Publications by authors named "Shokoofeh Shamsi"

54 Publications

Phylogenetic relationships of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae Baylis & Daubney, 1926) inferred from 18S rRNA, with molecular characterisation of recently described species.

Parasitol Res 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

School of Agricultural, Environmental and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.

Nematodes of the family Philometridae Baylis & Daubney, 1926 (Dracunculoidea Stiles, 1907) are generally poorly known, and there are many taxonomic issues within the family. Philometrids are parasites of fish and are found in various locations throughout the host, including within the subcutaneous tissues and musculature, the abdominal cavity and gonads; vast sexual dimorphism often means the males are not collected, leading to many species being described solely on female characteristics. Although there have been a number of studies utilising molecular data, the vast majority of species are yet to be sequenced. This study undertook genetic sequencing of 15 recently described species of philometrids across 4 genera, many of which were from specimens collected from waters off Australia. All of the sequences obtained were closely related with representatives of the family Philometridae. Species were found to be distributed in the phylogenetic trees within 4 clades based on a combination of site of infection within the host and host habitat. Family of host and geographical location was not as important for position within the trees. Clade A contained philometrids collected from the abdominal cavities and head tissues of South American freshwater fish. Clade B contained philometrids primarily from the abdominal cavities of freshwater European cyprinids. Clade C contained philometrids primarily from the ovaries of marine fish. Clade D contained philometrids from the body tissues of marine and freshwater fish. The potential co-evolutionary patterns between philometrids and their fish hosts are highlighted as an area of future research. This research also highlighted the importance of correct identification of any sequenced specimen.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07373-8DOI Listing
November 2021

Genetic characterisation of cercarial stages of Jue Sue and Platt, 1998 (Digenea: Choanocotylidae) in a native Australian freshwater snail, (Tryon).

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2021 Dec 12;16:48-51. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga, Wagga, 2678, Australia.

(Tryon, 1866) is a native freshwater snail, belonging to the family Planorbidae, commonly found on aquatic vegetation in south eastern parts of Australia. In the present study, we report natural infection with a species of Jue Sue and Platt, 1998 (Digenea: Choanocotylidae) parasite in inland Australia for the first time, followed by characterisation of the parasite using both morphological and molecular approaches. Snails (n = 150) were collected from recently drained, natural ponds at a local fish farm located in the Riverina region, New South Wales, Australia. Parasites were subjected to preliminary morphological examination followed by DNA extraction to obtain their ITS-2, 18S and 28S sequences. Based on their sequence data and phylogenetic analyses they were identified as Platt and Tkach, 2003 which has only previously been described from Gray, 1841 (snake-necked turtle) in Western Australia. Previous researchers suggested that in Australia, C and its parasite fauna are separated from their eastern counterparts due to formation of impenetrable waterless desert in the country during the late Cretaceous. Our study extends the distribution of from Western Australia to the Murray Darling Basin in New South Wales, however, the definitive host remains unknown in New South Wales.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2021.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8368346PMC
December 2021

The occurrence of Anisakis spp. in Australian waters: past, present, and future trends.

Authors:
Shokoofeh Shamsi

Parasitol Res 2021 Sep 3;120(9):3007-3033. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences and Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Estella, New South Wales, 2678, Australia.

As one of the world's megadiverse countries, Australian biodiversity is vital for global biodiversity. Nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis (family Anisakidae) are an important part of this biodiversity due to their ability to be repeatedly transmitted among their intermediate hosts before reaching the top of the food pyramid. Therefore, they have a significant impact on the community structures of various ecosystems. In addition, globally, they are known to be of medical and veterinary significance. The aim of this article is to provide an update on the current knowledge about these important parasites in Australia. Since 1916, a total of 234 records of Anisakis spp. from various hosts and localities have been found in Australia. It is estimated that the occurrence of Anisakis spp. and their health impacts in at least 84, 98.5, and 95% of Australian marine mammals, fish, and water birds, respectively, have not been documented yet. The results of this study suggest Australia is perhaps home to the most diverse Anisakis fauna. Available information is dominated by reports of these parasites in fish hosts, many of them among edible fish. Given the popularity of seafood in Australia and the occurrence of infectious stages of Anisakis spp. in edible fish, all stakeholders should be made aware of the occurrence, prevalence, and survival of Anisakis spp. in seafood. Also, as more pet owners feed their pets with a variety of fish and seafood products, it is important for veterinarians to be aware of seafood transmitted Anisakis spp. in pet animals. This study also highlights several important knowledge gaps: (i) The detailed life cycle of Anisakis spp. in Australia is not known. Detecting their first intermediate hosts is important for better management of crustacean zooplankton populations in our waters. (ii) Research on Anisakis spp. in Australia has been restricted to limited taxonomical studies and should extend to other aspects of these important parasites. (iii) The capacity to identify parasite taxa to species is especially important for resolving biological diversity around Australia; however, opportunities to formally train in parasite taxonomy are rare and diminishing. There is a need to train researchers with taxonomy skills. (iv) Given the vast range of biodiversity in Australia and the broad host-specificity of Anisakis spp., particularly in the larval stages, the full range of their intermediate hosts remains unknown. (v) The health impacts of the infection of the intermediate/definitive hosts with Anisakis spp. are not fully understood. Thus, one of the important areas for future studies is investigating the pathogenicity of Anisakis spp. in affected animals. This is a crucial yet unknown factor for the conservation of some endangered species in Australia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07243-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Characterization of Clinostomum sp. (Trematoda: Clinostomidae) infecting cormorants in south-eastern Australia.

Parasitol Res 2021 Aug 31;120(8):2793-2803. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Fisheries and Aquaculture Management, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Narrandera Fisheries Centre, Narrandera, NSW, 2700, Australia.

Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 (Trematoda: Clinostomidae) is a cosmopolitan, zoonotic genus of fluke that has been poorly studied in an Australian setting. Following previous reports of reservoir fish in Australian fish ponds being heavily infected with Clinostomum metacercaria, the current study was conducted to determine the specific identity of Clinostomum sp. in inland Australia, by examining and characterizing parasites collected from a potential definitive host, cormorants. A total of 33 parasite specimens belonging to the genus Clinostomum were collected from two cormorants (little black cormorants, Phalacrocorax sulcirostris) that were collected from the Narrandera Fisheries Research Centre, New South Wales, at the same locality where metacercaria of Clinostomum sp. have been reported in fish. All specimens in our study were immature adults. Clinostomum specimens with similar morphology have been identified as C. complanatum in the past, based on their morphological characteristics. However, phylogenetic analyses based on the ITS sequence data in the present study suggest they are the same as the Clinostomum sp. previously reported from carp gudgeons (Hypseleotris spp.) from the same farm, and distinct from C. complanatum. The ITS sequences obtained from the specimens in the present study were most similar to those belonging to C. phalacrocoracis (never reported in Australia). Our specimens formed a distinct clade on the phylogenetic tree and their specific identity awaits until fully mature specimens are described in future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07246-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Two species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) newly recorded from marine fishes off South Australia, including Philometra inconveniens n. sp. from Hyporhamphus melanochir (Valenciennes) (Hemiramphidae).

Syst Parasitol 2021 08 27;98(4):413-422. Epub 2021 May 27.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Waga Waga, NSW, 2678, Australia.

Recent examinations of some marine fishes from off the coast of South Australia revealed the presence of two species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae): P. inconveniens n. sp. from the ovary (males) and body cavity (subgravid female) of the southern garfish Hyporhamphus melanochir (Valenciennes) (Beloniformes, Hemiramphidae) and Philometra sp. (gravid and subgravid females) from the body cavity of the Australian barracuda Sphyraena novaehollandiae Günther (Perciformes, Sphyraenidae) (new host and geographical records). Specimens of species are described and illustrated based on light and scanning electron microscopical examinations. Philometra inconveniens n. sp. differs from the most similar species P. longa Moravec, Barton & Shamsi, 2021, a parasite of the body cavity of the congeneric host off eastern Australia, mainly by a different structure of the gubernaculum (absence of dorsal barbs and presence of lateral extensions on its distal portion). This indicates a high degree of host specificity of these nematodes in co-occuring congeneric hosts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-021-09986-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Verification of the Spotted-Tail Quoll, Dasyurus maculatus, as a Definitive Host for the Pentastomid Linguatula sp. in Australia.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Dec 11;66(4):1292-1296. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.

Purpose: Specimens of a pentastomid, identified as a nymphal Linguatula serrata, have previously been reported from the nasal cavity of the endangered Australian marsupial, the spotted-tail quoll, Dasyurus maculatus. These specimens were made available for morphological and molecular characterisation to confirm their species identity.

Methods: Specimens were examined by light microscopy. Molecular sequencing attempts were unsuccessful.

Results: Examination showed that the specimens were adult pentastomes of the genus Linguatula. Morphological differences are reported between these specimens and published measurements of specimens from other hosts collected from the same region.

Conclusions: This is the first confirmed report of an adult Linguatula pentastome in a native Australian animal. Due to the small number of specimens and the lack of successful molecular characterisation, the pentastomes have been referred to Linguatula sp. until future work can confirm the species identity. The need for combined molecular and morphological analysis of pentastome specimens is reiterated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-021-00405-4DOI Listing
December 2021

Occurrence and abundance of zoonotic nematodes in snapper , a popular table fish from Australian and New Zealand waters.

Food Waterborne Parasitol 2021 Jun 16;23:e00120. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences & Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

In Australia and New Zealand (NZ), snapper is known for delicate mild flavoured flesh and is a favoured species to serve raw as sashimi or in sushi. The diet of snapper includes a variety of intermediate hosts of larval nematodes, and as a result, snapper has potential to become highly infected with zoonotic/non-zoonotic nematodes. The aims of this study were to survey nematodes in snapper from Australia and New Zealand waters and to identify nematode species using combined morphological and molecular methods. The zoonotic potential of nematodes identified in this study are discussed. A total of 112 snapper were purchased from the Sydney fish market, New South Wales, Australia. Fish were dissected and only the visceral content and digestive tract were examined for nematode infection. Parasites were initially identified by the microscopic method as four different types belonging to the families Anisakidae ( types I & III, and type II) and Cucullanidae ( spp.). All Anisakidae nematodes were at infective stages. Species-level identification was actualised through sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2) regions. The types I & III were confirmed as and , respectively of which is considered globally as a zoonotic nematode. The specific identification of type II and spp. was not possible as no comparable sequence data were available in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree clustered types I & III with and , respectively; type II sequences as a separate clade with previously identified larval and adult and species. Based on phylogenetic analyses the present Cucullanid specimens were assigned herein as cf. , and an unknown species sp. 1. This study represents the first host record globally for zoonotic Anisakid nematodes in this popularly consumed table fish and a new region record for cf. and sp. 1. Further investigation is required, using more comprehensive parasite detection and recovery methods, to assess the health risk these nematodes may pose to human and fish health in Australia/NZ.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fawpar.2021.e00120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010209PMC
June 2021

The occurrence and clinical importance of infectious stage of Echinocephalus (Nematoda: Gnathostomidae) larvae in selected Australian edible fish.

Parasitol Int 2021 Aug 14;83:102333. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Charles Sturt University, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia; NSW Department of Primary Industries, Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia.

Cases of gnathostomiasis, an infection caused by consuming infected seafood, have been reported in Australia. However, doubt exists over the validity of these diagnoses as there are no reports of Gnathostoma spp. in Australian teleost fish. Also, the diagnoses in human cases were based on a serological test developed in Thailand. The specificity and sensitivity of this test in non-endemic areas are uncertain. Interestingly, parasites belonging to the genus Echinocephalus, which morphologically are very similar to Gnathostomum, are commonly found in Australian fish and shellfish and can potentially infect humans. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of these zoonotic nematodes within commercial fish and to characterise nematode larvae in order to provide insights into the specific identity of the potential causative agents of gnathostomiasis in Australia. Six edible fish species (n = 163) were examined. Gnathostomid-type larvae were found only in Acanthopagrus australis and Rhabdosargus sarba. Detailed examination and sequence data suggested parasite larvae belonged to the genus Echinocephalus. Further investigation of the occurrence of zoonotic nematodes within marine environments and observation of their spatial and temporal patterns will help raise awareness of the significance of this food safety issue within global fishing industries and health sectors. The accurate identification of zoonotic nematodes is a key component of disease surveillance and control. This information can also be used to develop specific and sensitive diagnostic test.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2021.102333DOI Listing
August 2021

The occurrence and abundance of infective stages of zoonotic nematodes in selected edible fish sold in Australian fish markets.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 10;154:104833. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Australia. Electronic address:

Seafood is nutritious and a healthy source of proteins and its regular consumption is highly recommended by medical professionals and dieticians. Owing to this, the global consumption of seafood per capita has been significantly increasing since the 1960s. Consequently, seafood-borne pathogens, including parasites, have also become more widely known and recognised. In Australia, a vast island country, information about such parasites is extremely limited. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and abundance of zoonotic parasites, including anisakid nematodes, in selected Australian edible fish. Four species of fish, namely tiger flathead, Platycephalus richardsoni (n = 43), blue mackerel, Scomber australasicus (n = 117), snapper, Pagrus auratus (n = 11) and school whiting, Sillago flindersi (n = 90) were purchased from a fish market. Although a range of parasites was found, due to their significance for human health, the focus of this study was on nematodes whose infectious stage was found in these fish. The prevalence of nematodes in these fish species was 86.05%, 64.10%, 45.45% and 56.67%, respectively. Among the parasites found, Anisakis spp., Contracaecum spp. and Hysterothylacium spp. in tiger flathead, blue mackerel and school whiting, might be of zoonotic importance. Our findings suggest there is a need to revise current seafood safety protocols and develop educational campaigns for seafood industries stakeholders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104833DOI Listing
May 2021

Redescription of Ascarophis distorta Fusco et Overstreet, 1978 (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae) from the stomach of some butterflyfishes off New Caledonia.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Sep 9;66(3):907-914. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Institut Systématique Évolution Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antilles, rue Cuvier, CP 51, 75005, Paris, France.

Purpose: The nematode Ascarophis distorta Fusco et Overstreet, 1978 (Cystidicolidae), originally described from the butterflyfish Chaetodon paucifasciatus Ahl (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae) in the Red Sea, was established based solely on the light microscopical (LM) examination of specimens. However, the present taxonomy of cystidicolid nematodes is mostly based on details of the cephalic structures properly visible only with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Methods: Helminthological examinations of some marine fishes from coral reefs off New Caledonia, South Pacific, carried out in the years 2003-2007, revealed the presence of A. distorta in two Chaetodon spp. and thus enabled its redescription. The nematode specimens were studied with the use of both LM and SEM.

Results: The specimens of A. distorta were obtained from the stomach of the threadfin butterflyfish Chaetodon auriga Forsskål and the vagabond butterflyfish Chaetodon vagabundus Linnaeus. This is just the second record of this parasite since its description 43 years ago. SEM, used in this species for the first time, revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported or insufficiently described morphological features, such as details in the cephalic structure, the shape of deirids, structure of the distal tip of the left spicule, or the exact number and distribution of male caudal papillae. The finding of A. distorta in C. auriga and C. vagabundus off New Caledonia represents new host and geographical records. The examination of 39 specimens of butterflyfishes from off New Caledonia, belonging to 14 Chaetodon spp. and 3 Heniochus spp., revealed that the nematode was only present in the 2 fish species listed above.

Conclusions: This parasite seems to be host-specific to only certain species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodon spp.), and is probably widespread in the Indo-Pacific region, as well as its hosts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-021-00359-7DOI Listing
September 2021

Philometra longa n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new parasite from the abdominal cavity of the eastern sea garfish Hyporhamphus australis (Hemiramphidae, Beloniformes) off Australia.

Syst Parasitol 2021 04 8;98(2):167-175. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.

A new nematode species, Philometra longa n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from male and female specimens collected from the body cavity of the marine fish, Hyporhamphus australis (Steindachner) (Hemirhamphidae, Beloniformes) from off the south-eastern coast of Australia. Based on examination by light and scanning electron microscopy, the new species differs from those parasitising other beloniform hosts mainly in the body length (4.69 mm), the length of spicules (141 µm) and the structure of the caudal end and the distal tip of gubernaculum in the male, and in the conspicuously long body (455-560 mm) of the gravid female. Philometra longa n. sp. is the first species of philometrids described from fishes of the family Hemiramphidae. It is the 26th nominal species of philometrids and the 19th species of Philometra so far recorded from Australian marine and brackish waters. Re-examined museum specimens of Philometra sp. from Hyporhamphus melanochir (Valenciennes) off Tasmania, as well as those previously reported from the same host species off the Australian coast, were found to be identical with P. longa sp. n.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-021-09969-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Anisakis allergy: unjustified social alarm versus healthy diet; commentary to the "Letter to the Editor" of Drs Daschner, Levsen, Cipriani, and del Hoyo, referencing to "World-wide prevalence of Anisakis larvae in fish and its relationship to human allergic anisakiasis: a systematic review".

Parasitol Res 2021 05 2;120(5):1921-1923. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovations, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia.

Anisakiasis is an underrecognized condition globally, and accurate diagnosis remains problematic even in countries where the condition is well known. Our "systematic review" was conducted according to Prisma guidelines. The stated basis of our study was "syndromic surveillance." Both methods are recognized in published literature as valid to identify or predict disease and to make accessible large amounts of evidence from published literature. Our study identified Anisakis allergy "hot spots" and other geographical areas where fish are highly infected with Anisakis without commensurate studies of human allergy. Results of our study will open up new lines of enquiry. Norway, used as an example to discredit the scientific integrity of our article, has a cuisine thriving with raw fish dishes and many sushi restaurants. The peer reviewed data sets, confirmed A. simplex sensitization among the Norwegian population, although this has been overlooked by the authors of the "Letter to the Editor." The identification of hot spots in our study may be influential in many ways not the least in raising diagnostic suspicion to expedite accurate diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07083-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Correction to: World-wide prevalence of Anisakis larvae in fish and its relationship to human allergic anisakiasis: a systematic review.

Parasitol Res 2021 May 1;120(5):1925-1926. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovations, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07096-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Integrative species delimitation and community structure of nematodes in three species of Australian flathead fishes (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae).

Parasitol Res 2021 Feb 6;120(2):461-480. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences & Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.

This study aimed to determine the integrative characterisation of nematodes from three species of edible flathead fishes (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae) in New South Wales, Australia, and describe nematode communities within three species of flatheads. Tiger (Platycephalus richardsoni (Castelnau); n = 20) and sand flatheads (Platycephalus bassensis (Cuvier); n = 20), sourced from the Nelson Bay area, and dusky flathead (Platycephalus fuscus (Cuvier); n = 20) from the Manning River, Taree, were examined for the presence of nematodes. The nematodes were initially classified morphologically as 12 different morphotypes belonging to the families Anisakidae (Anisakis types I, II, and III, Contracaecum type II, Terranova types I and II), Raphidascarididae (Hysterothylacium types IV, VI, VIII, and H. zhoushanense larva), and Gnathostomatidae (Echinocephalus sp. larva), Capillariidae (Capillaria sp.), followed by genetic identification through sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2) regions. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the evolutionary relationship between the identified larval specimens in the present study with available GenBank larval and adult nematodes. Sand flathead was 90% infected with nematodes followed by tiger flathead at 85% and dusky flathead at 15%. Nematodes infecting estuarine dusky and oceanic sand and tiger flatheads contrasted markedly. The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) showed significant differences (p < 0.001) in the composition of taxa within nematode communities between the three species of flatheads (global R = 0.208) with the highest difference being between sand and dusky flatheads (R = 0.308, p < 0.001). The findings of the present study provide a foundation for future investigations of the community composition, life cycles, and distribution of nematode populations in edible fish in Australia and explore and clarify their significance to public health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06802-4DOI Listing
February 2021

Do parasites influence behavioural traits of wild and hatchery-reared Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii?

Parasitol Res 2021 Feb 6;120(2):515-523. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2650, Australia.

This study aimed to investigate the links between parasites and behavioural traits of juvenile Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii). The Murray cod is an endangered Australian freshwater fish for which restocking programs are in place and there is a growing human consumption market. However, little is known about the parasites of these fish and how these parasites influence their behaviour and survival. Fingerlings and yearling fish were sourced from a hatchery and the wild, and after acclimatisation in the laboratory, variation in behavioural traits was examined using emergence, exploration and predator inspection tests. The fish were then euthanised to determine their age and examined for infection with parasites. Wild fish had more camallanid nematodes and lernaeid copepods than hatchery fish. An information theoretic approach using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that infection with protozoan cysts was an important factor for predicting the latency to emerge and explore a new environment, which was interpreted as reduced "boldness". In contrast, the presence of lernaeid copepods was included in two of the four best models predicting predator inspection, indicating that infected fish were less likely to inspect a predator. Source of fish (wild or hatchery) was found to be a strong influence on behavioural responses in all our tests. All parasites found in the present study are known to result in clinical signs of diseases in their fish hosts, raising the possibility that responses in tests of behavioural traits reflect side effects of infection. Additionally, the effect of host adaptation to not show signs of parasite infection, or more simply that the effects on behaviour are subtle and difficult to reveal with small sample sizes, is discussed. Nonetheless, we propose that it is important that infection with parasites is considered in fish behavioural studies both to assess survival behaviour and to avoid misinterpretation of behavioural tests of animal personality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-07021-7DOI Listing
February 2021

Re-description and molecular characterisation of Choricotyle australiensis Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983 (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) infecting Chrysophrys auratus (Forster) (Perciformes: Sparidae).

Syst Parasitol 2020 12 4;97(6):815-825. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences & Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.

Choricotyle australiensis Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983, a diclidophorid monogenean species, is redescribed and genetically characterised using the partial nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA gene (28S rRNA) and a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences for specimens collected from Chrysophrys auratus (Forster) off Australia and New Zealand. Previous studies have either provided morphological or genetic results, whereas this study combines morphological and advanced molecular methods. A total of 70 Ch. auratus were examined with 22 individuals of C. australiensis recovered from the gills (overall prevalence of 23%). This study has provided the first evidence for the exploration of mitochondrial cox1 region for C. australiensis. Comparison of the newly generated sequences with other available data supported the distinction of C. australiensis among diclidophorid Furhmann, 1928 species thus confirming its taxonomic status.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-020-09950-4DOI Listing
December 2020

World-wide prevalence of Anisakis larvae in fish and its relationship to human allergic anisakiasis: a systematic review.

Parasitol Res 2020 Nov 6;119(11):3585-3594. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovations, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia.

The infective stage of Anisakidae nematodes responsible for allergic reactions in humans is found in a variety of edible fish and cephalopods. The identification of geographical regions that are high risk for infected seafood may help prevent allergic reactions in humans. Despite an abundance of published literature which has identified anisakid larvae in an array of edible seafood as well as scattered reports of human allergic anisakiasis, the relationship between the two has not been fully explored. Therefore, a systematic spatio-temporal study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Anisakis spp. in fish from January 2000 to August 2020 firstly to explore the relationship between fish infection and cases of allergic anisakiasis and secondly to use fish infection data to map potential allergic anisakiasis 'hot spots'. A systematic literature search for original English text articles was conducted through search engines, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar. Out of 3228 articles which describe anisakid infection in fish, 264 were used for data extraction. Of 904 articles describing allergic anisakiasis, 37 were used for data extraction. A qualitative summary of the extracted data was performed using equal interval method (ArcMap software) in order to compare the global distribution of Anisakis-infected fish. Of the 152-identified fish hosts, five families were most commonly infected with Anisakis spp. These included Lophiidae (86.9%), Trichiuridae (77.05%), Zeidae (70.9%), Merlucciidae (67.8%) and Gadidae (56.8%). The hot spot areas for allergic anisakiasis were North and northeast of Atlantic Ocean, southwest of USA, west of Mexico, south of Chile, east of Argentina, Norway, UK and west of Iceland (confidence 99%). The highest rate of allergic anisakiasis was in Portugal and Norway with the prevalence rate of 18.45-22.50%. Allergologists should consider allergic anisakiasis as a public health issue particularly in high-risk countries where high prevalences in fish have been demonstrated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06892-0DOI Listing
November 2020

Some adult and larval nematodes from fishes off New Caledonia.

Parasitol Res 2020 Aug 16;119(8):2473-2484. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

ISYEB, Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité (UMR7205 CNRS, EPHE, MNHN, UPMC), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CP 51, 55 rue Buffon, 75231 CEDEX 05, Paris, France.

A collection of nematodes from the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (National Museum of Natural History), Paris, France, was studied. The nematodes had previously been collected from a range of marine fish hosts. The aim of this study was to investigate the identity of these nematodes. Detailed body measurements of the nematodes were taken via light microscopy and where possible first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA were subjected to PCR, purified and sequenced. Six species and three larval types were found from a range of fish species and included 13 new host records and two new geographical records. Of the taxa found, Hysterothylacium kajikiae is the only species which may have zoonotic potential. The majority of host fish in this study are edible species, commercially and recreationally fished and frequently incorporated into the cuisine of New Caledonia as raw fish dishes. This study will allow better understanding of the diversity, life cycles, distribution and host-parasite relationships in the New Caledonia area.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06755-8DOI Listing
August 2020

Description and genetic characterisation of Pulchrascaris australis n. sp. in the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffin & Smith) in Australian waters.

Parasitol Res 2020 Jun 20;119(6):1729-1742. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (Charles Sturt University and NSW Department of Primary Industries), Wagga Wagga, Australia.

Being listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, knowledge on the biology, health and diseases of the scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith) is limited; this is especially true for its parasites. In this paper, a new species, Pulchrascaris australis, is morphologically described followed by genetic characterisation based on the sequence of the ITS region. The new species can be easily differentiated from its congeners based on the morphology of the mouthpart, spicules, plectanes, eggs and vulva. Phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguish specimens in the present study from other parasitic nematodes found in the Australasian waters and elsewhere. The sequencing data also suggest that Terranova larval type I found previously in various fish from New Caledonian and Australian (Queensland) waters also belong to Pulchrascaris australis n. sp.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06672-wDOI Listing
June 2020

Aggressive encounters lead to negative affective state in fish.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(4):e0231330. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia.

Animals show various behavioural, neural and physiological changes in response to losing aggressive encounters. Here, we investigated affective state, which are emotion-like processes influenced by positive or negative experiences, in a territorial fish following aggressive encounters and explore links to bold/shy behavioural traits. Eighteen 15-month old Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii) received three tests in order to determine bold/shy behavioural traits then underwent a typical go/no-go judgement bias (JB) test. The JB apparatus had five adjacent chambers with access provided by a sliding door and fish underwent a training procedure to enter a chamber at one end of the apparatus to receive a food reward but were chased using a net if they entered the chamber at the opposite end. Only one third (N = 6) of fish successfully completed the training procedure (trained fish), and the remaining 12 fish failed to reach the learning criterion (untrained fish). Trained fish housed with a larger aggressive Murray cod for 24 h were significantly less likely to enter intermediate chambers during probe tests compared to control fish, demonstrating a pessimistic response. Trained fish showed "bolder" responses in emergence and conspecific inspection tests than untrained fish, suggesting that shyer individuals were less able to apply a learned behaviour in a novel environment. Our limited sample was biased towards bold individuals but supports the hypothesis that losing an aggressive encounter leads to pessimistic decision-making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231330PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156048PMC
July 2020

A Critical Appraisal of Global Testing Protocols for Zoonotic Parasites in Imported Seafood Applied to Seafood Safety in Australia.

Foods 2020 Apr 7;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences & Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia.

It is not suggested that any country is intentionally exporting seafood which does not comply with Codex seafood-safety guidelines/codes/standards. However, with an open access resource such as fisheries, there is vast potential for errors to occur along convoluted supply chains, spanning multiple countries, which may negatively impact the safety of edible seafood products imported into Australia. Australian importation policy and inspection procedures are founded upon a bedrock of trust in the integrity, reliability and safety of the global seafood supply chain. In order for seafood imported to Australia to be considered safe the non-mandatory international health standards, governed by Codex Alimentarius, for seafood must be predicated upon the most efficacious methods and stringently governed by each exporting provenance. Currently, tests for zoonotic parasites are not applied to imported edible seafood products on arrival into Australia. Therefore, this critical analysis is aimed at discussing the effectiveness of current testing protocols for zoonotic parasites in edible seafood advised by Codex Alimentarius which may impact the safety of the product imported into Australia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9040448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230297PMC
April 2020

Verification of rabbits as intermediate hosts for Linguatula serrata (Pentastomida) in Australia.

Parasitol Res 2020 May 31;119(5):1553-1562. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia.

We confirm the presence of nymphs of the introduced pentastomid, Linguatula serrata, in the introduced rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, in Australia, based on morphological and molecular results. Two nymphs were collected from a single rabbit near the Kosciuszko National Park in New South Wales. Unlike reports of nymphs from domestic animals, these nymphs were not encapsulated, despite having the morphological features of infective nymphs. The possibility of different development pathways in lagomorphs is discussed. Examination of feral deer for L. serrata was unsuccessful and potential reasons for a lack of infection in these animals are postulated. Our results reiterate the need for a combined morphological and molecular approach to the identification of L. serrata. Further sampling of a range of feral and native animals is required to determine the true range of intermediate hosts and their relative importance in the transmission of L. serrata in Australia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06670-yDOI Listing
May 2020

Occurrence and characterisation of tongue worms, spp., in South Africa.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2020 Apr 9;11:268-281. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

DSI-NRF SARChI Research Chair (Ecosystem Health), Department of Biodiversity, University of Limpopo, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa.

A total of 509 mammalian vertebrates, belonging to 76 species, were examined for infection with pentastomid parasites. These animals were from 8 of the 9 provinces in South Africa. Linguatulid pentastomes were found only in 7 animals, specifically the African Lion (n = 3) and African Buffalo (n = 4). Adult parasites were found in the lion but nymphs, of various stages, were found in the buffalo. A detailed morphological examination of adult parasites using both light and scanning electron microscopy techniques suggested the specimens were Sambon1922. Sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA and Cox1 regions obtained from both adult and nymph stages suggested they belong to the one species. Phylogenetic analyses of spp. based on the 18S and Cox1 sequences available in GenBank and obtained in the present study showed a clear distinction between and (from Europe and Australia). Several specimens from the Palearctic region which were previously assumed to be formed a distinct group in the phylogenetic tree suggesting they probably belong to a different, and as of yet, unknown species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2020.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082498PMC
April 2020

Characterisation of the tongue worm, (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae), in Australia.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2020 Apr 25;11:149-157. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovations, Charles Sturt University, Australia.

We describe adult males and females and a nymph belonging to in Australia, based on light and scanning electron microscopies. In addition, 18S and Cox1 sequence data have also been provided and were compared with similar sequences in GenBank. Our specimens had identical 18S sequences and limited genetic distance in Cox1 region which fell within the intra-specific range observed for spp. suggesting that they all belong to one species. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Australian specimens were grouped with in Europe where the species was first found and described. A number of from Iran and Bangladesh formed a distinct group. The genetic distance between these and Australian/European ranged from 0.46% to 2.21% which is larger than the genetic distance observed between and Australian/European (0.12%) suggesting that they belong to a different species. As pointed out previously by several other authors, comprises more than one species and those from the Palearctic region (including Iran and Bangladesh) should not be automatically named unless there is enough evidence for the identification. To accurately address the complex taxonomy of spp. a detailed morphological and genetic characterisation of numerous developmental stages of the parasite is necessary, to ensure morphological differences are not due to development. This however may not be achievable in the near future due to significant reduction in expertise as well as research funding awarded in this area of research to understand the basics of our planet.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2020.01.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012780PMC
April 2020

Infection of Chabaud & Brygoo, 1960 (Nematoda: Ascarididae) in a population of captive crested geckoes, Guichenot (Reptilia: Diplodactylidae).

Parasitology 2020 05 12;147(6):673-680. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

School of Animal & Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia.

Here we report on the infection of captive crested geckos Correlophus ciliatus Guichenot (Reptilia: Diplodactylidae), with adults of the ascaridoid nematode, Hexametra angusticaecoides Chabaud & Brygoo, 1960 (Ascarididae). A population of captive crested geckoes became ill and died within a short period of time. Nematodes were recovered from the crested geckoes examined from within the coelomic cavity, penetrating various organs and migrating through subcutaneous tissues, as well as emerging through the geckos' skin. One gecko was treated with levamisole following surgical excision of nematodes from under the skin; this gecko survived. The potential source of the nematode infection in the captive geckoes is discussed. It is most likely that wild-caught Madagascan mossy geckoes, Uroplatus sikorae Boettger (Reptilia: Gekkonidae), introduced the infection to the colony. Molecular sequences of the nematodes are the first produced for the members of this genus. A redescription of the species and its genetic characterization based on the internal transcribed spacer sequence data is provided, suggesting some of the morphological criteria that have been used in the past to distinguish between Hexametra spp. may have been intraspecific morphological variations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182020000219DOI Listing
May 2020

A preliminary report on the awareness and knowledge of seafood-borne parasitic diseases among medical doctors in Australia.

Parasitol Int 2020 Feb 12;74:101993. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Australia. Electronic address:

Despite the increasing popularity of seafood in Australia and various reports of infection with transmissible parasites in Australian edible aquatic animals such as fish, the number of reported cases of human infections in the country is low. This raised the question that Australian medical doctors may not be fully aware of the presence of these parasites in Australia, which in turn can lead to misdiagnosis of infections. This also may lead to an underestimation of the risk seafood-borne parasites may pose to public health. This preliminary study was conducted to determine the awareness and level of knowledge among Australian medical practitioners in New South Wales, the most populated and multicultural state in Australia, about seafood-borne parasitic diseases. Medical doctors, both general practitioners and gastroenterologists, were surveyed through an anonymous questionnaire (n = 376). Although the response rate was low at 11%, participants represented a diverse group in terms of gender, age, nationality and expertise. Despite several publications on occurrence of zoonotic parasites in Australian fish and other edible aquatic animals, and also in humans in the country, all respondents said no seafood-borne parasite had been reported as being seen within Australian or overseas practice. Although, due to low response rate, we are unable to confidently comment on the level of awareness, the findings of this study clearly suggest that further research is needed to investigate the extent of unawareness among Australian medical doctors about these highly important parasites and understanding the underlying issues in medical education that lead to the unawareness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2019.101993DOI Listing
February 2020

Zoonotic nematode parasites infecting selected edible fish in New South Wales, Australia.

Int J Food Microbiol 2019 Nov 14;308:108306. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia. Electronic address:

Despite increases in the annual consumption of seafood in Australia, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of zoonotic parasites in fish and the risk they may pose to human health are limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence of zoonotic nematodes in commonly consumed fish in New South Wales, Australia's most populous state. Three species of fish, including the Australian pilchard, Australian anchovy, and eastern school whiting, were purchased from a fish market and examined for the presence of nematode parasites. All Australian pilchards examined in this study were infected (100%; n = 19), followed by the eastern school whiting (70%; n = 20) and Australian anchovy (56%; n = 70). Nematodes were in the larval stage and, therefore, classified by morphotype, followed by specific identification through sequencing of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Seven different larval types with zoonotic potential, belonging to the families Anisakidae (Contracaecum type II and Terranova type II) and Raphidascarididae (Hysterothylacium types IV [genotypes A and B], VIII, XIV and a novel Hysterothylacium larval type, herein assigned as type XVIII), were found. The new larval type was identified as Hysterothylacium thalassini, based on ITS sequence data. The presence of the infective stage of a range of zoonotic parasites in fish commonly consumed in New South Wales is important, particularly as, in some dishes, these fish are used whole, raw or undercooked. This study provides the basis for future research on other aspects of these parasites, in regards to public health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2019.108306DOI Listing
November 2019

Description and characterisation of Terranova pectinolabiata n. sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in great hammerhead shark, Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837), in Australia.

Parasitol Res 2019 Jul 4;118(7):2159-2168. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (Charles Sturt University and NSW Department of Primary Industries), Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, 2678, Australia.

Terranova pectinolabiata n. sp. is described from the great hammerhead, Sphyrna mokarran, from Australian waters. This represents the first report of a species of Terranova from the host species. The new species is characterised by the morphology of the caudal plates and labia. ITS sequences were obtained for 20 specimens which were identical, despite morphological variation that has traditionally been indicative of separation of species. Additionally, genetic analyses confirmed the identification of the larval Terranova Type II previously reported in Australian and New Caledonian waters as Terranova pectinolabiata n. sp.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06360-4DOI Listing
July 2019

Genetic and morphological characterization of Mawsonascaris vulvolacinata n. sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and associated histopathology in a wild caught cowtail stingray, Pastinachus ater.

J Fish Dis 2019 Jul 15;42(7):1047-1056. Epub 2019 May 15.

Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Australia.

There are limited reports of infectious agents affecting Australian cowtail stingrays. In the present study, a new species of ascaridoid nematode belonging to the genus Mawsonascaris is described. The most distinct characteristic features were observed in females (the presence of a polar spine in the eggs and a flap-like projection in the vulval area). An identification key for Mawsonascaris spp. is provided. Additionally, internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequences were obtained for the new species. Alignment of the ITS sequence of the specimens in the present study with those deposited in GenBank showed that there exists no other highly similar sequence. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in a distinct grouping of our specimens supporting morphological distinction from previously described Mawsonascaris spp. Histology was used to investigate the pathology caused by the infection. Necrosis, inflammation and fibrosis were evident at the border of the nodules formed by parasite. A large number of parasites were present in muscularis mucosae and submucosa but not in the muscularis of the stomach. The parasites were associated with an increased inflammatory response, which was also found in the muscularis mucosae and submucosa. Similar pathology has been described in elasmobranchs infected by cestodes, although with more severe lesions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13016DOI Listing
July 2019

Occurrence of Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in a pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (Cetacea: Kogiidae) in Australian waters.

Dis Aquat Organ 2019 Apr;134(1):65-74

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

Little is known about parasitism in the pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps. Here, the occurrence of 3 anisakid species in a female pygmy sperm whale found stranded at Baxter's Beach, Australia, is reported, along with histopathological findings from this whale. Thirty-nine nematodes were submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of Charles Sturt University for identification, where 37 of them were identified to species level as Anisakis berlandi (n = 13), A. brevispiculata (n = 19), and A. paggiae (n = 5), using a combined molecular and morphological approach. This is the first report of A. paggiae in Australian waters. The other 2 specimens were Anisakis spp. females but could not be identified to species level due to a lack of taxonomically important features. ITS sequence data for these 2 specimens were considerably different from one another and from previously known Anisakis spp. The nomenclatures of the new species remain pending until male adults are found and described. The histopathological findings in the present study suggest that despite occurring in large numbers, Anisakis spp. do not have an adverse impact on the host's stomach; however, the damaged intestinal mucosa and floating eggs found during histopathological examination of the intestinal tissue suggest that these parasites can have an adverse impact on the host's intestine, which may lead to malnutrition and stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao03360DOI Listing
April 2019
-->