function, and explore the underlying mechanisms. After undergoing implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) and left cervical vagal stimulators implantation and MI creation, 16 dogs were randomly divided into three groups: the MI ( = 6), MI+LLVNS ( = 5), and sham operation ( = 5) groups. LLVNS was performed for 3 weeks. VAs, the left ventricular function, the density of the nerve fibers in the infarction area and gene expression profiles were analyzed. Compared with the MI group, dogs in the MI+LLVNS group had a lower VAs incidence ( < 0.05) and better left ventricular function. LLVNS significantly inhibited excessive sympathetic nerve sprouting with the evidences of decreased density of TH, GAP43 and NF positive nerves ( < 0.05). The gene expression profiling found a total of 206 genes differentially expressed between MI+LLVNS and MI dogs, mainly involved in cardiac tissue remodeling, cardiac neural remodeling, immune response and apoptosis. These genes, including 55 up-regulated genes and 151 down-regulated genes, showed more protective expressions under LLVNS. This study suggests that LLVNS was delivered without altering heart rate, contributing to reduced incidences of VAs and improved left ventricular function. The potential mechanisms included suppressing cardiac neuronal sprouting, inhibiting excessive sympathetic nerve sprouting and subduing pro-inflammatory responses by regulating gene expressions from a canine experimental study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.648910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107219PMC
April 2021

Co-hydrothermal carbonization of swine and chicken manure: Influence of cross-interaction on hydrochar and liquid characteristics.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 27;786:147381. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Korea Biochar Research Center, APRU Sustainable Waste Management Program & Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Swine and chicken manures are abundant solid wastes that can be converted into carbonaceous materials through hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). Owing to their unique biochemical compositions, co-HTC of these two types of manures may have significant implications for the generated products. We investigated the co-HTC of swine manure and chicken manure to understand the influence of the interaction between contrasting manures on the properties of the derived products. The results indicated that co-HTC treatment enhanced the formation of solid product and improved the C and N contents, heating value, and energy yield of the resulting hydrochar. Regarding the ignition temperature and comprehensive combustion index, the combustion properties of the hydrochar were enhanced owing to the mutual effect of the HTC intermediates. Additionally, the interaction of the intermediates significantly impacted the transfer of nitrogenous species and generation of organic acids and organic polymers with fused-ring structures. Therefore, co-HTC processing of animal manures could potentially provide a sustainable pathway for the conversion of animal waste into solid products with improved characteristics compared to those produced by treating the two feedstocks separately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147381DOI Listing
September 2021

Synergistic mechanism of GH11 xylanases with different action modes from Aspergillus niger An76.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 May 10;14(1):118. Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Institute of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, Shandong, China.

Background: Xylan is the most abundant hemicellulose polysaccharide in nature, which can be converted into high value-added products. However, its recalcitrance to breakdown requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes. Aspergillus niger, possessing numerous xylan degrading isozyme-encoding genes, are highly effective xylan degraders in xylan-rich habitats. Therefore, it is necessary to explore gene transcription, the mode of action and cooperation mechanism of different xylanase isozymes to further understand the efficient xylan-degradation by A. niger.

Results: Aspergillus niger An76 encoded a comprehensive set of xylan-degrading enzymes, including five endo-xylanases (one GH10 and four GH11). Quantitative transcriptional analysis showed that three xylanase genes (xynA, xynB and xynC) were up-regulated by xylan substrates, and the order and amount of enzyme secretion differed. Specifically, GH11 xylanases XynA and XynB were initially secreted successively, followed by GH10 xylanase XynC. Biochemical analyses displayed that three GH11 xylanases (XynA, XynB and XynD) showed differences in catalytic performance and product profiles, possibly because of intricate hydrogen bonding between substrates and functional residues in the active site architectures impacted their binding capacity. Among these, XynB had the best performance in the degradation of xylan and XynE had no catalytic activity. Furthermore, XynA and XynB showed synergistic effects during xylan degradation.

Conclusions: The sequential secretion and different action modes of GH11 xylanases were essential for the efficient xylan degradation by A. niger An76. The elucidation of the degradation mechanisms of these xylanase isozymes further improved our understanding of GH-encoding genes amplification in filamentous fungi and may guide the design of the optimal enzyme cocktails in industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-021-01967-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112042PMC
May 2021

Upregulation of long non-coding RNA MYU promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 18;21(6):644. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, P.R. China.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a common malignant tumour type of the digestive system. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) c-Myc upregulated (MYU), also known as VPS9 domain-containing 1 antisense 1, was recently discovered. However, the expression of lncRNA MYU in ESCC and its role in tumour progression have remained elusive. In the present study, the expression of lncRNA MYU, Ki-67 and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins E-cadherin and Vimentin in ESCC tissues was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The expression of Ki-67, E-cadherin and Vimentin in ESCC tissues was also detected by immunohistochemistry. A small interfering RNA plasmid was employed to establish a TE-2 cell line with knockdown on lncRNA MYU. The results indicated that the expression of lncRNA MYU was higher in ESCC tissues than in normal adjacent tissues and that upregulation of lncRNA MYU was a potential biomarker for poor prognosis. The results also suggested that the expression levels of lncRNA MYU were correlated with the histological grade, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (P<0.05). Silencing of lncRNA MYU expression inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion, while the expression of lncRNA MYU increased as cell proliferation increased. In addition, the mRNA expression of Vimentin and Ki-67 was decreased in TE-2 cells after lncRNA MYU was knocked down, while E-cadherin mRNA expression was elevated. In conclusion, the present results indicated that lncRNA MYU may regulate the proliferation, migration and invasion of ESCC cells, and may serve as a prognostic biomarker for ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097213PMC
June 2021

Anisodamine ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and anti-apoptotic effect.

Pharmazie 2021 May;76(5):220-224

Department of Pharmacology, Jiangsu, China;, Email:

Anisodamine exerts significant protective effect on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in various organs. However, little is known about the mechanisms of anisodamine in renal I/R injury. Activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) pathway promotes the repair of renal epithelial cells following oxidant injury. The present study investigated whether the renoprotective role of anisodamine against renal I/R injury in rats was associated with the activation of ERK signaling pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were separated into the following groups: Sham-operated group, I/R group, anisodamine-treated group, PD98059 (MEK-1/ERK inhibitor)-treated group and anisodamine plus PD98059-treated group. A rat model of renal I/R was established by excising the right kidney and then clamping the left renal pedicle for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Serum and renal tissue samples were obtained for assays of the associated morphological, molecular and biochemical parameters. Treatment with anisodamine ameliorated renal I/R injury, as evidenced by improvements of renal histology and kidney function, a decrease in paller's score and apoptosis index. Anisodamine also upregulated the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and its downstream targets, including 90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90rsk) and Bad, as well as the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein, downregulated the expression levels of proapoptotic proteins Bax and cleaved-caspase-3, whereas these effects were greatly abolished by administration of PD98059. In conclusion, the results suggest that anisodamine prevents renal I/R injury in rats as a result of an activation of the ERK signaling pathway and anti-apoptotic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1691/ph.2021.1302DOI Listing
May 2021

Transcriptome reveal the response to Cry1Ac toxin in susceptible Bombyx mori.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2021 May 5:e21794. Epub 2021 May 5.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

Bombyx mori as a representative in Lepidoptera is an important economic insect in agriculture production. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterial pathogen in silkworm production. Understanding how silkworm respond to Bt-toxin can provide guidance to cultivate resistant silkworm strains. Cry1Ac is one type of Bt-toxin. In current research, Dazao, a susceptible B. mori strain to Bt-toxin, was treated by Cry1Ac toxin and compared its transcriptome with untreated samples. This analysis detected 1234 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology, KEGG, and UniProt keyword enrichment analysis showed that DEGs include ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, stress response, cuticle, and protein synthesis, and folding process. Five ABC genes were upregulated after Cry1Ac treatment including ABCA2, ABCA3, and ABCC4. They are also known as the transporters of Bt-toxin in lepidopteran insect. Expression of cuticle proteins was significantly increased at 6 h after Cry1Ac treatment. Sex-specific storage-proteins and heat shock protein were also upregulated in Cry1Ac treated samples. Our data provide an expression profile about the response of Cry1Ac toxin in susceptible B. mori strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21794DOI Listing
May 2021

A novel rat model of chronic subdural hematoma: Induction of inflammation and angiogenesis in the subdural space mimicking human-like features of progressively expanding hematoma.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jul 28;172:108-119. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 154 Anshan Road, Tianjin, 300052, China; Tianjin Neurological Institute, Key Laboratory of Post-Neuroinjury Neuro-Repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education and Tianjin City, 154 Anshan Road, Tianjin, 300052, China. Electronic address:

Pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) involve localized inflammation, angiogenesis, and dysregulated coagulation and fibrinolysis. The scarcity of reproducible and clinically relevant animal models of CSDH hinders further understanding the underlying pathophysiology and improving new treatment strategies. Here, we developed a novel rat model of CSDH using extracellular matrices (Matrigel) and brain microvascular endothelial cell line (bEnd.3 cells). One hundred-microliter of Matrigel-bEnd.3 cell (10 cells per milliliter) mixtures were injected into the virtual subdural space of elderly male Sprague-Dawley rats. This approach for the first time led to a spontaneous and expanding subdural hematoma, encapsulated by internal and external neomembranes, formed as early as 3 d, reached its peak at 7 d, and lasted for more than 14 d, mimicking the progressive hemorrhage observed in patients with CSDH. The external neomembrane and hematoma fluid involved numerous inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and highly fragile neovessels. Furthermore, a localized pathophysiological process was validated as evidenced by the increased expressions of inflammatory and angiogenic mediators in external neomembrane and hematoma fluid rather than in peripheral blood. Notably, the specific expression profiles of these mediators were closely associated with the dynamic changes in hematoma volume and neurological outcome. In summary, the CSDH model described here replicated the characteristics of human CSDH, and might serve as an ideal translational platform for preclinical studies. Meanwhile, the crucial roles of angiogenesis and inflammation in CSDH formation were reaffirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.04.024DOI Listing
July 2021

Mixed Solvothermal Synthesis of T Cluster-Based Indium and Gallium Sulfides Using Versatile Ammonia or Amine Structure-Directing Agents.

Inorg Chem 2021 May 29;60(10):7115-7127. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Porous Materials, Institute for New Energy Materials and Low-Carbon Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, P. R. China.

Metal chalcogenide supertetrahedral T clusters are of current interest for their unique compositions and structures, which rely highly on the structure-directing agents. Herein, we report four novel T cluster-based indium and gallium sulfides, namely, [NH(CH)]InSH (), (NH)GaS (), [NHCHCH](NHCHCH)GaS (), and [NHCHCHOH]GaS·2NHCHCHOH (). All four compounds were solvothermally synthesized in mixed amine-ethanol solutions or deep eutectic solvent (DES), where ammonia/amine molecules play significant structure-directing roles in the speciation and crystal growth. (1) Being protonated, the trimethylamine and ethanolamine molecules surround the T2-[InSH] clusters (for ) and [GaS] open framework (for ), respectively, compensating for the negative charge of the inorganic moieties. (2) With the lone pair of electrons, the ammonia molecules in coordinate directly to corner Ga ions of the {GaS} cage to give a neutral T2-(NH)GaS cluster. (3) For compound , part of the ethylamine molecules act as terminating ligands for the T1 and T3 units in the [GaS(NHCHCH)] layer, while the rest act as interlamellar countercations upon protonation. Theoretical studies reveal the contributions of N, C, and H to the density of states (DOS) for and because of their hybrid structures that combine the ammonia/amine ligands with sulfide moieties together.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00171DOI Listing
May 2021

and Co-Cultivation Extract Affects In Vitro Degradation, Fermentation Characteristics, and Bacterial Composition in a Diet-Specific Manner.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Beijing Engineering Technology Research Center of Raw Milk Quality and Safety Control, The State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

AOAN may provide enzymes to improve the digestibility of feeds and enhance rumen fermentation. This study determined the effects of AOAN on digestibility, fermentation characteristics, and bacterial composition using in vitro gas recording fermentation system. A total of 30 mg of AOAN was supplemented into 500 mg of TMR, corn silage, oat hay, and alfalfa hay. Fermentation parameters and bacterial communities were determined after 48 h fermentation, and digestibility was determined after 7, 24, 30, and 48 h fermentation. Gas production and dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility were significantly increased by AOAN supplementation at 48 h ( < 0.05), except for digestibility of CP of the TMR ( > 0.05). AOAN increased starch digestibility in corn silage ( < 0.05) and tended to increase that in TMR (0.05 < < 0.10). AOAN supplementation increased total volatile fatty acid production ( < 0.05). The molar proportions of acetate and acetate to propionate ratio of oat hay and alfalfa hay were increased ( < 0.05). The 16S rRNA analysis revealed that the microbial richness of TMR and oat hay, and microbial evenness of TMR were increased ( < 0.05). AOAN did not affect the α diversity, β diversity, and bacterial composition of the corn silage. The relative abundance of was increased and was decreased in TMR, oat hay, and alfalfa hay. In conclusion, results suggest that AOAN has the potential to improve the utilization of diets differently, including providing enzymes with changing microbiota (TMR, oat hay, and alfalfa hay) or providing enzymes alone (corn silage).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11051248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145302PMC
April 2021

Polyvinylpyrrolidone Assisted Preparation of Highly Conductive, Antioxidation, and Durable Nanofiber Composite with an Extremely High Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 29;13(18):21865-21875. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225002, China.

With booming development of electronics, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials based on conductive polymer composites (CPCs) have received increasing attention. However, it remains challenging to develop flexible and lightweight CPCs with excellent stretchability, breathability, durability, and high EMI shielding effectiveness (EMI SE). Here, we propose a facile polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) assisted preparation of highly electrically conductive and durable nanofiber composites for high performance EMI shielding. The PVP layer could not only greatly enhance the interfacial interaction between the Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) and hence the mechanical properties (both tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break) of the polymer nanofiber membrane but also forms a protection layer preventing the AgNPs from oxidizing. The electrical conductivity of the nanofiber composite can reach up to 245.7 ± 30.6 S/cm, which is, to a large degree, maintained after cyclic stretching, abrasion, and ultrasonic washing. In addition, the nanofiber composite exhibits excellent breathability, antibacterial, and Joule heating performance. When used as the EMI shielding material, the nanofiber composite shows an extremely high SE and SSE of ∼96.9 dB and 169.7 dB cm/g, respectively, and EMI shielding performance possesses outstanding stability and durability. This multifunctional nanofibrous composite membrane exhibits promising applications in wearable electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05319DOI Listing
May 2021

Genotype characterization and delayed loss of ambulation by glucocorticoids in a large cohort of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Apr 28;16(1):188. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Neurology, First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China.

Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common genetic muscle disease in human. We aimed to describe the genotype distribution in a large cohort of Chinese DMD patients and their delayed loss of ambulation by glucocorticoid (GC) treatments. This is to facilitate protocol designs and outcome measures for the emerging DMD clinical trials.

Results: A total of 1163 patients with DMD were recruited and genotyped. Genotype variations were categorized as large deletions, large duplications, and small mutations. Large deletions were further analyzed for those amenable to exon-skipping therapies. Participants aged 5 years or older were grouped into GC-treated and GC-naïve groups. Clinical progression among different genotypes and their responses to GC treatments were measured by age at loss of ambulation (LOA). Among the mutation genotypes, large deletions, large duplications, and small mutations accounted for 68.79%, 7.14%, and 24.07%, respectively. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.59 years; the median ages at LOA for the GC-naïve, prednisone/prednisolone-treated, and deflazacort-treated groups were 10.23, 12.02, and 13.95 years, respectively. The "deletion amenable to skipping exon 44" subgroup and the nonsense-mutation subgroup had older ages at LOA than the "other deletions" subgroup. Subgroups were further analyzed by both genotypes and GC status. All genotypes showed significant beneficial responses to GC treatment. Deletions amenable to skipping exon 44 showed a lower hazard ratio (0.155). The mean age at death was 18.57 years in this DMD group.

Conclusion: Genotype variation influences clinical progression in certain DMD groups. Beneficial responses to GC treatment were observed among all DMD genotypes. Compared with other genotypes, deletions amenable to skipping exon 44 had a lower hazard ratio, which may indicate a stronger protective effect of GC treatments on this subgroup. These data are valuable for designing future clinical trials, as clinical outcomes may be influenced by the genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01837-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082961PMC
April 2021

Single-cell transcriptome and genome analyses of pituitary neuroendocrine tumors.

Neuro Oncol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100070, China.

Background: Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) are the second most common intracranial tumor. We lacked a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of these tumors.

Methods: We performed high-precision single-cell RNA sequencing for 2,679 individual cells obtained from 23 surgically resected samples of the major subtypes of PitNETs from 21 patients. We also performed single-cell multi-omics sequencing for 238 cells from 5 patients.

Results: Unsupervised clustering analysis distinguished all tumor subtypes, which was in accordance with the classification based on immunohistochemistry and provided additional information. We identified three normal endocrine cell types: somatotrophs, lactotrophs and gonadotrophs. Comparisons of tumor and matched normal cells showed that differentially expressed genes of gonadotroph tumors were predominantly downregulated, while those of somatotroph and lactrotroph tumors were mainly upregulated. We identified novel tumor-related genes, such as AMIGO2, ZFP36, BTG1 and DLG5. Tumors expressing multiple hormone genes showed little transcriptomic heterogeneity. Furthermore, single-cell multi-omics analysis demonstrated that the tumor shad a relatively uniform pattern of genome with slight heterogeneity in copy number variations.

Conclusions: Our single-cell transcriptome and single-cell multi-omics analyses provide novel insights into the characteristics and heterogeneity of these complex neoplasms for the identification of biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab102DOI Listing
April 2021

AI-based analysis of CT images for rapid triage of COVID-19 patients.

NPJ Digit Med 2021 Apr 22;4(1):75. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelms the medical resources in the stressed intensive care unit (ICU) capacity and the shortage of mechanical ventilation (MV). We performed CT-based analysis combined with electronic health records and clinical laboratory results on Cohort 1 (n = 1662 from 17 hospitals) with prognostic estimation for the rapid stratification of PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients. These models, validated on Cohort 2 (n = 700) and Cohort 3 (n = 662) constructed from nine external hospitals, achieved satisfying performance for predicting ICU, MV, and death of COVID-19 patients (AUROC 0.916, 0.919, and 0.853), even on events happened two days later after admission (AUROC 0.919, 0.943, and 0.856). Both clinical and image features showed complementary roles in prediction and provided accurate estimates to the time of progression (p < 0.001). Our findings are valuable for optimizing the use of medical resources in the COVID-19 pandemic. The models are available here: https://github.com/terryli710/COVID_19_Rapid_Triage_Risk_Predictor .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41746-021-00446-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062628PMC
April 2021

Contrast-enhanced image-guided lead deployment for left bundle branch pacing.

Heart Rhythm 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Cardiac Arrhythmia Center, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Left bundle branch pacing (LBBP) is a novel conduction system pacing modality, but pacing lead deployment remains challenging.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of visualization-enhanced lead deployment for LBBP implantation and to assess LBBP characteristics on the basis of lead tip location.

Methods: Successful LBBP with a well-defined lead tip location by visualization of the tricuspid value annulus in 20 patients was retrospectively analyzed to develop an image-guided technique to identify the LBBP target site. This technique was then prospectively tested in 60 patients who were randomized into 2 groups, one using the standard approach (the standard group) and the other using the image-guided technique (the visualization group). The procedural details, electrophysiological characteristics, and short-term follow-up were compared between groups.

Results: LBBP was successfully achieved in 28 patients in the standard group and in 29 in the visualization group. The procedural and fluoroscopic durations in the visualization group (66.76 ± 14.62 and 7.83 ± 2.05 minutes) were significantly shorter than those in the standard group (85.46 ± 20.19 and 11.11 ± 3.51 minutes) (P < .01). The number of lead deployment attempts in the visualization group was lower than that in the standard group (2.03 ± 1.18 vs 2.96 ± 1.17; P < .01), and the proportion of left bundle branch potential recorded was higher (79.3% vs 46.4%; P = .01).

Conclusion: Using a visualization technique, the procedural and fluoroscopic durations for LBBP implantation were significantly shortened with fewer lead repositioning attempts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.04.015DOI Listing
April 2021

Accuracy of artificial intelligence-assisted detection of esophageal cancer and neoplasms on endoscopic images: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Dig Dis 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: We performed a meta-analysis to systematically summarize previous studies on the accuracy of AI in the detection of esophageal cancer and neoplasms in endoscopic images, so as to provide scientific evidence for the effectiveness of AI-assisted diagnostic models.

Methods: We searched the databases of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane for studies on AI-assisted esophageal cancer and neoplasms in endoscopic images. We used a bivariate mixed-effects binary regression model to calculate the pooled diagnostic efficacy of AI. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were performed to explore the sources of heterogeneity. We also compared the effectiveness of AI with that of endoscopists.

Result: A total of 16 studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio and AUC were 0.94 (95%CI: 0.92-0.96), 0.85 (95%CI: 0.73-0.92), 6.397 (95%CI: 3.380-12.106), 0.065 (95%CI: 0.041-0.102), 98.881 (95%CI: 39.446-247.865) and 0.97 (95%CI: 0.95-0.98), respectively. AI-based models showed a better performance than endoscopists in terms of the pooled sensitivity (0.94; 95%CI: 0.84-0.98 vs. 0.82; 95%CI: 0.77-0.86, p < 0.01).

Conclusion: The use of AI was shown to achieve a high accuracy in the detection of early esophageal cancer. However, most of the studies were based on retrospective review of selected images, further validation in prospective trials is expected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-2980.12992DOI Listing
April 2021

Exosomal MicroRNAs Mediating Crosstalk Between Cancer Cells With Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Tumor Microenvironment.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:631703. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Gynecology Oncology, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles containing diverse bioactive molecules. They play essential roles in mediating bidirectional interplay between cancer and stromal cells. Specific elements are selected into different types of exosomes via various mechanisms, including microRNAs (miRNAs), a subset of non-coding RNA that could epigenetically reprogram cells and modulate their activities. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are two major types of stromal cells inhibiting immune response and facilitating tumor progression. Notably, accumulated studies provided critical evidence regarding the significance of exosomal miRNA-mediated intercellular crosstalk between cancer cells with TAMs and CAFs for tumor progression. This review aimed to summarize the current knowledge of cell-cell interactions between stromal and cancer cells conveyed by exosome-derived miRNAs. The findings might help find effective therapeutic targets of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.631703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049566PMC
April 2021

CYP3A5*3 polymorphism and age affect tacrolimus blood trough concentration in myasthenia gravis patients.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Jun 9;355:577571. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The study aims to identify clinical factors affecting tacrolimus blood trough concentration (C0) in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients and to optimize the initial dose of tacrolimus in MG treatment. A total of 103 MG patients participated in this study, and their clinical factors, medication regimens, C0 values and CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms were collected in detail. We used a linear mixed model to analyze the effect of multiple factors on the dosage-weighted C0 (C0:D) and performed subgroup analyses to investigate the consistency of correlations between influencing factors and the C0:D ratios. Among all factors, CYP3A5*3 polymorphism and age showed a strong positive correlation with C0:D ratios. The C0:D ratios (ng/ml·mg) were higher for CYP3A5*3/*3 than for CYP3A5*1 (mean difference: 1.038, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.820-1.256, P-value <0.001), and for age in the range of 45-64 and ≥ 65 years than for age < 45 years (mean difference [95% CI] and P-value: 0.531[0.257-0.805] and P-value <0.001, 0.703 [0.377-1.029] and P-value <0.001, respectively). The C0:D ratios were not related to corticosteroid dosage, body weight, sex, hematocrit or the concomitant use of calcium channel blockers. The consistencies of the correlations between C0:D ratios and CYP3A5*3 polymorphism or age were confirmed by subgroup analyses. Thus, CYP3A5*3 polymorphism and age should be considered in optimizing the initial dose of tacrolimus for MG treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577571DOI Listing
June 2021