Publications by authors named "Shu Lin"

261 Publications

[The safety of TiRobot-guided percutaneous transpedicular screw implantation].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jul;35(7):813-817

Department of Orthopedics, Sichuan Academy of Medical Science, People's Hospital of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Sichuan, 610072, P.R.China.

Objective: To evaluate the safety of TiRobot-guided percutaneous transpedicular screw implantation.

Methods: The medical records of 158 patients with thoracolumbar fractures and lumbar degenerative diseases who underwent percutaneous transpedicular screw implantation were retrospectively analyzed between January 2018 and December 2020. The patients were divided into trial group (TiRobot-guided screw implantation, 86 cases) and control group (fluoroscopy-guided screw implantation, 72 cases). There was no significant difference in gender, age, pathology, lesion segment, and the average number of screw implantation per case ( >0.05). The operation time, fluoroscopic dose, fluoroscopic time, and fluoroscopic frequency were compared between the two groups. One day postoperatively, the convergence angle was measured and the penetration of the pedicle cortex was evaluated according to Gertzbein-Robbins classification standard.

Results: The operation time, fluoroscopic dose, fluoroscopic time, and fluoroscopic frequency of the trial group were significantly lesser than those of control group ( <0.05). One day postoperatively, the convergence angle of trial group was (21.10±4.08)°, which was significantly larger than control group (19.17±3.48)° ( =6.810, =0.000). According to the Gertzbein-Robbins classification standard, 446 pedicle screws were implanted in trial group, trajectories were grade A in 377 screws, grade B in 46 screws, grade C in 23 screws, and the accuracy of screw implantation was 94.8%; 380 pedicle screws were implanted in control group, trajectories were grade A in 283 screws, grade B in 45 screws, grade C in 44 screws, grade D in 6 screws, grade E in 2 screws, and the accuracy of screw implantation was 86.3%. There was significant difference in the accuracy of screw implantation between the two groups ( =25.950, =0.000).

Conclusion: Compared with traditional percutaneous transpedicular screw implantation, TiRobot-guided percutaneous transpedicular screw implantation can improve the accuracy of screw implantation, reduce radiation exposure, and improve surgical safety, which has a good application prospect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202103072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8311213PMC
July 2021

Neuropeptide Y and Metabolism Syndrome: An Update on Perspectives of Clinical Therapeutic Intervention Strategies.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 9;9:695623. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Centre of Neurological and Metabolic Research, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China.

Through the past decade of research, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying metabolic syndrome have been suggested to involve not only the peripheral tissues, but also central metabolic regulation imbalances. The hypothalamus, and the arcuate nucleus in particular, is the control center for metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. Neuropeptide Y neurons are particularly abundantly expressed in the arcuate of the hypothalamus, where the blood-brain barrier is weak, such as to critically integrate peripheral metabolic signals with the brain center. Herein, focusing on metabolic syndrome, this manuscript aims to provide an overview of the regulatory effects of Neuropeptide Y on metabolic syndrome and discuss clinical intervention strategy perspectives for neurometabolic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.695623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299562PMC
July 2021

Update on the Mechanism and Treatment of Sevoflurane-Induced Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 8;13:702231. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China.

Sevoflurane is one of the most widely used anesthetics for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in surgical patients. Sevoflurane treatment may increase the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), and patients with POCD exhibit lower cognitive abilities than before the operation. POCD affects the lives of patients and places an additional burden on patients and their families. Understanding the mechanism of sevoflurane-induced POCD may improve prevention and treatment of POCD. In this paper, we review the diagnosis of POCD, introduce animal models of POCD in clinical research, analyze the possible mechanisms of sevoflurane-induced POCD, and summarize advances in treatment for this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.702231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296910PMC
July 2021

Residual characteristics and potential integrated risk assessment of synthetic pyrethroids in leafy vegetables from Zhejiang in China - Based on a 3-year investigation.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 16;365:130389. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology for Industrial Pollution Control of Zhejiang Province, College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032, China.

Leafy vegetables have high nutritional value and are very popular in China. However, the long-term variation in residues and integrated risks of synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) in these vegetables have not been well examined. In this study, a total of 1005 samples were collected from 55 markets during 2017-2019. The cumulative exposure to nine kinds of SPs in Zhejiang, China, through the consumption of nine leafy vegetables was analyzed, and the potential integrated risk was assessed by the relative potency factor. A total of 191 samples were detected with SPs residues. The most frequently detected SPs were λ-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin. The integrated risk assessment results revealed that the dietary risk for these SPs via leafy vegetable exposure is acceptable for children, adults and elderly individuals. The data provided here will be helpful for the government to formulate food policies in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130389DOI Listing
June 2021

The Crucial Role of Wntless in Osteogenesis and Odontogenesis.

Chin J Dent Res 2021 Jun;24(2):85-94

Wnt signalling pathways have been the focus of intense research activity for decades due to their fundamental role in skeletal and dental development. Wntless, an exclusive chaperone protein for the exocytotis of Wnt ligands, was identified in 2006. In the last decade, the molecular biological studies of Wntless and its genetic studies in human and mice have highlighted the importance of this protein in mineralised tissues, including bone, cartilage and teeth. This article reviews recent developments and discrepancies in the role of Wntless in skeletal and dental development based on mutant phenotypes, as well as the underlying mechanism involved in its molecular and physiological regulation. We conclude that, though some controversial phenotypes exist due to different Cre line resources, Cre recombinase activity and detection time points, Wntless undeniably exerts a context- and stage-dependent regulatory function during the development and homeostasis of both skeletal and dental tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.cjdr.b1530533DOI Listing
June 2021

Redirection of the central metabolism of Klebsiella pneumoniae towards dihydroxyacetone production.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Jun 29;20(1):123. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Lab of Biorefinery, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 99 Haike Road, Pudong, Shanghai, 201210, People's Republic of China.

Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterium that can be used as producer for numerous chemicals. Glycerol can be catabolised by K. pneumoniae and dihydroxyacetone is an intermediate of this catabolism pathway. Here dihydroxyacetone and glycerol were produced from glucose by this bacterium based a redirected glycerol catabolism pathway.

Results: tpiA, encoding triosephosphate isomerase, was knocked out to block the further catabolism of dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the glycolysis. After overexpression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydroxyacetone phosphate dephosphorylase (hdpA), the engineered strain produced remarkable levels of dihydroxyacetone (7.0 g/L) and glycerol (2.5 g/L) from glucose. Further increase in product formation were obtained by knocking out gapA encoding an iosenzyme of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. There are two dihydroxyacetone kinases in K. pneumoniae. They were both disrupted to prevent an inefficient reaction cycle between dihydroxyacetone phosphate and dihydroxyacetone, and the resulting strains had a distinct improvement in dihydroxyacetone and glycerol production. pH 6.0 and low air supplement were identified as the optimal conditions for dihydroxyacetone and glycerol production by K, pneumoniae ΔtpiA-ΔDHAK-hdpA. In fed batch fermentation 23.9 g/L of dihydroxyacetone and 10.8 g/L of glycerol were produced after 91 h of cultivation, with the total conversion ratio of 0.97 mol/mol glucose.

Conclusions: This study provides a novel and highly efficient way of dihydroxyacetone and glycerol production from glucose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-021-01608-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243499PMC
June 2021

PI3K regulates the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in atherosclerosis through part-dependent AKT signaling pathway.

Exp Anim 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Cardiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University.

PI3K is a downstream target of multiple cell-surface receptors, which acts as a crucial modulator of both cell polarization and survival. PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is commonly involved in cancer, atherosclerosis, and other diseases. However, its role in cardiovascular diseases, especially in atherosclerosis, remains to be further investigated. To determine the effect of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway on cellular inflammatory response and oxidative stress, PI3K inhibitor (GDC0941) and AKT inhibitor (MK2206) were used. First, THP-1 cells were incubated with ox-LDL (100 µg/ml) to establish an in vitro atherosclerosis model. The inflammatory factors and foam cell formation were then evaluated to ascertain and compare the effects of PI3K and AKT inhibition. ApoE mice fed a high-fat diet were used to assess the roles of PI3K and AKT in aortic plaque formation. Our results showed that the inhibition of PI3K or AKT could suppress the activation of NLRP3, decreased the expression levels of p-p65/p65 and reduced the production of MitoROS in THP-1 cells. Inhibition of PI3K or AKT could also reduced atherosclerosis lesion and plaque area, and decreased the levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β in ApoE mice. The effect of PI3K inhibition was more significant than AKT. Therefore, PI3K inhibition can retard the progress of atherosclerosis. Besides, there may be other AKT-independent pathways that regulate the formation of atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1538/expanim.21-0002DOI Listing
June 2021

Hippocampal Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferases 4 and BDNF in the Progress of Obesity-Induced Depression.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 13;12:667773. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Endocrinology, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Obesity has been reported to lead to increased incidence of depression. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases 4 (GPAT4) is involved in triacylglycerol synthesis and plays an important role in the occurrence of obesity. GPAT4 is the only one of GPAT family expressed in the brain. The aim of this study is to investigate if central GPAT4 is associated with obesity-related depression and its underlying mechanism.

Results: A high-fat diet resulted in increased body weight and blood lipid. HFD induced depression like behavior in the force swimming test, tail suspension test and sucrose preference test. HFD significantly up-regulated the expression of GPAT4 in hippocampus, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB, accompanied with down-regulation of BDNF expression in hippocampus and ventromedical hypothalamus, which was attributed to AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hippocampal GPAT4 may participate in HFD induced depression through AMPK/CREB/BDNF pathway, which provides insights into a clinical target for obesity-associated depression intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.667773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158158PMC
May 2021

Immunoprofiling Correlates of Protection Against SHIV Infection in Adjuvanted HIV-1 Pox-Protein Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques.

Front Immunol 2021 11;12:625030. Epub 2021 May 11.

Biotechnology HPC Software Applications Institute, Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick, MD, United States.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a major public health threat due to its incurable nature and the lack of a highly efficacious vaccine. The RV144 vaccine trial is the only clinical study to date that demonstrated significant but modest decrease in HIV infection risk. To improve HIV-1 vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy, we recently evaluated pox-protein vaccination using a next generation liposome-based adjuvant, Army Liposomal Formulation adsorbed to aluminum (ALFA), in rhesus monkeys and observed 90% efficacy against limiting dose mucosal SHIV challenge in male animals. Here, we analyzed binding antibody responses, as assessed by Fc array profiling using a broad range of HIV-1 envelope antigens and Fc features, to explore the mechanisms of ALFA-mediated protection by employing machine learning and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. We found that Fcγ receptor 2a-related binding antibody responses were augmented by ALFA relative to aluminium hydroxide, and these responses were associated with reduced risk of infection in male animals. Our results highlight the application of systems serology to provide mechanistic insights to vaccine-elicited protection and support evidence that antibody effector responses protect against HIV-1 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.625030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144500PMC
May 2021

Mining HIV controllers for broad and functional antibodies to recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(8):109167

Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:

HIV monoclonal antibodies for viral reservoir eradication strategies will likely need to recognize reactivated infected cells and potently drive Fc-mediated innate effector cell activity. We systematically characterize a library of 185 HIV-envelope-specific antibodies derived from 15 spontaneous HIV controllers (HCs) that selectively exhibit robust serum Fc functionality and compared them to broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in clinical development. Within the 10 antibodies with the broadest cell-recognition capability, seven originated from HCs and three were bNAbs. V3-loop-targeting antibodies are enriched among the top cell binders, suggesting the V3-loop may be selectively exposed and accessible on the cell surface. Fc functionality is more variable across antibodies, which is likely influenced by distinct binding topology and corresponding Fc accessibility, highlighting not only the importance of target-cell recognition but also the need to optimize for Fc-mediated elimination. Ultimately, our results demonstrate that this comprehensive selection process can identify monoclonal antibodies poised to eliminate infected cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196545PMC
May 2021

Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells for spinal cord injury: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

J Transl Med 2021 04 28;19(1):178. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe traumatic disease of the central nervous system, with a global prevalence of 236-4187 per million people. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in treating patients with SCI as well as the optimal source and transplantation method of MSCs. PubMed, OVID, Cochrane, Web of Science, and China Biomedical Database were searched up until April 01, 2021. The study was conducted for five endpoints: American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor and sensory score, ASIA grade improvement, Barthel Index (BI), and adverse reactions. Standard meta-analysis and network meta-analysis were performed using Stata 14.0. Eighteen studies with a total of 949 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. Standard meta-analysis showed that MSCs significantly improved ASIA motor score (P < 0.001), sensory score (P < 0.001), ASIA grade (P < 0.001), and BI (P < 0.001) compared to rehabilitation. In addition, in the network meta-analysis, autologous MSCs significantly improved the ASIA motor [MD = 8.01, 95% CI (4.27, 11.76)], sensory score [MD = 17.98, 95% CI (10.04, 25.91)], and BI [MD = 7.69, 95% CI (2.10, 13.29)] compared to rehabilitation. Similarly, compared to rehabilitation, intrathecal injection (IT) of MSCs significantly improved the ASIA motor [MD = 7.97, 95% CI (4.40, 11.53)] and sensory score [MD = 19.60, 95% CI (9.74, 29.46)]. Compared to rehabilitation, however, only the IL of MSCs was associated with more adverse reactions [OR = 17.82, 95% CI (2.48, 128.22)]. According to the results of SUCRA, both autologous MSCs and IT transplantation approaches most improved the neurological function in SCI patients. Cell transplantation using MSCs is effective in patients with SCI and IT of autologous MSCs may be more beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02843-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082850PMC
April 2021

An Update on Obstructive Sleep Apnea for Atherosclerosis: Mechanism, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 8;8:647071. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China.

The occurrence and development of atherosclerosis could be influenced by intermittent hypoxia. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by intermittent hypoxia, is world-wide prevalence with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Researches remain focused on the study of its mechanism and improvement of diagnosis and treatment. However, the underlying mechanism is complex, and the best practice for OSA diagnosis and treatment considering atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular diseases is still debatable. In this review, we provided an update on research in OSA in the last 5 years with regard to atherosclerosis. The processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, autonomic nervous system activation, vascular dysfunction, platelet activation, metabolite dysfunction, small molecule RNA regulation, and the cardioprotective occurrence was discussed. Additionally, improved diagnosis such as, the utilized of portable device, and treatment especially with inconsistent results in continuous positive airway pressure and mandibular advancement devices were illustrated in detail. Therefore, further fundamental and clinical research should be carried out for a better understanding the deep interaction between OSA and atherosclerosis, as well as the suggestion of newer diagnostic and treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.647071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060459PMC
April 2021

Electrical Resistance of Stainless Steel/Polyester Blended Knitted Fabrics for Application to Measure Sweat Quantity.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

The Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The HongKong Polytechnic University, Hongkong, China.

Skin wetness and body water loss are important indexes to reflect the heat strain of the human body. According to ISO 7933 2004, the skin wetness and sweat rate are calculated by the evaporative heat flow and the maximum evaporative heat flow in the skin surface, etc. This work proposes the soft textile-based sensor, which was knitted by stainless steel/polyester blended yarn on the flat knitting machine. It investigated the relationship between electrical resistance in the weft/warp directions and different water absorption ratio (0-70%), different sample size (2 cm × 2 cm, 2 cm × 4 cm, 2 cm × 6 cm and 2 cm × 8 cm). The hydrophilic treatment effectively improved the water absorption ratio increasing from 40% to 70%. The weft and warp direction exhibited different electrical behaviors when under dry and wet conditions. It suggested the weft direction of knitted fabrics was recommended for detecting the electrical resistance due to its stable sensitivity and linearity performance. It could be used as a flexible sensor integrated into a garment for measuring the skin wetness and sweat rate in the future instead of traditional measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13071015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037120PMC
March 2021

Prediction factors of weight control intention in Chinese young adults.

Int J Nurs Pract 2021 Jun 21;27(3):e12927. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Nursing, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Background: Weight control is a widespread phenomenon among young adults, especially in women.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the prediction factors of weight control intention in a young Chinese sample.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 963 (276 male and 687 female; mean age 21.8 ± 4.4 years) adult students from a university in Taiwan. The data were collected from October 2016 to January 2017. Body mass index (BMI), the Chinese version of the Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire, the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale and the Media Influence Questionnaire were used as data collection instruments.

Results: The participants with weight control intention had higher BMI, weight self-stigma and media influence scores and lower body satisfaction scores than those without the intention. Female sex, BMI, weight self-stigma, body satisfaction and media influence were significant predictors of weight control intention for all participants.

Conclusion: Before conducting weight loss programmes, the perception of weight self-stigma and the influence of social media on body image should be confirmed, particularly in women with intention to lose weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12927DOI Listing
June 2021

Repair abilities of mouse autologous adipose-derived stem cells and ShakeGel™3D complex local injection with intrauterine adhesion by BMP7-Smad5 signaling pathway activation.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 03 18;12(1):191. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Diabetes and Metabolism Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW, 2010, Australia.

Background: The objective was to explore the therapeutic effect of autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) combined with ShakeGel™3D transplantation to activate the BMP7-Smad5 signaling pathway to treat intrauterine adhesions (IUA).

Methods: Autologous ADSCs were isolated and then merged with ShakeGel™3D. The IUA model was established by mechanical injury. The third generation of autologous ADSCs was injected directly into the uterus in combination with ShakeGel™3D. After 7 days of treatment, endometrial morphology, number of endometrial glands, endometrial fibrosis area, and fibrosis biomarker analysis by RT-PCR and IHC were examined. BMP7 and phosphorylation of Smad5 were also detected, and the recovery of infertility function in treated mice was evaluated.

Results: Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) showed that autologous ADSCs expressed CD105 (99.1%), CD29 (99.6%), and CD73 (98.9%). Autologous ADSCs could still maintain a good growth state in ShakeGel™3D. Histological examination revealed that the number of endometrial glands increased significantly, and the area of fibrosis decreased. At the same time, the expression of BMP7 and Smad5 in the ADSCs + Gel group was significantly upregulated, and the final reproductive function of this group was partly recovered.

Conclusions: Autologous ADSCs can be used in combination with ShakeGel™3D to maintain functionality and create a viable three-dimensional growth environment. The combined transplantation of autologous ADSCs and ShakeGel™3D promotes the recovery of damaged endometrial tissue by increasing BMP7-Smad5 signal transduction, resulting in endometrium thickening, increased number of glands, and decreased fibrosis, leading to restoration of partial fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02258-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977602PMC
March 2021

Updated Role of Neuropeptide Y in Nicotine-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction and Atherosclerosis.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 23;8:630968. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China.

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Endothelial dysfunction of the arterial vasculature plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular pathogenesis. Nicotine-induced endothelial dysfunction substantially contributes to the development of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Nicotine promotes oxidative inflammation, thrombosis, pathological angiogenesis, and vasoconstriction, and induces insulin resistance. However, the exact mechanism through which nicotine induces endothelial dysfunction remains unclear. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, and it participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by regulating vasoconstriction, energy metabolism, local plaque inflammatory response, activation and aggregation of platelets, and stress and anxiety-related emotion. Nicotine can increase the expression of NPY, suggesting that NPY is involved in nicotine-induced endothelial dysfunction. Herein, we present an updated review of the possible mechanisms of nicotine-induced atherosclerosis, with a focus on endothelial cell dysfunction associated with nicotine and NPY.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.630968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940677PMC
February 2021

Copper(I)-Catalyzed Nitrile-Addition/-Arylation Ring-Closure Cascade: Synthesis of 5,11-Dihydro-6-indolo[3,2-]quinolin-6-ones as Potent Topoisomerase-I Inhibitors.

J Med Chem 2021 02 25;64(3):1435-1453. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiayi University, No. 300, Syuefu Road, Chiayi City 60004, Taiwan.

In this paper, we present a copper(I)-catalyzed nitrile-addition/-arylation ring-closure cascade for the synthesis of 5,11-dihydro-6-indolo[3,2-]quinolin-6-ones from 2-(2-bromophenyl)--(2-cyanophenyl)acetamides. Using CuBr and -BuONa in dimethylformamide (DMF) as the optimal reaction conditions, the cascade reaction gave the target products, in high yields, with a good substrate scope. Application of the cascade reaction was demonstrated on the concise total syntheses of alkaloid isocryptolepine. Further optimization of the products from the cascade reaction led to 3-chloro-5,12-bis[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-5,12-dihydro-6-[1,3]dioxolo[4',5':5,6]indolo[3,2-]quinolin-6-one (), which exhibited the characteristic DNA topoisomerase-I inhibitory mechanism of action with potent in vitro anticancer activity. Compound actively inhibited ARC-111- and SN-38-resistant HCT-116 cells and showed in vivo activity in mice bearing human HCT-116 and SJCRH30 xenografts. The interaction of with the Top-DNA cleavable complex was revealed by docking simulations to guide the future optimization of 5,11-dihydro-6-indolo[3,2-]quinolin-6-ones as topoisomerase-I inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00727DOI Listing
February 2021

Commentary: Time-varying variables-predictively predictive prediction in a coronary artery bypass grafting readmission predictive model.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Dec 17. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Health System, Durham, NC; Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC; Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.12.033DOI Listing
December 2020

A Novel Low-Cost Wireless Footwear System for Monitoring Diabetic Foot Patients.

IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst 2021 02 30;15(1):43-54. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Diabetic foot is one of the main complications of diabetes with the characteristics of high incidence and difficulty in treatment. Diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy may develop foot ulcers, and in severe cases amputations are required and some may even die. Plantar pressure can be used to assess the risk of developing diabetic foot, but the existing plantar pressure monitoring methods are not suitable for long-term monitoring in daily life. This study presents a novel low-cost shoe system for daily monitoring of plantar pressure in diabetics. It includes an insole with pressure sensor array, which can dynamically monitor the plantar pressure and display the changes of plantar pressure in real time in the mobile phone to provide early warning for patients with high risk of diabetic foot. As for the sensor, copper and carbon black were adopted as the electrode and conductive filler respectively, enabling a mass production with low price. It was soft and bendable, meeting the performance needs of daily plantar pressure monitoring. All devices were encapsulated in shoes, and the data was transmitted wirelessly through Bluetooth, which did not affect the user's walking. After using random forest for feature selection, five classifiers were used to classify the plantar pressure of healthy people, diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy, and diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy collected by this system. The experimental results showed that the accuracy of the random forest classifier was the highest, reaching 94.7%, which indicated that the system could be useful for daily plantar pressure monitoring of diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBCAS.2020.3043538DOI Listing
February 2021

Protective effect of naringenin against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in male SD rats.

J Inorg Biochem 2021 Jan 14;214:111310. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, No.12, East Wenhui Road, 225009 Yangzhou, PR China.

This study aimed to investigate the effect of naringenin (Nar) on cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats aged 5 weeks were used. Rats were administered with 0.9% NaCl (control group), CdCl (2 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally), Nar (50 mg/kg b.w, orally), and CdCl + Nar (2 mg/kg b.w intraperitoneally and 50 mg/kg b.w. orally, respectively) for 4 weeks. Results showed that body weight, relative testis weights, and sperm quality decreased in the Cd-treated group, and Cd accumulated in serum and testes. Pathological examination showed that Cd can cause testicular damage. Cd decreased the serum concentrations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone. It also decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Moreover, exposure to Cd resulted in decreased content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) concentrations, as well as increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (HO) contents. Cd also provoked testis autophagy by upregulating the expression of the autophagy-related proteins P62 and LC3 II. However, the combined administration of Nar and Cd significantly attenuated the Cd-induced negative effects by increasing the body weight, relative testis weights, and sperm quality and by decreasing testicular damage. Simultaneous supplementation of Nar and Cd markedly restored the decreased levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, testosterone, GSH, and T-AOC and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx caused by Cd treatment. Nar further suppressed MDA and HO production and protected the testes from Cd-induced autophagy by downregulating P62 and LC3 II expression. Therefore, Nar protected the testes from Cd-induced toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2020.111310DOI Listing
January 2021

Time-dependent physics of single-surface multipactor discharge with two carrier frequencies.

Phys Rev E 2020 Oct;102(4-1):043201

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1226, USA.

This work investigates the time-dependent physics of multipactor discharge on a single dielectric surface with a transverse rf electric field of two carrier frequencies using a multiparticle Monte Carlo simulation model with adaptive time steps. The effects of the relative strength and phase, and the frequency separation between the two carriers are studied. Closed Lissajous curves are obtained to describe the relationship between the rf electric field parallel to the surface and the normal surface charging field in the ac saturation state. It is found that two-frequency operation can reduce the multipactor strength compared to single-frequency operation with the same total rf power, though the effect of the frequency separation is not prominent on multipactor susceptibility. Formation of beat waves is observed in the temporal profiles of the normal electric field due to surface charging with a noninteger frequency ratio between the two carrier modes. Phase space evolution of multipactor electrons is examined, revealing a periodic bunching and debunching of electrons in the surface normal direction, but a gradual debunching effect in the direction tangential to the dielectric surface. Migration of the multipactor trajectory is also demonstrated for different configurations of the two-frequency rf fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.102.043201DOI Listing
October 2020

Neuropeptide Y Is an Immunomodulatory Factor: Direct and Indirect.

Front Immunol 2020 6;11:580378. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is widely distributed in the nervous system, is involved in regulating a variety of biological processes, including food intake, energy metabolism, and emotional expression. However, emerging evidence points to NPY also as a critical transmitter between the nervous system and immune system, as well as a mediator produced and released by immune cells. and studies based on gene-editing techniques and specific NPY receptor agonists and antagonists have demonstrated that NPY is responsible for multifarious direct modulations on immune cells by acting on NPY receptors. Moreover, via the central or peripheral nervous system, NPY is closely connected to body temperature regulation, obesity development, glucose metabolism, and emotional expression, which are all immunomodulatory factors for the immune system. In this review, we focus on the direct role of NPY in immune cells and particularly discuss its indirect impact on the immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.580378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7573154PMC
June 2021

Mining for humoral correlates of HIV control and latent reservoir size.

PLoS Pathog 2020 10 13;16(10):e1008868. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, United States of America.

While antiretroviral therapy (ART) has effectively revolutionized HIV care, the virus is never fully eliminated. Instead, immune dysfunction, driven by persistent non-specific immune activation, ensues and progressively leads to premature immunologic aging. Current biomarkers monitoring immunologic changes encompass generic inflammatory biomarkers, that may also change with other infections or disease states, precluding the antigen-specific monitoring of HIV-infection associated changes in disease. Given our growing appreciation of the significant changes in qualitative and quantitative properties of disease-specific antibodies in HIV infection, we used a systems approach to explore humoral profiles associated with HIV control. We found that HIV-specific antibody profiles diverge by spontaneous control of HIV, treatment status, viral load and reservoir size. Specifically, HIV-specific antibody profiles representative of changes in viral load were largely quantitative, reflected by differential HIV-specific antibody levels and Fc-receptor binding. Conversely, HIV-specific antibody features that tracked with reservoir size exhibited a combination of quantitative and qualitative changes marked by more distinct subclass selection profiles and unique HIV-specific Fc-glycans. Our analyses suggest that HIV-specific antibody Fc-profiles provide antigen-specific resolution on both cell free and cell-associated viral loads, pointing to potentially novel biomarkers to monitor reservoir activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553335PMC
October 2020

[Robot-guided percutaneous kyphoplasty in treatment of multi-segmental osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Sep;34(9):1136-1141

Department of Orthopedics, Sichuan Academy of Medical Science, People's Hospital of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Sichuan, 610072, P.R.China.

Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of robot-guided percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) in treatment of multi-segmental thoracolumbar osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF).

Methods: A clinical data of 63 cases with multi-segmental thoracolumbar OVCF without neurologic deficit treated with PKP between October 2017 and February 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into robot-guided group (33 cases) and traditional fluoroscopy group (30 cases). There was no significant difference in gender, age, fracture segment, bone mineral density, and preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score, midline vertebral height, and Cobb angle between the two groups ( >0.05). The time to establish the tunnel, the times of fluoroscopy, the dose of fluoroscopy, the deviation of puncture, the distribution of bone cement, the leakage of bone cement, the puncture angle, and the postoperative VAS score, midline vertebral height, and Cobb angle were recorded and compared.

Results: The patients in two groups were followed up 11-13 months (mean, 12 months). Compared with traditional fluoroscopy group, the time to establish the tunnel, the times and dose of fluoroscopy in robot-guided group were significantly lower, the deviation of puncture was slighter, the distribution of bone cement was better, and the puncture angle was larger, the differences between the two groups were significant ( <0.05). There were 8 segments (9.3%, 8/86) of bone leakage in robot-guided group and 17 segments (22.6%, 17/75) in traditional fluoroscopy group, the difference between the two groups was significant ( =5.455, =0.020). There was no significant difference in VAS score, the midline vertebral height, and Cobb angle between the two groups at 2 days after operation and last follow-up ( >0.05).

Conclusion: Robot-guided PKP in treatment of multi-segmental thoracolumbar OVCF can shorten the operation time, improve the accuracy of puncture, reduce the times and dose of fluoroscopy, reduce the leakage of bone cement, and achieve better cement distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202002131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8171738PMC
September 2020

The distributions of three fungicides in vegetables and their potential health risks in Zhejiang, China: A 3-year study (2015-2017).

Environ Pollut 2020 Dec 27;267:115481. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology for Industrial Pollution Control of Zhejiang Province, College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310032, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Fungicides have been extensively used around the world in agriculture due to their effectiveness of sterilization. Recent evidences have shown that fungicides would exert a negative effect on gut microbiota and result in gut microbiota dysbiosis and metabolism disorder on non-target organisms and even humans. However, research on residues and potential health risks of fungicides in daily consumed vegetables has received less attention compared to insecticides. In this study, we studied three widely applied fungicides, procymidone, dimethomorph, and azoxystrobin, in China. We collected 551 samples of 10 different vegetables in 11 cities from Zhejiang province during 2015-2017. Three fungicides were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The average apparent recoveries of three fungicides ranged from 84.2% to 110% with the relative standard deviations lower than 10%. The LOD values of procymidone, dimethomorph, and azoxystrobin was 2, 0.09, and 1 μg/kg, respectively. The levels of procymidone, dimethomorph, and azoxystrobin in those vegetables ranged from ND-875, ND-238, and ND-76 μg/kg, respectively. The highest mean concentrations of procymidone, dimethomorph, and azoxystrobin were found in eggplant (68 μg/kg), spinach (16.4 μg/kg), and kidney bean (4 μg/kg), respectively. Tomato (62.6% of samples), eggplant (44.3% of samples), and cucumber (41.6% of samples) were most frequently detected with fungicides. Solanaceous fruit vegetables have the highest detection rate than other vegetables, and fungicides were most frequently detected in winter. The mean concentrations of three fungicides in different vegetables were all below the maximum residue limits for the national food safety standards of China, and the health risks resulting from consuming those vegetables in adults and children were all within the safe ranges. The data provided here clarify the distributions of fungicides in commonly consumed vegetables and their potential health risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115481DOI Listing
December 2020

Clinical Features of COVID-19 in a Young Man with Massive Cerebral Hemorrhage-Case Report.

SN Compr Clin Med 2020 May 23:1-7. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Neurology, Taihe Hospital Affiliated to Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan City, Hubei Province China.

COVID-19 is currently a pandemic in the world, can invade multiple systems, and has a high morbidity and mortality. So far, no cases of acute cerebrovascular disease have been reported. This article reports the clinical features of a COVID-19 patient whose first symptom was cerebral hemorrhage. More importantly, after the craniotomy, the patient had high fever and it was difficult to retreat. After cerebrospinal fluid testing, it was determined that an intracranial infection had occurred. After anti-infection and plasma infusion of the recovered person, the patient's symptoms gradually improved. This case suggests that COVID-19 may infringe on cerebral blood vessels and cause cerebral hemorrhage. Transfusion of plasma from rehabilitation patients is effective for critically ill patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42399-020-00315-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245167PMC
May 2020

Heart Failure With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Association Between Antihyperglycemic Agents, Glycemic Control, and Ejection Fraction.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 10;11:448. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Heart failure (HF) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Antihyperglycemic drugs have interaction with heart failure among diabetic patients. To date, the data on real world use of diabetic medication in Malaysian heart failure patients with T2DM has not been elucidated. This study aims to identify the prescribing pattern of antihyperglycemic regimens in HF patients with T2DM, and to investigate the association between glycemic control and other factors such as demographic and clinical characteristics with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in these patients. This retrospective observational study involved patients diagnosed to have HF and T2DM who were seen in the outpatient clinic in a government tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Patients receiving at least one oral antidiabetic agent and/or insulin for at least 3 months prior were included. The differences and association between study outcomes were examined and analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test, One-Way ANOVA, Binary Logistic Regression and multiple Multinomial Logistic Regression models. From July to December 2019, 194 patients were included in this study. The majority (52.1%) of the patients had HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), 20.6% had HF with mid-range EF (HFmrEF), and 27.3% had HF with reduced EF (HFrEF). Overall, metformin (59.8%) was the commonest antihyperglycemic agent prescribed, followed by insulins (54.0%), and sulphonylureas (44.9%). The most prescribed agents for HFpEF, HFmrEF, and HFrEF patients were metformin (65.3%), insulins (62.5%), and sulphonylureas (60.4%), respectively. The prescribing trend of sulphonylureas was found to be significantly associated with patients' LVEF status ( = 0.033). The odds for sulphonylurea prescription among the HFrEF patients were 2.42 times higher compared to the HFpEF patients [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-4.79]. There was no association found between glycemic control with patients' LVEF. Our findings reported metformin as the most commonly prescribed antihyperglycemic agent, sodium glucose linked transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor being under-prescribed, and detected poorly controlled diabetes in majority of patients with T2DM and HF. Understanding the prescribing pattern of antihyperglycemic agents supports the implementation of evidence-based treatment in HF patients with T2DM to improve patients' outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7366349PMC
June 2021

NPY promotes macrophage migration by upregulating matrix metalloproteinase-8 expression.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Mar 24;236(3):1903-1912. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Cardiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Macrophage migration is thought to participate in obesity-related cardiovascular diseases. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) possesses proteolytic activity on the extracellular matrix (ECM), which promotes macrophage migration to the site of vascular injury. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a bioactive peptide involved in MMP expression. However, it is uncertain whether NPY can regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in macrophages. In this study, wild-type C57BL/6 and NPY mice were fed a high-fat diet and subjected to subcutaneous carotid artery injury with ferric chloride, to observe the role of NPY and macrophages in neointima formation. In addition, Raw264.7 cells were treated with NPY and its antagonists to observe MMP-8 expression and macrophage migration. We found that NPY mice exhibited significantly reduced neointima formation after carotid artery injury. The content of macrophages and MMP-8 in the neointima and media were also significantly reduced in NPY mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, the expression of MMP-8 in macrophages was also decreased in NPY mice. NPY increased MMP-8 messenger RNA and protein expression in Raw264.7 cells in vitro, and this effect was abrogated by the Y1R antagonist. In addition, NPY increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which was significantly attenuated by co-treatment with the Y1R antagonist. Moreover, NPY-induced MMP-8 expression could be decreased by the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. Furthermore, NPY promoted macrophage migration across type I collagen in vitro. In conclusion, NPY promotes macrophage migration by upregulating MMP-8 expression, which we believe to be an underappreciated mechanism of the increased progression of neointima formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29973DOI Listing
March 2021

Histone H3.3 phosphorylation amplifies stimulation-induced transcription.

Nature 2020 07 22;583(7818):852-857. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Epigenetics and Immunity, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Complex organisms can rapidly induce select genes in response to diverse environmental cues. This regulation occurs in the context of large genomes condensed by histone proteins into chromatin. The sensing of pathogens by macrophages engages conserved signalling pathways and transcription factors to coordinate the induction of inflammatory genes. Enriched integration of histone H3.3, the ancestral histone H3 variant, is a general feature of dynamically regulated chromatin and transcription. However, how chromatin is regulated at induced genes, and what features of H3.3 might enable rapid and high-level transcription, are unknown. The amino terminus of H3.3 contains a unique serine residue (Ser31) that is absent in 'canonical' H3.1 and H3.2. Here we show that this residue, H3.3S31, is phosphorylated (H3.3S31ph) in a stimulation-dependent manner along rapidly induced genes in mouse macrophages. This selective mark of stimulation-responsive genes directly engages the histone methyltransferase SETD2, a component of the active transcription machinery, and 'ejects' the elongation corepressor ZMYND11. We propose that features of H3.3 at stimulation-induced genes, including H3.3S31ph, provide preferential access to the transcription apparatus. Our results indicate dedicated mechanisms that enable rapid transcription involving the histone variant H3.3, its phosphorylation, and both the recruitment and the ejection of chromatin regulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2533-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7517595PMC
July 2020

Parkinson's disease a futile entangle of Mankind's credence on an herbal remedy: A review.

Life Sci 2020 Sep 3;257:118019. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Cardiovascular and Mitochondrial Related Disease Research Center, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan; Center of General Education, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Hualien 970, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan; Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a disease of the human nervous system with an onset, in the sixth and seventh decades of the human life. Chiefly perceived as progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) with the ensued loss of dopamine in the striatum and the presence of Lewy bodies, consisting of α-synuclein agglomeration. In which the neuronal bridge between substantia nigra and striatum plays an advent role in the motor system. Dilapidation of these neurons results in dopamine depletion which in-turn makes hay to PD. Eventually, the etiology and pathogenesis of PD were still on a hike of dilemma. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), including Chinese herbal remedies, acupuncture, and manipulative therapies, is commonly used as an adjunctive therapy in different diseases, particularly neurological diseases, in Asian countries. Additionally, TCM might improve the prognoses and the quality of life of patients with PD because it induces less adverse drug reactions. The present review describes research on the various neuroprotective components and herbal extracts from herbal medicines in the context of addressing the effects of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118019DOI Listing
September 2020
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