Publications by authors named "Shu Yang"

796 Publications

Ice nucleation in a Gram-positive bacterium isolated from precipitation depends on a polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase.

ISME J 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

School of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

Earth's radiation budget and frequency and intensity of precipitation are influenced by aerosols with ice nucleation activity (INA), i.e., particles that catalyze the formation of ice. Some bacteria, fungi, and pollen are among the most efficient ice nucleators but the molecular basis of INA is poorly understood in most of them. Lysinibacillus parviboronicapiens (Lp) was previously identified as the first Gram-positive bacterium with INA. INA of Lp is associated with a secreted, nanometer-sized, non-proteinaceous macromolecule or particle. Here a combination of comparative genomics, transcriptomics, and a mutant screen showed that INA in Lp depends on a type I iterative polyketide synthase and a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS). Differential filtration in combination with gradient ultracentrifugation revealed that the product of the PKS-NRPS is associated with secreted particles of a density typical of extracellular vesicles and electron microscopy showed that these particles consist in "pearl chain"-like structures not resembling any other known bacterial structures. These findings expand our knowledge of biological INA, may be a model for INA in other organisms for which the molecular basis of INA is unknown, and present another step towards unraveling the role of microbes in atmospheric processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-021-01140-4DOI Listing
October 2021

IKK2/NF-κB Activation in Astrocytes Reduces amyloid β Deposition: A Process Associated with Specific Microglia Polarization.

Cells 2021 Oct 6;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease that is accompanied by pronounced neuroinflammatory responses mainly characterized by marked microgliosis and astrogliosis. However, it remains open as to how different aspects of astrocytic and microglial activation affect disease progression. Previously, we found that microglia expansion in the spinal cord, initiated by IKK2/NF-κB activation in astrocytes, exhibits stage-dependent beneficial effects on the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we investigated the impact of NF-κB-initiated neuroinflammation on AD pathogenesis using the APP23 mouse model of AD in combination with conditional activation of IKK2/NF-κB signaling in astrocytes. We show that NF-κB activation in astrocytes triggers a distinct neuroinflammatory response characterized by striking astrogliosis as well as prominent microglial reactivity. Immunohistochemistry and Congo red staining revealed an overall reduction in the size and number of amyloid plaques in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, isolated primary astrocytes and microglia cells exhibit specific marker gene profiles which, in the case of microglia, point to an enhanced plaque clearance capacity. In contrast, direct IKK2/NF-κB activation in microglia results in a pro-inflammatory polarization program. Our findings suggest that IKK2/NF-κB signaling in astrocytes may activate paracrine mechanisms acting on microglia function but also on APP processing in neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10102669DOI Listing
October 2021

Application of CO-Switchable Oleic-Acid-Based Surfactant for Reducing Viscosity of Heavy Oil.

Molecules 2021 Oct 16;26(20). Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Polymer Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

CO-switchable oligomeric surfactants have good viscosity-reducing properties; however, the complex synthesis of surfactants limits their application. In this study, a CO-switchable "pseudo"-tetrameric surfactant oleic acid (OA)/cyclic polyamine (cyclen) was prepared by simple mixing and subsequently used to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil. The surface activity of OA/cyclen was explored by a surface tensiometer and a potential for viscosity reduction was revealed. The CO switchability of OA/cyclen was investigated by alternately introducing CO and N, and OA/cyclen was confirmed to exhibit a reversible CO-switching performance. The emulsification and viscosity reduction analyses elucidated that a molar ratio of OA/cyclen of 4:1 formed the "pseudo"-tetrameric surfactants, and the emulsions of water and heavy oil with OA/cyclen have good stability and low viscosity and can be destabilized quickly by introducing CO. The findings reported in this study reveal that it is feasible to prepare CO-switchable pseudo-tetrameric surfactants with viscosity-reducing properties by simple mixing, thus providing a pathway for the emulsification and demulsification of heavy oil by using the CO-switchable "pseudo"-oligomeric surfactants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206273DOI Listing
October 2021

Towards Sustainable Cities: The Spillover Effects of Waste-Sorting Policies on Sustainable Consumption.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Oct 19;18(20). Epub 2021 Oct 19.

School of Economics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China.

The increasing amount of waste in cities poses a great challenge for sustainable development. Promoting waste sorting is one of the priorities for various levels of public authorities in the context of the rapid growth of waste generation all around China. To achieve this goal, waste-sorting policies should be precisely designed to ensure successful waste reduction at all stages. Previous studies have neglected the spillover effects of different regulatory policies, which may affect the overall goal of reducing waste by influencing different waste production stages. This paper fills this gap by comparing the spillover effects of two typical waste-sorting policies on sustainable consumption behaviours through a survey conducted in Shanghai and Beijing (control group). By combining quasi-natural experiment and questionnaire methods, this paper analyses data through a mediation test to explore the spillover effects between different regulatory policy groups and the effects of the mediation psychological factors. Results show that a penalty policy significantly decreases people's sustainable consumption behaviours through a negative spillover effect, while a voluntary participation policy significantly increases sustainable consumption behaviours through a positive spillover effect. Results can provide implications for policymaking in waste management and other pro-environmental fields to help cities become more sustainable by shifting multiple behaviours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010975DOI Listing
October 2021

The role of left atrial strain in patients with functional tricuspid regurgitation before and after annuloplasty: a long-term follow-up study.

Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2021 Oct 18;19(1):33. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Echocardiography, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 167 Beilishi Road, XiCheng District, Beijing, 100037, People's Republic of China.

Background: Functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is common among patients with left heart disease and may recur during the follow-up period after selective tricuspid valve annuloplasty (TVA). This study aims to analyse the relationship between left atrial (LA) strain and the degree of preoperative functional TR and to explore the role of LA strain in predicting TR recurrence.

Methods: This study included 63 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis who underwent mitral valve replacement and concomitant TVA. Additionally, 20 healthy controls were enrolled. Preoperative conventional LA echocardiographic parameters and LA strain were measured. The association between LA strain and preoperative functional TR severity was analysed by Pearson correlation. Predictors of recurrent TR were determined by multivariate logistic regression analyses.

Results: Compared with the control group, the mitral stenosis group developed a significant impairment in terms of LA strain. The degree of preoperative functional TR exhibited moderate correlations with LA reservoir strain (r = - 0.57) and LA conduit strain (r = 0.48). During a median follow-up period of 66.4 ± 36.4 months, TR recurred in 18 patients. Preoperative LA reservoir strain and the mean transmitral gradient were predictors of postoperative TR recurrence. When the two indexes were combined to establish a prediction, the sensitivity and specificity of prediction increased. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the combined indicator was higher than those of the single indicators (0.90 vs. 0.70 and 0.72).

Conclusions: LA strain correlates with preoperative functional TR severity in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis. The LA reservoir strain and preoperative mean transmitral gradient are independent predictive factors for recurrent TR after TVA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12947-021-00264-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8522237PMC
October 2021

Four plasma miRNAs act as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

Oncol Lett 2021 Nov 17;22(5):792. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001, P.R. China.

Previous studies have reported that the aberrant expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic and prognostic predictive values of four plasma miRNAs for NSCLC. A total of 12 candidate miRNAs were selected that have previously been reported to be aberrantly expressed in NSCLC, and their plasma levels in the training set were detected via reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis. The screened out miRNAs were further validated in the testing set. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to evaluate diagnostic performance. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to assess the association between the plasma miRNA levels and disease-free survival (DFS) time. The results demonstrated that 4/12 plasma miRNAs (miR-210, miR-1290, miR-150 and miR-21-5p) were highly expressed in patients with NSCLC compared with their expression levels in patients with benign lung disease (BLD) and healthy controls in the training and testing sets, respectively. The AUC values of the four-miRNA panel were 0.96 and 0.93 in the training and testing sets, respectively, for distinguishing patients with NSCLC from healthy controls, which were similar to the AUC values for distinguishing patients with NSCLC from patients with BLD (0.96 and 0.94). The AUC values of the four-miRNA panel in patients with stage I NSCLC were comparable to that of patients with stage II-III NSCLC (0.942 and 0.965). Patients with high plasma levels of miR-210 and miR-150 had worse DFS than those with low plasma levels of these miRNAs. In addition, patients whose plasma levels of the four miRNAs decreased by >50% after surgery exhibited a good DFS. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that these four miRNAs (miR-210, miR-1290, miR-150 and miR-21-5p) act as useful biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis of NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.13053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8477070PMC
November 2021

MiR-1-3p and miR-124-3p synergistically damage the intestinal barrier in the aging colon.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Oct 10. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background And Aims: Disruption of the intestinal barrier of the digestive tract is a common pathophysiological change in the elderly, which may partly contribute to gut dysfunction and inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to discover new interactive epigenetic regulation patterns involved in intestinal barrier dysfunction and colitis in elderly populations.

Methods: Intestinal barrier function and structure were evaluated in naturally aging mice and elderly people. High-throughput analysis was performed on colonic tissues from humans and mice. The synergistic roles of miR-1-3p and miR-124-3p were identified using microRNA mimic/agomirs. Related genes were examined in biopsies of old IBD patients.

Results: A defective mucus barrier was observed before mucosal microstructural damage during aging. Elevated miR-1-3p expression in the colons of older individuals impaired mucus barrier by directly targeting T-synthase, similar to the mechanism of miR-124-3p, which we reported previously. Importantly, the synergistic effect of a half dose of each microRNA supplement on T-synthase and CDK4/6 was stronger than that of a full dose of miR-1-3p or miR-124-3p alone, and mice cotreated with two microRNAs showed greater susceptibility to chemical-induced colitis than mice treated with either microRNA alone. These two microRNAs were up-expressed in old IBD patients.

Conclusions: The slight increases in miR-1-3p and miR-124-3p expression with aging may be important contributors to the breakdown of intestinal homeostasis by targeting divergent genes in different cells. These data reveal the potential ability of multiple microRNAs to exert synergistic effects to damage the intestinal barrier and promote inflammatory bowel disease development in elderly populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab179DOI Listing
October 2021

Upconversion nanoparticles/carbon dots ([email protected]) composite for simultaneous detection and speciation of divalent and trivalent iron ions.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Oct 20;1183:338973. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Corrosion and Bio-fouling, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, China. Electronic address:

In this study, the application of carbon dots (CDs) modified NaYF:Yb, Er nanoparticles ([email protected]) as the fluorescent nanoprobe for simultaneous detection of Fe and Fe was investigated. Fe quantification (5-80 μmol L) was achieved, as a result of Fe induced fluorescence quenching of [email protected] at 434 nm (under the 336 nm excitation). The chelate (Fe-phen) formed by Fe and 1,10-phenanthroline had a broad absorption centered at 510 nm, due to inner filter effect (IFE), Fe quantification (4-120 μmol L) was achieved as a result of (Fe-phen) induced fluorescence quenching of [email protected] at 545 nm (under the 980 nm excitation). The resultant [email protected] probe, with excellent anti-interference capability, favorable fluorescence stability, and convincing performance in real sample analysis, showed promising application in simultaneous detection of Fe and Fe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338973DOI Listing
October 2021

Scavenger receptor MARCO contributes to macrophage phagocytosis and clearance of tumor cells.

Exp Cell Res 2021 Oct 6;408(2):112862. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Cancer Invasion and Metastasis Research, Beijing, China; Cancer Institute of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a member of the class A scavenger receptor family which is expressed on the cell surface of macrophages. It is well known that MARCO avidly binds to unopsonized pathogens, leading to its ingestion by macrophages. However, the role of MARCO in the recognition and phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages remains poorly understood. In this study, we used lentiviral technology to knockdown and overexpress MARCO and investigated the ability of macrophages to phagocytose tumor cells. Our results showed that MARCO expression was correlated with the ability of macrophages to carry on phagocytosis. MARCO knockdown led to significant decreases in the number of engulfment pseudopodia of macrophages and inhibition of the phagocytosis of tumor cells. On the other hand, MARCO overexpression elevated activity of SYK, PI3K and Rac1 in macrophages, which led to changes in macrophage morphology and enhanced phagocytosis by promoting formation of stress fibers and pseudopodia. By Co-IP analysis we showed that MARCO directly binds to the β5 integrin of SL4 tumor cells. In summary, these results demonstrated the important role for MARCO in demonstrated tumor cells uptake and clearance by macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2021.112862DOI Listing
October 2021

Generation of two gene corrected human isogenic iPSC lines (NCATS-CL6104 and NCATS-CL6105) from a patient line (NCATS-CL6103) carrying a homozygous p.R401X mutation in the NGLY1 gene using CRISPR/Cas9.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Sep 30;56:102554. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

NGLY1 deficiency is a rare recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the NGLY1 gene which codes for N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1). Here, we report the generation of two gene corrected iPSC lines using a patient-derived iPSC line (NCATS-CL6103) that carried a homozygous p.R401X mutation in the NGLY1 gene. These lines contain either one (NCATS-CL6104) or two (NCATS-CL6105) CRISPR/Cas9 corrected alleles of NGLY1. This pair of NGLY1 mutation corrected iPSC lines can be used as a control for the NCATS-CL6103 which serves as a cell-based NGLY1 disease model for the study of the disease pathophysiology and evaluation of therapeutics under development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2021.102554DOI Listing
September 2021

Luminous efficacy enhancement for LED lamps using highly reflective quantum dot-based photoluminescent films.

Opt Express 2021 Aug;29(18):29007-29020

In this study, a strongly reflective and photoluminescent (PL) poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) quantum dot (QD) hybrid nanofiber (PQHN) structure is introduced to enhance the luminous efficacy of QD-phosphor hybrid white light-emitting diodes (QD-WLEDs). As the thickness of PQHN film increases, the PL is found to continuously increase, exhibiting a maximum peak intensity at 120 μm, which is 1.92 times that at 12 μm, and showing the highest diffuse reflectance of 94.4% at 640 nm. Consequently, while using the QD-WLEDs, the PQHN structure achieves a 53.8% improvement in luminous flux compared with the traditional structure under a similar correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3,540 K, achieving a high luminous efficacy of 202.11 lm W for QD-WLEDs. In addition, the maximum deviation of the CCT is only 11 K when the current is changed from 50 to 950 mA, demonstrating good stability. Therefore, the PQHN films have great potential in lighting systems as a hybrid functional film including light conversion and reflectance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.431345DOI Listing
August 2021

A turn-on fluorescent probe via substitution-rearrangement for highly sensitive and discriminative detection of cysteine and its imaging in living cells.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Sep 23;266:120409. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

CAS Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources and Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou 341000, China. Electronic address:

Biothiols play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes, especially in the occurrence of oxidative stress caused by abnormal cysteine (Cys) concentration. Therefore, it is particularly critical to develop a method that can specifically identify Cys to avoid interference from other biological analytes. However, most Cys-specific fluorescent probes are difficult to distinguish between homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH). In this work, to avoid the interference of Hcy and GSH, we developed a fluorescent probe triarylimidazole-naphthalimide-piperazine-sulfonyl benzoxadiazole (TNP-SBD-Cl) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on platform of naphthalimide-sulfonyl benzoxadiazole (SBD), the main SBD 4-chlorine groups have mild reactivity to undergo substitution and rearrangement to distinguish Hcy and GSH. The TNP-SBD-Cl response to Cys would turn on FRET and generate a new yellow fluorescence with a large Stokes shift (157 nm), and with excellent selectivity and low detection limit (0.87 μM). Moreover, TNP-SBD-Cl can be used to monitor Cys in living HeLa cells with low cytotoxicity, suggesting that it has markedly diagnostic significance in physiological and pathological processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120409DOI Listing
September 2021

Forensic examination and application of areca nuts as material evidence.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Forensic Science, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility of DNA analysis of areca nut as material evidence and the value of short tandem repeat (STR) typing of areca nut as material evidence under the condition of simulating external environment. In this study, water soaking, soil burial, sun exposure, and wet environment were used to treat areca nut residues. Chelex 100 was used to extract DNA, the PowerPlex21 kit to amplify, and the ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer to analyze the DNA of areca nut residues. DNA and STR typing were performed to analyze the residue after chewing. The results showed that the number of residual sites decreased with time under the conditions of water soaking, soil burial, sun exposure, and wet environment. Thus, areca nut can be used as forensic material evidence for DNA analysis and individual identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14900DOI Listing
October 2021

Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in landfills: A review.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 28;806(Pt 2):150647. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chongqing 400714, China; School of resources and environmental engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China. Electronic address:

Landfill are important reservoirs of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). They harbor diverse contaminants, such as heavy metals and persistent organic chemicals, complex microbial consortia, and anaerobic degradation processes, which facilitate the occurrence, development, and transfer of ARGs and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). The main concern is that antibiotics and developed ARGs and ARB may transfer to the local environment via leachate and landfill leakage. In this paper, we provide an overview of established studies on antibiotics and ARGs in landfills, summarize the origins and distribution of antibiotics and ARGs, discuss the linkages among various antibiotics, ARGs, and bacterial communities as well as the influencing factors of ARGs, and evaluate the current treatment processes of antibiotics and ARGs. Finally, future research is proposed to fill the current knowledge gaps, which include mechanisms for the development and transmission of antibiotic resistance, as well as efficient treatment approaches for antibiotic resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150647DOI Listing
September 2021

Author Correction: Broadband and pixelated camouflage in inflating chiral nematic liquid crystalline elastomers.

Nat Mater 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-021-01140-xDOI Listing
September 2021

Self-Assembled Triple (H/O/e) Conducting Nanocomposite of Ba-Co-Ce-Y-O into an Electrolyte for Semiconductor Ionic Fuel Cells.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Sep 11;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 11.

School of Electronic Engineering, Nanjing Xiaozhuang University, Nanjing 211171, China.

Triple (H/O/e) conducting oxides (TCOs) have been extensively investigated as the most promising cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) because of their excellent catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and fast proton transport. However, here we report a stable twin-perovskite nanocomposite Ba-Co-Ce-Y-O (BCCY) with triple conducting properties as a conducting accelerator in semiconductor ionic fuel cells (SIFCs) electrolytes. Self-assembled BCCY nanocomposite is prepared through a complexing sol-gel process. The composite consists of a cubic perovskite (Pm-3m) phase of BaCoCeYO and a rhombohedral perovskite (R-3c) phase of BaCeYO. A new semiconducting-ionic conducting composite electrolyte is prepared for SIFCs by the combination of BCCY and CeO (BCCY-CeO). The fuel cell with the prepared electrolyte (400 μm in thickness) can deliver a remarkable peak power density of 1140 mW·cm with a high open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.15 V at 550 °C. The interface band energy alignment is employed to explain the suppression of electronic conduction in the electrolyte. The hybrid H/O ions transport along the surfaces or grain boundaries is identified as a new way of ion conduction. The comprehensive analysis of the electrochemical properties indicates that BCCY can be applied in electrolyte, and has shown tremendous potential to improve ionic conductivity and electrochemical performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11092365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472293PMC
September 2021

Correction to: Low limit of detection of the AlGaN/GaN-based sensor by the Kelvin connection detection technique.

Microsyst Nanoeng 2021 2;7:57. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Biosensor National Special Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/s41378-021-00278-7.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41378-021-00283-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433301PMC
August 2021

Low limit of detection of the AlGaN/GaN-based sensor by the Kelvin connection detection technique.

Microsyst Nanoeng 2021 1;7:51. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Biosensor National Special Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou, China.

The AlGaN/GaN-based sensor is a promising POCT (point-of-care-testing) device featuring miniaturization, low cost, and high sensitivity. BNP is an effective protein biomarker for the early diagnosis of HF (heart failure). In this work, a novel AlGaN/GaN device with the Kelvin connection structure and the corresponding detection technique was proposed. This technique can effectively suppress the background noise and improve the SNR (signal-to-noise ratio). A BNP detection experiment was carried out to verify the effectiveness of this technique. It is shown that compared with that of the traditional detection method, the LOD (limit of detection) was improved from 0.47 ng/mL to 1.29 pg/mL. The BNP detection experiment was also carried out with a traditional electrochemical Au-electrode sensor with the same surface functionalization steps. The AlGaN/GaN sensor showed a better LOD than the Au-electrode sensor. Moreover, the influence of AlGaN/GaN sensor package on background noise was investigated with the mechanism of the noise source revealed. Finally, based on the optimized package, the optimal SNR quiescent operating point of the AlGaN/GaN sensor was determined. By biasing the sensor at the optimal quiescent operating point and immobilizing the magnetic beads with anti-BNP on the gate of the AlGaN/GaN sensor, the LOD for BNP detection was further improved to 0.097 pg/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41378-021-00278-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433396PMC
July 2021

The Immunofluorescence-Based Detection of Hedgehog Pathway Components in Primary Cilia of Cultured Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2374:89-94

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA.

The primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle that projects from the surface of vertebrate cells. Defects in the biogenesis of or transport through primary cilia affect Hedgehog signaling, and many Hedgehog pathway components traffic through or accumulate in cilia. This protocol provides methods for immunofluorescence staining of cilia-accumulated Hh pathway components, such as Smoothened, in cultured NIH 3T3 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1701-4_8DOI Listing
January 2022

Upregulated bone morphogenetic protein 5 enhances proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition process in benign prostatic hyperplasia via BMP/Smad signaling pathway.

Prostate 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common illnesses in aging men. Recent studies found that bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5) is upregulated in BPH tissues, however, the role of BMP5 in the development of BPH has not been examined. The current study aims to elucidate the potential roles of BMP5 and related signaling pathways in BPH.

Methods: Human prostate cell lines (BPH-1, WPMY-1) and human/rat hyperplastic prostate tissues were utilized. Western blot, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescent staining, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. BMP5-silenced and -overexpressed cell models were generated and then cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and proliferation were determined. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was also quantitated. And rescue experiments by BMP/Smad signaling pathway agonist or antagonist were accomplished. Moreover, BPH-related tissue microarray analysis was performed and associations between clinical parameters and expression of BMP5 were analyzed.

Results: Our study demonstrated that BMP5 was upregulated in human and rat hyperplastic tissues and localized both in the epithelial and stromal compartments of the prostate tissues. E-cadherin was downregulated in hyperplastic tissues, while N-cadherin and vimentin were upregulated. Overexpression of BMP5 enhanced cell proliferation and the EMT process via phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8, while knockdown of BMP5 induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and blocked the EMT process. Moreover, a BMP/Smad signaling pathway agonist and antagonist reversed the effects of BMP5 silencing and overexpression, respectively. In addition, BMP5 expression positively correlated with prostate volume and total prostate-specific antigen.

Conclusion: Our novel data suggest that BMP5 modulated cell proliferation and the EMT process through the BMP/Smad signaling pathway which could contribute to the development of BPH. However, further studies are required to determine the exact mechanism. Our study also indicated that BMP/Smad signaling may be rediscovered as a promising new therapeutic target for the treatment of BPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.24241DOI Listing
September 2021

A review of the clinical and engineering performance of dual-mobility cups for total hip arthroplasty.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(8):9383-9394. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University Chengdu 610031, China.

Charnley's low-friction principle of total hip arthroplasty (THA) is recognized as the gold standard. However, complications may arise, and one of the major reasons for revising THA is dislocation. Under such a background, Pr. Gilles Bousquet invented dual-mobility cups (DMC) in the 1970s to fight against hip instability. Despite the excellent clinical results of DMC compared with conventional implants, the clinical application of DMC is limited by concerns about the dual articulations, leading to rapid wear and the subsequent osteolysis and the wear on the retaining rim of the liner due to its contact with the femoral neck causing intraprosthetic dislocation (IPD). As a result, the original design of DMC has been upgraded by using highly cross-linked polyethylene, refining the geometry of the femoral neck, etc. After the improvement, the wear rate of the contemporary DMC liners has been largely reduced compared with the first generation DMC, and the IPD incidence rate has been controlled. However, with the increasing fretting corrosion damage found at the taper-trunnion interfaces in conventional implants, the contemporary DMC may face a similar problem. This is because the additional articulation and the larger head design of DMC gain the risk of articulation wear and taper-trunnion interface corrosion. Since there are still many potential DMC engineering issues that have not been extensively researched, future studies focusing on the wear and corrosion aspects are required. The purpose of this review article is to summarize both the clinical and engineering issues for DMC with possible directions for future research.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430055PMC
August 2021

The protective effects of Agomelatine against Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced cellular senescence mediated by SIRT6 and Agomelatine's potential in AD treatment.

Hum Cell 2021 Nov 17;34(6):1734-1743. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of University of Electronic Science and Technology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, No. 32, West Second Section, First Ring Road, Qingyang District, Chengdu, 610000, Sichuan, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a vicious degenerative disease commonly observed in the elderly population, and the deposition of Amyloid β (Aβ) is regarded as the principal pathological inducement of AD. Severe oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, and cell senescence in neurons can be induced by Aβ1-42 oligomers, which further contribute to the damage on neurons. Agomelatine is an antidepressant that is recently claimed to have promising anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aims to explore the potential therapeutic function of Agomelatine on AD and the possible mechanism. Aβ1-42 oligomers were used to induce an in vitro injury model in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. First, we found that exposure to Aβ1-42 oligomers significantly exacerbated oxidative stress by increasing hydrogen peroxide production and reducing glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which were partially rescued by Agomelatine. Also, Agomelatine attenuated Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced inflammatory response by decreasing the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β. Notably, Agomelatine improved cellular senescence by reducing senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) staining and mitigating Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced reduction of telomerase activity. In addition, the upregulated p16 and p21 and the suppressed expression of SIRT6 in Aβ1-42 oligomers-treated cells were reversed by Agomelatine. Lastly, after the knockdown of SIRT6, the protective effect of Agomelatine against Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced cellular senescence was significantly eliminated. In conclusion, our data indicated that Agomelatine ameliorated Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced cellular senescence mediated by SIRT6, and thus, Agomelatine could be effective in treating AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13577-021-00611-2DOI Listing
November 2021

Aerodynamics-assisted, efficient and scalable kirigami fog collectors.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 16;12(1):5484. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

To address the global water shortage crisis, one of the promising solutions is to collect freshwater from the environmental resources such as fog. However, the efficiency of conventional fog collectors remains low due to the viscous drag of fog-laden wind deflected around the collecting surface. Here, we show that the three-dimensional and centimetric kirigami structures can control the wind flow, forming quasi-stable counter-rotating vortices. The vortices regulate the trajectories of incoming fog clusters and eject extensive droplets to the substrate. As the characteristic structural length is increased to the size of vortices, we greatly reduce the dependence of fog collection on the structural delicacy. Together with gravity-directed gathering by the folds, the kirigami fog collector yields a collection efficiency of 16.1% at a low wind speed of 0.8 m/s and is robust against surface characteristics. The collection efficiency is maintained even on a 1 m collector in an outdoor setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25764-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8445985PMC
September 2021

An analysis on the trend of AIDS/HIV incidence in Chongqing and Shenzhen, China from 2005-2015 based on Age-Period-Cohort model.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 08;18(5):6961-6977

Department of Applied Mathematics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China.

This paper elucidates that the AIDS/HIV incidence rate differences exist among different population and regions, especially among the old and college students. Due to the effect of age, the AIDS incidence peak in males aged 20-35 years and 50 years old both in Chongqing and Shenzhen, and the incidence rate and increasing spread in males was higher than that of females under period effect. In the local population in Chongqing and Shenzhen, the incidence rate of males in over 40, below and in the whole age groups are predicted to increase sharply in the future six years, while in females, the incidence rates among over 40-year-old and the whole age groups were predicted to increase as well. The incidence rate among homosexually transmitted patients reaches the peak in the 20-35, the incidence rate of patients transmitted through heterosexual reaches the peak around 50-year-old. Under the effect of period, AIDS/HIV incidence rate of patients transmitted through sexual routes showed an upward trend both in Chongqing and Shenzhen. The incidence rate of patients aged between 41 and 70 years old presents with an upward trend in the future six years. The results show great differences exist in the AIDS/HIV incidence between males and females, therefore it is necessary to take specific measures respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2021346DOI Listing
August 2021

Benzothiazolium Derivative-Capped Silica Nanocomposites for β-Amyloid Imaging .

Anal Chem 2021 09 8;93(37):12617-12627. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, College of Chemistry, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, and β-amyloid (Aβ) is believed to be a causative factor in AD pathology. The abnormal deposition of Aβ is believed to be responsible for progression of AD. In order to facilitate the imaging of Aβ , suitable probe molecules with a near-infrared emission wavelength that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were utilized. The commercial fluorescent probe thioflavin-T (ThT) is used to image Aβ; however, because of its short emission wavelength and poor BBB penetration, ThT can only be used . With this research, based on ThT, we design three fluorescent probes (SZIs) having a longer emission wavelength in order to image Aβ aggregates. SZIs with different numbers of double bonds respond to Aβ aggregates. The SZIs have a structure similar to ThT, and as such, the SZIs are also unable to penetrate the BBB. To deal with the problem, we develop nanocomposites ([email protected]) to deliver SZIs into the brain of AD mouse and image Aβ successfully. These new nanocomposites are able to deliver the dyes into the brain and facilitate Aβ imaging .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c02289DOI Listing
September 2021

Broadband and pixelated camouflage in inflating chiral nematic liquid crystalline elastomers.

Nat Mater 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Living organisms such as fishes, cephalopods and clams are cryptically coloured with a wide range of hues and patterns for camouflage, signalling or energy regulation. Despite extensive efforts to create colour-changing materials and devices, it is challenging to achieve pixelated structural coloration with broadband spectral shifts in a compact space. Here, we describe pneumatically inflating thin membranes of main-chain chiral nematic liquid crystalline elastomers that have such properties. By taking advantage of the large elasticity anisotropy and Poisson's ratio (>0.5) of these materials, we geometrically program the size and the layout of the encapsulated air channels to achieve colour shifting from near-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths with less than 20% equi-biaxial transverse strain. Each channel can be individually controlled as a colour 'pixel' to match with surroundings, whether periodically or irregularly patterned. These soft materials may find uses in distinct applications such as cryptography, adaptive optics and soft robotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-021-01075-3DOI Listing
September 2021

[Immunogenicity of engineered Lactobacillus plantarum expressing porcine epidemic diarrhea virus S1 gene].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Aug;37(8):2779-2785

College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China.

To investigate whether the engineered Lactobacillus plantarum expressing the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) S1 gene can protect animals against PEDV, guinea pigs were fed with recombinant L. plantarum containing plasmid PVE5523-S1, with a dose of 2×10⁸ CFU/piece, three times a day, at 14 days intervals. Guinea pigs fed with wild type L. plantarum and the engineered L. plantarum containing empty plasmid pVE5523 were used as negative controls. For positive control, another group of guinea pigs were injected with live vaccine for porcine epidemic diarrhea and porcine infectious gastroenteritis (HB08+ZJ08) by intramuscular injection, with a dose of 0.2 mL/piece, three times a day, at 14 days intervals. Blood samples were collected from the hearts of the four groups of guinea pigs at 0 d, 7 d, 14 d, 24 d, 31 d, 41 d and 48 d, respectively, and serum samples were isolated for antibody detection and neutralization test analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The spleens of guinea pigs were also aseptically collected to perform spleen cells proliferation assay. The results showed that the engineered bacteria could stimulate the production of secretory antibody sIgA and specific neutralizing antibody, and stimulate the increase of IL-4 and IFN-γ, as well as the proliferation of spleen cells. These results indicated that the engineered L. plantarum containing PEDV S1 induced specific immunity toward PEDV in guinea pigs, which laid a foundation for subsequent oral vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200582DOI Listing
August 2021

Preparation and in vitro bioactive evaluation of cashew-nut proteins hydrolysate as a potential source of anti-allergy peptides.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Oct 19;58(10):3780-3789. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228 China.

This work proposes a novel potential source of antiallergens based on bioactive peptides. Cashew-nut protein hydrolysate with antiallergic activity was prepared from cashew nuts through protease treatment. The change in the antiallergic activity of cashew-nut protein hydrolysate during in vitro simulated digestion was investigated. Cashew-nut protein hydrolysates were prepared through treatment using five different enzymes, namely, Alcalase, Protamex, Neutrase, papain, and bromelin. According to the results of molecular weight distribution, more small molecular weight peptides could be obtained by selecting Alcalase protease than other proteases, and the degree of hydrolysis, trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptide yield and hyaluronidase inhibitory rate of the hydrolysate were 17.0 ± 61.52%, 26.28 ± 0.13% and 62.06% ± 5.07%, which were significantly higher than those of other proteases. Therefore, Alcalase is the most suitable protease for the preparation of cashew-nut hydrolysates. Cashew-nut protein hydrolysates prepared with Alcalase under optimum conditions were fractionated through ultrafiltration. Fractions with low molecular weight exhibited the highest hyaluronidase inhibitory rate (90.57%) among all fractions. The inhibition of hyaluronidase activity during digestion showed that cashew-nut protein hydrolysate III (CPH III) has persistent antiallergic activity. Therefore, CPH III could serve as a potential source of functional peptides with health-promoting effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04838-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357903PMC
October 2021

SMIM: A unified framework of survival sensitivity analysis using multiple imputation and martingale.

Biometrics 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey, USA.

Censored survival data are common in clinical trial studies. We propose a unified framework for sensitivity analysis to censoring at random in survival data using multiple imputation and martingale, called SMIM. The proposed framework adopts the δ-adjusted and control-based models, indexed by the sensitivity parameter, entailing censoring at random and a wide collection of censoring not at random assumptions. Also, it targets a broad class of treatment effect estimands defined as functionals of treatment-specific survival functions, taking into account missing data due to censoring. Multiple imputation facilitates the use of simple full-sample estimation; however, the standard Rubin's combining rule may overestimate the variance for inference in the sensitivity analysis framework. We decompose the multiple imputation estimator into a martingale series based on the sequential construction of the estimator and propose the wild bootstrap inference by resampling the martingale series. The new bootstrap inference has a theoretical guarantee for consistency and is computationally efficient compared to the nonparametric bootstrap counterpart. We evaluate the finite-sample performance of the proposed SMIM through simulation and an application on an HIV clinical trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/biom.13555DOI Listing
August 2021

Optical Performance and Moisture Stability Enhancement of Flexible Luminescent Films Based on Quantum-Dot/Epoxy Composite Particles.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Aug 18;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Semiconductor Display and VLC Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Quantum dots (QDs) have been widely applied in luminescent sources due to their strong optical characteristics. However, a moisture environment causes their quenching, leading to an inferior optical performance in commercial applications. In this study, based on the high moisture resistance of epoxy resin, a novel epoxy/QDs composite particle structure was proposed to solve this issue. Flexible luminescent films could be obtained by packaging composite particles in silicone resin, combining the hydrophobicity of epoxy resin and the flexibility of PDMS simultaneously. The photoluminescence and light extraction were improved due to the scattering properties of the structure of composite particles, which was caused by the refractive index mismatch between the epoxy and silicone resin. Compared to the QD/silicone film under similar lighting conditions, the proposed flexible film demonstrated increased light efficiency as well as high moisture stability. The results revealed that a light-emitting diode (LED) device using the composite particle flexible (CPF) structure obtained a 34.2% performance enhancement in luminous efficiency as well as a 32% improvement in color conversion efficiency compared to those of devices with QD/silicone film (QSF) structure. Furthermore, the CPF structure exhibited strong thermal and moisture stability against extreme ambient conditions of 85 °C and 85% relative humidity simultaneously. The normalized luminous flux degradation of devices embedded in CPF and QSF structures after aging for 118 h were ~20.2% and ~43.8%, respectively. The satisfactory performance of the CPF structure in terms of optical and moisture stability shows its great potential value in flexible commercial QD-based LED displays and lighting applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11082100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400236PMC
August 2021
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