Publications by authors named "Shrinivas Rathod"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Optical scan and 3D printing guided radiation therapy - an application and provincial experience in cutaneous nasal carcinoma.

3D Print Med 2022 Mar 29;8(1). Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Background: Single field Orthovoltage radiation is an acceptable modality used for the treatment of nasal cutaneous cancer. However, this technique has dosimetric pitfalls and unnecessary excessive exposure of radiation to organs at risk (OAR). We present the clinical outcome of a case series of cutaneous nasal tumours using a novel technique incorporating an optical scanner and a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to deliver treatments using parallel opposed (POP) fields.

Materials And Methods: The POP delivery method was validated using ion chamber and phantom measurements before implementation. A retrospective chart review of 26 patients treated with this technique between 2015 and 2019 was conducted. Patients' demographics and treatment outcomes were gathered and tabulated. These patients first underwent an optical scan of their faces to collect topographical data. The data were then transcribed into 3D printing algorithms, and positive impressions of the faces were printed. Custom nose block bolus was made with wax encased in an acrylic shell; 4 cm thick using the printed face models. Custom lead shielding was also generated. Treatments were delivered using 250 KeV photons POP arrangement with 4 cm diameter circle applicator cone and prescribed to the midplane. Dose and fractionation were as per physician discretion.

Results: Phantom measurements at mid-plane were found to match the prescribed dose within ±0.5%. For the 26 cases in this review, the median age was 78.5 years, with 15 females and 11 males. 85% of cases had Basal cell carcinoma (BCC); 1 had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), one had synchronous BCC + SCC, and 1 had Merkel cell carcinoma. Twenty-one cases had T1N0 disease, 4 had T2N0, and 1 had T3N0. Dose and fractionation delivered were 40Gy in 10 fractions for the majority of cases. The complete response rate at a median follow-up of 6 months was 88%; 1 patient had a refractory tumour, and one patient had a recurrence. Toxicities were minor with 81% with no reported side effects. Three patients experienced grade 3 skin toxicity.

Conclusions: Utilization of optic scanner and 3D printing technology, with the innovative approach of using POP orthovoltage beams, allows an effective and efficient way of treatment carcinomas of the nose with a high control rate and low toxicity profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41205-022-00136-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8966238PMC
March 2022

Impact of Pre-Treatment NLR and Other Hematologic Biomarkers on the Outcomes of Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.

Curr Oncol 2022 01 4;29(1):193-208. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0V9, Canada.

Introduction: We evaluated the association of pre-treatment immunologic biomarkers on the outcomes of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, all newly diagnosed early-stage NSCLC treated with SBRT between January 2010 and December 2017 were screened and included for further analysis. The pre-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were calculated. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier. Multivariable models were constructed to determine the impact of different biomarkers and the Akaike information criterion (AIC), index of adequacy, and scaled Brier scores were calculated.

Results: A total of 72 patients were identified and 61 were included in final analysis. The median neutrophil count at baseline was 5.4 × 10/L (IQR: 4.17-7.05 × 10/L). Median lymphocyte count was 1.63 × 10/L (IQR: 1.29-2.10 × 10/L), median monocyte count was 0.65 × 10/L (IQR: 0.54-0.83 × 10/L), median platelet count was 260.0 × 10/L (IQR: 211.0-302.0 × 10/L). The median NLR was 3.42 (IQR: 2.38-5.04), median MLR was 0.39 (IQR: 0.31-0.53), and median PLR was 156.4 (IQR: 117.2-197.5). On multivariable regression a higher NLR was associated with worse OS ( = 0.01; HR-1.26; 95% CI 1.04-1.53). The delta AIC between the two multivariable models was 3.4, suggesting a moderate impact of NLR on OS. On multivariable analysis, higher NLR was associated with poor RFS ( = 0.001; NLR^1 HR 0.36; 0.17-0.78; NLR^2 HR-1.16; 95% CI 1.06-1.26) with a nonlinear relationship. The delta AIC between the two multivariable models was 16.2, suggesting a strong impact of NLR on RFS. In our cohort, MLR and PLR were not associated with RFS or OS in multivariable models.

Conclusions: Our study suggests NLR, as a biomarker of systemic inflammation, is an independent prognostic factor for OS and RFS. The nonlinear relationship with RFS may indicate a suitable immunological environment is needed for optimal SBRT action and tumoricidal mechanisms. These findings require further validation in independent cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29010019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8774597PMC
January 2022

Machine learning for dose-volume histogram based clinical decision-making support system in radiation therapy plans for brain tumors.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2021 Nov 15;31:50-57. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, GA216-820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada.

Purpose: To create and investigate a novel, clinical decision-support system using machine learning (ML).

Methods And Materials: The ML model was developed based on 79 radiotherapy plans of brain tumor patients that were prescribed a total dose of 60 Gy delivered with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Structures considered for analysis included planning target volume (PTV), brainstem, cochleae, and optic chiasm. The model aimed to classify the target variable that included class-0 corresponding to plans for which the PTV treatment planning objective was met and class-1 that was associated with plans for which the PTV objective was not met due to the priority trade-off to meet one or more organs-at-risk constraints. Several models were evaluated using double-nested cross-validation and an area-under-the-curve (AUC) metric, with the highest performing one selected for further investigation. The model predictions were explained with Shapely additive explanation (SHAP) interaction values.

Results: The highest-performing model was Logistic Regression achieving an accuracy of 93.8 ± 4.1% and AUC of 0.98 ± 0.02 on the testing data. The SHAP analysis indicated that the ΔD metric for PTV had the greatest influence on the model predictions. The least important feature was ΔD for the left and right cochleae.

Conclusions: The trained model achieved satisfactory accuracy and can be used by medical physicists in a data-driven quality assurance program as well as by radiation oncologists to support their decision-making process in terms of treatment plan approval and potential plan modifications. Model explanation analysis showed that the model relies on clinically valid logic when making predictions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctro.2021.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8487981PMC
November 2021

Treatment and Prevention of Brain Metastases in Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Am J Clin Oncol 2021 12;44(12):629-638

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba.

Central nervous system (CNS) metastasis will develop in 50% of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients throughout disease course. Development of CNS metastasis poses a particular treatment dilemma due to the accompanied cognitive changes, poor permeability of the blood-brain barrier to systemic therapy and relatively advanced state of disease. Survival of patients with untreated SCLC brain metastases is generally <3 months with whole brain radiotherapy used as first-line management in most SCLC patients. To prevent development of CNS metastasis prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is recommended in limited stage disease, after response to chemotherapy and radiation, while PCI may be considered in extensive stage disease after favorable response to upfront treatment. Neurocognitive toxicity with whole brain radiotherapy and PCI is a concern and remains difficult to predict. The mechanism of toxicity is likely multifactorial, but a potential mechanism of injury to the hippocampus has led to hippocampal sparing radiation techniques. Treatment of established non-small cell lung cancer CNS metastases has increasingly focused on using stereotactic radiotherapy (SRS) and it is tempting to extrapolate these results to SCLC. In this review, we explore the evidence surrounding the prediction, prevention, detection, and treatment of CNS metastases in SCLC. We further review whether existing evidence supports extrapolating less toxic treatments to SCLC patients with CNS metastases and discuss trials that may shed more light on this question.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COC.0000000000000867DOI Listing
December 2021

Clinical Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Single Institutional Study.

Cureus 2020 Dec 3;12(12):e11886. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Radiation Oncology, CancerCare Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, CAN.

Introduction The standard of care for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is surgery. However, for medical inoperable patients stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an alternative method. The aim of the study is to assess the overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and local control (LC) of patients diagnosed with NSCLC in Manitoba, Canada, between 2013 and 2017 and managed with SBRT. Materials and methods This retrospective study included a total of 158 patients (60.13% of the population were females) that were diagnosed with stage I-II NSCLC and were treated with lung SBRT between 2013 and 2017 in Manitoba. Demographics and clinical data were retrospectively extracted from the electronic patient record. Kaplan-Meier and Cumulative incidence curves were used to describe the OS, PFS, and LC outcomes. Results From the 158 patients, 32 patients were treated with 60 Gy in eight fractions, while 121 patients were treated with 48 Gy in four fractions. Only 85 patients had biopsy-proven NSCLC. The median OS was 2.87 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.16-3.43). OS rates at one and two years were 85% and 66%, respectively. The median PFS was 2.03 years (95% CI 1.65-2.77). Furthermore, one-year and two-year PFS rates were 77% and 51%, respectively. Only 10 patients progressed locally at one year and 17 at two years, making the LC rate 93% at the one-year and 87% at the two-year mark. Conclusion These findings add to a growing evidence base supporting SBRT in the treatment of clinically suspected and biopsy-proven early-stage NSCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.11886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719484PMC
December 2020

Outcome of Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated With Perioperative Chemotherapy and Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Surgery.

Am J Clin Oncol 2021 01;44(1):10-17

Research Institute in Oncology and Hematology, CancerCare Manitoba.

Objectives: Perioperative chemotherapy (P-CT) or neoadjuvant chemoradiation (C-RT) followed by surgical resection is the standard of care for locally advanced esophageal cancer (LAEC). We present an institutional review and outcome of patients with LAEC treated with neoadjuvant C-RT or P-CT followed by surgery.

Methods: Patients were identified through the Manitoba Cancer Registry. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and time to recurrence (TTR) were compared using proportion hazard regression analysis. Metabolic and pathologic response rates were compared by the Fisher exact test.

Results: Sixty-seven patients were treated with C-RT and 32 with P-CT. Fifty-two percent of the patients had pretreatment and posttreatment positron emission tomography scans before surgery. Ninety-five percent of the patients in C-RT and 91% in P-CT had a partial metabolic response or stable disease. Sixty-one percent of C-RT and 34% of P-CT patients had tumor regression grade (TRG) 0 to 1; 39% of C-RT and 66% of P-CT had TRG 2 to 3 (P=0.018). Median OS was 37 and 18 months for patients with TRG 0 to 1 and 2 to 3, respectively (P=0.013, hazard ratio [HR]=1.96). Three-year OS was 43% versus 37% (P=0.37, HR=1.30), RFS was 34% versus 26% (P=0.87, HR=0.96), and median TTR was 30 versus 13 months (P=0.07, HR=0.59) for C-RT and P-CT, respectively.

Conclusions: C-RT was associated with a higher degree of pathologically tumor regression. Patients with major tumor regression had a better outcome than those with minimal to poor response. There was a trend toward improved TTR with C-RT but no difference in OS or RFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COC.0000000000000773DOI Listing
January 2021

Pre- and Post-Radiotherapy Radiologic Nodal Features and Oropharyngeal Cancer Outcomes.

Laryngoscope 2021 04 1;131(4):E1162-E1171. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: To assess the prognostic value of pre-/post-radiotherapy (pre-/post-RT) radiologic lymph node (LN) features in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) patients treated with definitive (chemo-)RT.

Methods: Clinical node-positive OPCs treated from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed. Nodal features were reviewed by a radiologist on pre-/post-RT computed tomography (CTs). Univariable analysis calculated hazard ratio (HR) for regional failure (RF), distant metastasis (DM), and deaths. Multivariable analysis estimated adjusted HR (aHR) of significant nodal features identified in univariable analysis adjusting for confounders.

Results: Pre-RT CT was undertaken in 344 HPV-positive and 94 HPV-negative OPC patients, of whom 242 (70%) HPV-positive and 67 (71%) HPV-negative also had a post-RT CT. Median follow-up was 4.9 years. Pre-RT LN calcification (pre-RT_LN-cal) increased the risk of RF in HPV-negative (aHR: 5.3, P = .007) but not HPV-positive patients (P = .110). Pre-RT radiologic extranodal extension (pre-RT_rENE+) increased the risk of DM and death in both HPV-negative (DM: aHR 6.6, P < .001; death: aHR 2.1, both P = .019) and HPV-positive patients (DM: aHR 4.9; death: aHR 3.0, both P < .001). Increased risk of RF occured with < 20% post-RT LN size reduction in both HPV-negative (HR 6.0, P = .002) and HPV-positive cases (HR 3.0, P = .049). Post-RT_LN-cal did not affect RF, DM, or death regardless of tumor HPV status (all P > .05).

Conclusion: Pre-RT_LN-cal is associated with higher RF risk in HPV-negative but not in HPV-positive patients. Pre-RT_rENE increases risk of DM and death regardless of tumor HPV status. Minimal post-RT LN size reduction (< 20%) increases risk of RF in both diseases. Post-RT_LN-cal + has no apparent influence on outcomes in either disease.

Level Of Evidence: 4 (a single institution case-control series) Laryngoscope, 131:E1162-E1171, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.29045DOI Listing
April 2021

Do Coordinated Knowledge Translation Campaigns Persuade Radiation Oncologists to Use Single-Fraction Radiation Therapy Compared With Multiple-Fraction Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastases?

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 02 2;109(2):365-373. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Radiation Oncology, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; Research Institute in Oncology and Hematology, CancerCare Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: Although level 1 evidence supports the use of single-fraction radiation therapy (SFRT) compared with multiple-fraction radiation therapy (MFRT) for the palliative management of bone metastases, SFRT is underused. In early 2017, the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer and CancerCare Manitoba undertook a comprehensive knowledge translation campaign in Manitoba, Canada featuring educational outreach visits, local consensus meetings, and audit and feedback interventions to encourage greater use of SFRT. This study assessed the impact of this campaign on SFRT use and identified variables associated with MFRT usage.

Methods And Materials: This retrospective, population-based cohort study identified all patients treated with palliative radiation therapy for bone metastases in Manitoba, Canada, from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2017, using the provincial radiation therapy database. Baseline characteristics were extracted and tabulated by fractionation schedule. The proportion of patients treated with SFRT in 2017 (postintervention) was compared with the 2016 (preintervention) levels. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with MFRT use.

Results: In 2017, 927 patients received palliative radiation therapy for bone metastasis, of which 548 (59.1%) received SFRT, a 21.1% absolute increase in SFRT use compared with 2016 levels (38.0%). With use of multivariable analysis, variables associated with receipt of MFRT included: complicated bone metastasis, soft tissue extension, hematological primary malignancy, and treatment at a subsidiary center.

Conclusion: The comprehensive knowledge translation campaign carried out in Manitoba resulted in a significant increase in SFRT use for bone metastases. Continued audit/feedback strategies are recommended to further reinforce knowledge translation efforts supporting SFRT use in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.08.056DOI Listing
February 2021

Working in the dark: Interaction with a sub clinical COVID-19 subject and lessons learned.

Eur J Cancer 2020 08 2;135:101-102. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Radiation Oncology, CancerCare Manitoba and University of Manitoba, Canada.

Subclinical COVID-19 subjects pose a significant challenge. We present a very close clinical interaction with a subclinical COVID-19 subject that met the "standard screening criteria" and is unique in several ways. Learning from our experience, we suggest close attention should be paid to any unexpected findings such as groundglass opacity on CT as it could help early identification of subclinical COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.05.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264019PMC
August 2020

A Call for a Radiation Oncology Model Based on New 4R's During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Adv Radiat Oncol 2020 Jul-Aug;5(4):608-609. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

CancerCare Manitoba and University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2020.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195347PMC
April 2020

Bracing for impact with new 4R's in the COVID-19 pandemic - A provincial thoracic radiation oncology consensus.

Radiother Oncol 2020 08 8;149:124-127. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

CancerCare Manitoba and University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

As COVID-19 pandemic continues to explode, cancer centers worldwide are trying to adapt and are struggling with this constantly changing scenario. Intending to ensure patient safety and deliver quality care, we sought consensus on the preferred thoracic radiation regimen in a Canadian province with 4 new R's of COVID era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.03.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141475PMC
August 2020

Role of thoracic consolidation radiation in extensive stage small cell lung cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Eur J Cancer 2019 03 18;110:110-119. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, CancerCare Manitoba and University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) carries a poor prognosis, and the thoracic progression is common. Consolidation radiation to thoracic disease (cRT) could improve progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). We conducted an electronic search of PubMed and Embase with no language, year or publication status restrictions and evaluated randomised controlled trials (RCTs) addressing the role of cRT in ES-SCLC. Preferred Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic review and Cochrane methodology for meta-analysis were followed. Effect estimates (hazard ratios [HRs] and confidence intervals [CIs]) and risk ratios were extracted, with a fixed/random-effects model created to estimate treatment effects. I2 statistics and heterogeneity statistics were performed. Comprehensive and systematic search identified 1107 records, after removal of duplicate records screened 922 records, assessed 31 full-text articles for eligibility and 3 RCTs with a total of 690 patients were included. Pooled analysis showed cRT significant improved PFS (p < 0.0001) with HR 0.72 (95% CI: 0.61-0.83, I2-0%). In addition, cRT significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the risk of thoracic progression as the first site of progression with a relative risk of 0.52 (95% CI: 0.44-0.61, I2-0%). OS analysis showed no significant (p = 0.36) benefit with HR of 0.88 (95% CI 0.66-1.18, I2-52%) with cRT. Pooled meta-analysis of 3 randomised controlled studies shows consolidation thoracic radiotherapy (RT) offers significant improvement in PFS and reduction in thoracic failures. Further research on subclassification of ES-SCLC (limited vs extensive metastasis), optimise strategy for RT integration (sequential vs concurrent) and optimal RT dose is needed to identify the subset of ES-SCLC likely to have significant OS benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.01.003DOI Listing
March 2019

Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Primary Tracheal Cancer: A Single Institution Experience.

Int J Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Res 2018 Oct;12(4):298-302

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Care Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Primary tracheal cancers (PTCs) are rare and current evidence-based understanding is limited to retrospective reports and national databases. We present single institutional study of a historical cohort of PTC from Canadian provincial cancer registry database. After institutional research ethics board approval, all PTC patients diagnosed from 1980 to 2014 were identified through the Canadian provincial cancer registry. Demographic and tumor related factors were evaluated using descriptive statistics. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and cox hazard regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). A total of 30 patients were included in the study. At presentation, 10 patients (33%) had only local disease, 14 patients (47%) had locoregional disease and the remaining 4 patients (13%) had distant metastasis. The majority of patients underwent primary radiation treatment. The overall survival rate was 30% at 2 years and 16% at 5 years. Patients receiving radical-intent therapy had better 2-year DFS and OS compared to patients managed with palliative radiotherapy and best supportive care (46%, 17% and 0%) (p=<0.001) and (50%, 23% and 0%) (p=<0.001), respectively. Radiotherapy resulted in a better 2-year OS and DFS (32% versus 14%) (p=<0.03) and (32% versus 0%) (p=<0.001), respectively. PTC is an uncommon neoplasm making the study of the disease technically and logistically challenging. Radical radiotherapy alone is curative option in inoperable PTC. Intent of treatment and radiotherapy were associated with superior survival outcomes.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375374PMC
October 2018

Role of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Early Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Era of Lung Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review.

Am J Clin Oncol 2019 02;42(2):123-130

Department of Radiation Oncology, CancerCare Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

With the obvious benefit from low dose computed tomography to reduce the lung cancer-specific mortality, lung cancer screening is on the rise. With the implementation of the screening programs, diagnosis of early stage lung cancer is expected to increase, and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) would account for 10% of screen-detected lung cancer. Apart from Concurrent chemoradiation (CRT), the present guidelines virtually do not support other options for radiation (RT). There is a paucity of data addressing the role of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) in SCLC and we conducted the current systematic review on this topic. We systematically searched literature using the electronic databases PubMed and Embase with no language, year or publication status restrictions. After removal of duplicate records, 3469 screened, 3446 excluded with reasons, 23 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, and 7 studies (8 reports) were included. Unsuitability for surgery or refusal for surgery was the most common reason for the use of SBRT in early stage SCLC in the included studies. Variable patterns of SBRT-chemotherapy (CT) sequencing including concurrent, pre-CT and post-CT and radiation doses were noted. Within the reported studies overall survival (OS) at 1 year, 2 year and 3 year varied from 63% to 87%, 37% to 72%, and 35% to 72%, respectively. Distant metastasis was the most common pattern of failure ranging from 38% to 53%. There was no increase in the reported grade III toxicity. SBRT could be a potential option in stage I SCLC with comparable outcomes with no added toxicity. Acknowledging the limitations and absence of high-quality data, presently cautious interpretation is warranted and further studies are needed to establish the role of SBRT in SCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COC.0000000000000489DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparison of 7th and 8th editions of the UICC/AJCC TNM staging for non-small cell lung cancer in a non-metastatic North American cohort undergoing primary radiation treatment.

Lung Cancer 2018 09 30;123:116-120. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, CancerCare Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Background: We compared the performance of 7th and 8th edition of the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) / American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in non-metastatic (stage I-III) North American cohort undergoing primary radiation treatment.

Methods: Newly diagnosed NSCLC between (Jan 2011 - Dec 2014) were screened through a Canadian Provincial Cancer Registry. Clinico-radiologically and pathologically confirmed non-metastatic NSCLC undergoing primary radiation treatment were included. Kaplan-Meier methods, Cox proportional hazard regression and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were applied to evaluate discriminatory ability and prognostic performance of 7th and 8th edition of staging systems.

Results: In this cohort of 295 patients, 8th edition stages IA3, IB, IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC showed progressive increase in the hazard ratio compared to best stage IA2 (8th edition IA3 vs IA2: HR 1.72; IB vs IA2: HR 2.04; IIA vs IA2: HR 2.66; IIB vs IA2: HR 2.91; IIIA vs IA2: HR 3.38; IIIB vs IA2: HR 3.62 and IIIC vs IA2: HR 8.22). In a multivariate model, 8th edition stage grouping had smaller AIC of 2342.08 compared to 7th edition 2349.55, confirming better performance. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) map based nodal categorization N1, N2 and N3, showed good survival and hazard discrimination over stage N0 (1.39, 1.48 and 2.16 respectively).

Conclusion: In an independent cohort of non-metastatic NSCLC undergoing primary radiation treatment, improved performance of 8 edition UICC/AJCC staging system over 7th edition was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.06.029DOI Listing
September 2018

Mythology and evidence-based oncology: An indivisible link.

J Cancer Res Ther 2016 Apr-Jun;12(2):526-7

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Religion has an important role in the birth of medicine and shares a long history. Contradiction has separated spirituality and medicine. For so many years, the spiritual dimension of medicine was seen as unnecessary and inappropriate. However times are changing again and since the last few decades, recent literature and various ongoing studies have focused on unmet spiritual needs of physician and patient. This article focuses on the rejuvenating link between medicine and spirituality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.140980DOI Listing
March 2017

A systematic review of quality of life in head and neck cancer treated with surgery with or without adjuvant treatment.

Oral Oncol 2015 Oct 21;51(10):888-900. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and the University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 2M9, Canada. Electronic address:

Quality of life (QoL) is an important consideration in the management of head and neck cancers (HNC). We systematically reviewed the literature to assess the impact of curative surgical resection (+/- adjuvant therapy) of HNC on QoL. Eligible studies (participants>age 18 years, reported fully in English, and prospectively assessed QoL) were filtered using quality criteria, and classified according to the added value, using a published taxonomy. MEDLINE and EMBASE searching yielded 302 distinct reports, 49 met eligibility, and 26 met quality criteria. Among the eligible studies, achievement of certain quality criteria was poor: a priori hypothesis (8%), statistical accounting of missing data (8%), reporting of assessment interval (35%) and rationale for chosen measure (53%). The most frequent ways QoL added value were: understanding of treatment benefit and risk (100%), comparing treatments for QoL effect (92%) and advancing QoL research methodology (50%). QoL (physical/social functioning and various symptom domains) deteriorated with treatment, gradually recovering to baseline (cancer diagnosis) level. Swallowing, chewing, saliva, taste, eating disruption, and aesthetic deficits may persist. Advanced tumors, extensive surgical resection, need for flap reconstruction, neck dissection, and postoperative radiation are associated with worse QoL outcomes. Knowledge of these trends can be applied in shared decision making, identification of commonly faced QoL issues, and to develop and provide survivorship resources. Future research should focus on routinely incorporating QoL in randomized studies, reporting the result according to guidelines, and following knowledge translation principles to maximize the clinician's and patient's ability to use QoL data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2015.07.002DOI Listing
October 2015

Primary surgery versus (chemo)radiotherapy in oropharyngeal cancer: the radiation oncologist's and medical oncologist's perspectives.

Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015 Apr;23(2):139-47

aDepartment of Radiation Oncology bDivision of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Radiotherapy is the traditional treatment for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) because of its ability to preserve anatomic form and function compared with other conventional curative options. Recently, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) and transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) have emerged prominently for T1-T2 OPC. This review summarizes the recent literature pertaining to OPC outcomes following primary TORS/TLM versus primary radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy and addresses controversies surrounding indications for adjuvant treatment following TORS/TLM.

Recent Findings: Articles regarding OPC outcomes after primary TORS/TLM or radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy published over the past 12 months were identified. TORS/TLM studies reported encouraging oncologic and functional outcomes. Primary radiotherapy alone showed exemplary results for a similar group of patients. However, comparisons of outcomes between these two primary modalities rely on historical data vulnerable to selection bias, even in a matched cohort study. The majority of cases treated with TORS/TLM also received adjuvant treatment. Soft tissue necrosis complicating this approach has also been reported. Controversies exist regarding the definition of resection margin status, prognostic value of extracapsular spread in human papillomavirus-related OPC and indications for adjuvant treatment following TORS/TLM.

Summary: TORS/TLM is an attractive approach for selected T1-T2 OPC, but its role should be refined based on a high level of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOO.0000000000000141DOI Listing
April 2015

Quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT): evidence from a prospective randomized study.

Oral Oncol 2013 Jun 4;49(6):634-42. Epub 2013 Apr 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research & Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Mumbai, India.

Purpose: To prospectively evaluate and compare health-related quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in patients with head-neck squamous cell carcinoma randomized to either intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and assess serial longitudinal change in QOL over time.

Methods: QOL outcomes were assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QOL questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and Head-Neck module (HN-35) at baseline (pre-treatment) and subsequently periodically on follow-up. Mean scores of individual domains/scales of 3D-CRT and IMRT were compared using 't' test at each time point; while longitudinal change in mean scores of both groups over time was evaluated by repeated measurement analysis of variance.

Results: Fifty eight of the 60 randomized patients who filled the QOL questionnaire at least at one time point were included in the analysis. Several general (emotional functioning, role functioning, social contact) as well as head and neck cancer-specific (dry mouth, opening mouth, sticky saliva, pain, senses) QOL domains were better preserved with IMRT compared to 3D-CRT at different time points. Importantly, none of the QOL domains were worse with IMRT at any time point. There was substantial deterioration in QOL scores immediate post-treatment (3-months) in both arms. However, QOL scores gradually but definitely improved over time for most domains. Global QOL, emotional/role functioning, nausea/vomiting, pain, swallowing, speech, social contact/eating, insomnia showed rapid recovery (<6months) while physical/cognitive functioning, dry mouth, sticky saliva, fatigue, senses showed delayed recovery (>6months). There were no significant differences in loco-regional or survival between the two arms.

Conclusions: There is substantial deterioration in QOL after curative-intent head-neck irradiation that gradually improves over time. IMRT results in clinically meaningful and statistically better QOL scores for some domains compared to 3D-CRT at several time points with comparable disease outcomes that could support its widespread adoption in routine clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2013.02.013DOI Listing
June 2013

Skin markings methods and guidelines: A reality in image guidance radiotherapy era.

South Asian J Cancer 2012 Jul;1(1):27-9

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, India.

Preparation of site of radiation delivery is an important process in radiation treatment planning and plays a crucial role during a course of radiotherapy to achieve reproducibility of set-up and accuracy of treatment delivery. The preparation of treatment area is done by markings of field center, field edge or other reference point of planned field. Both non-invasive (marker pen, henna) and invasive methods (tattoo) are available for marking with limitations of each. Tattoo with a needle pricked at angle of 30° to 1-2 mm depth to create tattoo 2-3 mm diameter in size is an ideal procedure. Visibility, permanent nature, social-religious belief, and mobility of skin are one of the main concerns about tattoo. Tattoo removal can be done performed if desirable by patients by various modern ways, which will be esthetically available. Dermabrasion, cryotherapy, surgery, QSRL (Q-switched ruby laser) are common methods of tattoo removal. Esthetic dissatisfaction, allergy, dermatoses, keloids, infection, fanning/fading of tattoo are associated problems. In IMRT and IGRT treatment, delivery dependence on tattoo in reduced and use of surrogate markers including particularly for bony set-up and implanted markers (e.g. gold seeds) for tumor localization and treatment verification is increasing. However, these are complex procedures and require an expertise. Ease of set-up and less time required for tattooing are one of the main advantages of tattoo as compared to external or internal marker set-up. Tattoo still remains a crucial method of positioning, especially in developing countries and in palliative treatment settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2278-330X.96502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3876603PMC
July 2012
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