Publications by authors named "Shona L Ray-Griffith"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Clearance of buprenorphine during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes.

Arch Womens Ment Health 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Buprenorphine is emerging as the preferred pharmacologic treatment for opioid use disorder during pregnancy. We examined the relative plasma clearance of buprenorphine (BUP) across pregnancy. Pregnant women with opioid use disorder participating in a prospective, observational study from 2013 to 2016 on stress in pregnancy who were receiving BUP for opioid use disorder were included. Women with an active eating disorder or suicidal ideation were excluded. Research visits occurred at 4-6-week intervals across pregnancy and the early postpartum period and included medication exposure history and blood samples. All assays for BUP serum concentrations at steady state were completed. Relative weight-adjusted clearance (Cl) was calculated using Cl = (daily dose [mg]/ body weight [kg])/serum concentration [ng/ml]. We collected 112 maternal blood samples from 29 women throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period. Serum concentrations for BUP ranged from < 0.2 to 15.8 ng/ml. Eleven women, with greater than three collected samples, increased their daily dose of BUP during pregnancy; however, there were no significant differences in relative clearance of BUP across this same period. This data suggests that women with opioid use disorder receiving BUP did not demonstrate a significant increase in BUP clearance across pregnancy despite increase in dosages during pregnancy. When selecting an appropriate BUP dosage for management of perinatal opioid use disorder, gestational stage appears not to be an important covariate and should be based on an individualized approach.
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April 2021

Drug screening during pregnancy: Urine dip cups measure up.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 11 30;204:107461. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA; Arkansas Center for Birth Defects Research and Prevention, Arkansas Children's Research Institute, Little Rock, AR, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Substance use during pregnancy is a major medical and public health concern. Determination of the most appropriate screening protocol remains a clinical conundrum. Interviews and/or laboratory drug screens may be costly, inaccurate, and are frequently inadequate to identify patterns of substance use for a given population or geographic area. We compared commercially available urine "dip cup" toxicology screens obtained in the clinic to university hospital drug toxicology results.

Methods: 267 observed urine samples were collected from pregnant women with known substance use disorders enrolled in a specialized treatment program that included access to buprenorphine medication-assisted treatment. Each urine sample was tested by commercial dip cup with temperature confirmation and then sent to the university hospital laboratory for analyses. The number of substances detected and cost for each screening method were compared.

Results: Uniformly, the dip cup had comparable detection of amphetamines, barbiturates, cocaine, methadone, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol to the university hospital laboratory with the exception of benzodiazepines. In addition, the dip cup detected use of buprenorphine (a commonly misused opiate receptor ligand not included in the hospital screen) and was significantly less expensive.

Conclusions: Commercially available urine dip cups are cost-effective, equally comparable to hospital based screening, and provide 'real time' results germane to clinical care and treatment planning.
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November 2019

Chronic Pain Prevalence and Exposures during Pregnancy.

Pain Res Manag 2019 8;2019:6985164. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Pregnant women with chronic pain present a unique clinical challenge for both chronic pain and obstetrical providers, and clinical guidelines do not exist. The present study describes the prevalence and management of chronic pain during pregnancy in a perinatal mood disorder clinic. A retrospective chart review of pregnant women who presented to the Women's Mental Health Program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) for an initial evaluation from July 2013 to June 2016 was conducted to obtain demographic and medical information, including pharmacological exposures. Data are described using the mean and standard deviation for continuous data and frequency for categorical data. Pain complaints and medications are presented as counts and percentages. Differences between women with and without chronic pain were assessed by -tests for continuous variables and chi-square analysis for categorical variables. Of the 156 pregnant women, chronic pain conditions were reported by 44 (28.2%). The most common chronic pain complaints included neck and/or back pain (34.1%) and headaches (31.8%). Of subjects with chronic pain, 95.5% were taking at least one prescription medication (mean = 2.6 ± 2.1, range of 0-10). Acetaminophen (43.2%) and opioids (43.2%) were the most common. The complexity of managing maternal benefits of treatment with the risks of fetal exposures presents a uniquely challenging clinical scenario for healthcare providers.
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December 2019

Claims for contraceptive services among young women filling chronic opioid prescriptions.

Contraception 2019 05 11;99(5):296-299. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Division of Pharmaceutical Evaluation and Policy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe claims for contraceptive services among reproductive-aged women filling chronic opioid prescriptions.

Study Design: Using a large US commercial claims database, IMS Lifelink+, we identified women aged 15-44 years who filled chronic opioid prescriptions (defined as a 90-day supply of opioids without a 30-day gap over a 180-day time period) and had continuous pharmacy and medical enrollment for at least 90 days prior to and 180 days following their index opioid prescription. After excluding women with any claims for pregnancy-related services, we describe claims for contraceptive prescriptions.

Results: We identified 16,074 women with claims for chronic opioids who had filled an average of 135±28-day supply of opioids over a 180-day period. Of these, 23.4% (n=3759) had a claim for prescription contraception in the 90 days prior or 180 days following their index opioid claim. Of those who had claims for prescription contraception, 70% (n=2642) received oral contraceptives; only 2% had claims related to a long-acting reversible contraceptive (i.e., a contraceptive implant or intrauterine device).

Conclusions: Commercially insured women filling chronic opioid prescriptions may have unmet needs for prescription contraception.

Implications: Efforts are needed to ensure that the reproductive health needs of women filling chronic opioid prescriptions are met.
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May 2019

Chronic pain during pregnancy: a review of the literature.

Int J Womens Health 2018 9;10:153-164. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Background And Purpose: The majority of the reviews and studies on chronic pain in pregnancy have primarily focused on the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. The purpose of our review was to identify evidence-based clinical research for the evaluation and management of preexisting chronic pain in pregnancy, chronic pain associated with pregnancy, and chronic pain in relation to mode of delivery.

Methods: A literature search was undertaken using the search engines PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOhost, and Web of Science. Search terms used included "chronic pain" AND "pregnant OR pregnancy" OR "pregnancy complications" from inception through August 2016.

Results: The basis of this review was the 144 articles that met inclusion criteria for this review. Based on our review of the current literature, we recommend 7 guidelines for chronic pain management during and after pregnancy: 1) complete history and physical examination; 2) monitor patients for alcohol, nicotine, and substance use; 3) collaborate with patient to set treatment goals; 4) develop a management plan; 5) for opioids, use lowest effective dose; 6) formulate a pain management plan for labor and delivery; and 7) discuss reproductive health with women with chronic pain.

Conclusion: The management of chronic pain associated with pregnancy is understudied. Obstetrical providers primarily manage chronic pain during pregnancy. Some general guidelines are provided for those health care providers until more information is available.
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April 2018

A Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Ketamine and Methohexital Anesthesia for Electroconvulsive Therapy in Patients With Depression.

J ECT 2017 Dec;33(4):268-271

Objective: This randomized controlled pilot study examines the differences in response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as defined by an improvement of depressive symptoms between ketamine and methohexital as the primary anesthetic agent. Adverse effects and cognitive tolerability were also examined.

Methods: Subjects undergoing ECT for unipolar or bipolar depression were randomized to receive ketamine or methohexital as the anesthetic agent. Primary outcome measure includes the Hamilton rating scale for depression (17-item). Secondary outcome measures included the mini-mental status examination and Beck depression inventory. All ratings were conducted masked to anesthetic agent. Because of multiple outcome measures obtained over time, mixed models were used to account for the correlations among the measurements within the subjects. Because outcomes were either normally distributed or approximately normally distributed, general linear mixed models were fit with a random intercept specified.

Results: A total of 21 subjects were enrolled, and 16 were randomized (methohexital, n = 8; ketamine, n = 8). The 2 treatment groups did not differ statistically in any demographic characteristic. No statistical difference was found between the ketamine and methohexital groups for an improvement in depressive symptoms (P = 0.6); however, subjects in both groups showed significant improvement in depression over time (ketamine, P < 0.0001; methohexital, P < 0.0001). Mini-mental status examination results did not differ between groups, and fatigue was reported more in subjects receiving ketamine (P = 0.03).

Conclusions: The results of this pilot study are inconclusive because they lack power to support an advantage of ketamine anesthesia compared with methohexital in ameliorating depressive symptoms for electroconvulsive therapy.
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December 2017

Pregnancy and Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

J ECT 2016 Jun;32(2):104-12

From the *Departments of Psychiatry, †Obstetrics and Gynecology, ‡Anesthesiology, and §Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.

Objective: To scrutinize a series of pregnant women treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at a tertiary treatment center and combine these data with a literature review to refine the treatment guidelines for ECT during pregnancy.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of mentally ill pregnant patients treated with ECT since the establishment of a formal women's mental health program.

Results: A total of 8 pregnant women treated with ECT were identified from January 2012 to August 2014. Information was extracted from the medical records of a total of 30 ECT treatments across this group. Subjects received an average of 3.75 ECT treatments (range, 1-7). All women were diagnosed as having a mood disorder (either unipolar or bipolar), and 5 of the 8 women had suicidal ideation. The treatment team for ECT was consistent across all treatments. Two women experienced significant complications after the initial treatment: 1) an acute episode of complete heart block; and 2) acute onset of mania after ECT. Obstetrical complications included 2 women with preterm delivery-one secondary to premature rupture of membranes. No other complications or adverse outcomes were recorded. The 5 women with suicidal ideation had symptom resolution, and significant symptom improvement was noted in 6 of the 8 women.

Conclusions: Electroconvulsive therapy is a safe and effective treatment during pregnancy and of particular benefit in the acute treatment of suicidal ideation.
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June 2016

Fostering Medical Student Interest in Geriatrics and Geriatric Psychiatry.

Acad Psychiatry 2016 Dec 16;40(6):960-961. Epub 2015 Oct 16.

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

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December 2016