Publications by authors named "Shoji Shinkai"

178 Publications

Impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on new applications for long-term care insurance in a metropolitan area of Japan.

J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20210047DOI Listing
April 2021

The Kesennuma Study in Miyagi, Japan: Study Design and Baseline Profiles of Participants.

J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology.

Background: To clarify the association between psychosocial problems and frailty in the areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, and to develop strategies for preventive long-term care in the community, we launched the Kesennuma Study in 2019. This report describes the study design and the participants' profiles at baseline.

Methods: The prospective study comprised 9,754 people (4,548 men, 5,206 women) randomly selected from community-dwelling independent adults aged 65 to 84 who were living in Kesennuma City, Miyagi. The baseline survey was conducted in October 2019. It included information on general health, socio-economic status, frailty, lifestyle, psychological factors (e.g. personality, depressive moods), and social factors (e.g. social isolation, social capital). A follow-up questionnaire survey is planned. Mortality, incident disability, and long-term care insurance certifications will also be collected.

Results: A total of 8,150 questionnaires were returned (83.6% response rate), and 7,845 were included in the analysis (80.4%, mean age [SD] 73.6 [5.5] years; 44.7% male). About 23.5% were considered frail. Regarding psychological and social functions, 42.7% had depressive moods, 29.1% were socially isolated, and only 37.0% participated in social activities at least once a month. However, 82.5% trusted their neighbours.

Conclusions: While local ties were strong, low social activity and poor mental health were revealed as issues in the affected area. Focusing on the association between psychological and social factors and frailty, we aim to delay the need for long-term care for as long as possible, through exercise, nutrition, social participation, and improvement of mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20200599DOI Listing
April 2021

Low Dietary Variety and Diabetes Mellitus Are Associated with Frailty among Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 16;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Research Team for Promoting Independence and Mental Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2 Sakae-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan.

The association between dietary diversity and frailty remains unknown in older people. We evaluated whether a limited dietary variety is associated with frailty in older adults with diabetes mellitus (DM). This cross-sectional investigation included 1357 adults (median age: 77 years, women: 61.3%). DM was determined by self-reporting, the Dietary Variety Score (DVS) was used to evaluate dietary variety, and the revised Japanese version of the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria evaluated frailty. Participants were divided into 4 groups: no DM/high DVS (non-DMHV), no DM/low DVS (non-DMLV), DM/high DVS (DMHV), and DM/low DVS (DMLV). The prevalence of frailty in each group was 3.6%, 6.7%, 6.7%, and 12.2%. After adjusting for covariates, logistic regression analysis revealed the highest odds ratio (OR) of frailty in the DMLV (non-DMLV, OR = 2.18 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-3.83); DMHV, OR = 1.87 (95% CI: 0.63-5.52); DML, OR = 5.03 (95% CI: 2.05-12.35)). Another logistic regression analysis revealed that a low DVS and DM were independently associated with frailty. Both a low dietary variety and DM were independently related to frailty in older people and the combination increased the prevalence of frailty. These findings suggest that high dietary variety could be important for the prevention of frailty in people with DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920314PMC
February 2021

Association between Experience of Pet Ownership and Psychological Health among Socially Isolated and Non-Isolated Older Adults.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 24;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Kagawa Nutrition University, Saitama 350-0288, Japan.

The psychological health effects of pet ownership have been widely studied, but only a few studies investigated its impact among socially isolated older adults. The present study aims to investigate the psychological health of older adults with or without the experience of pet (i.e., dog or cat) ownership who are socially isolated or not socially isolated. This study used cross-sectional data from 9856 community-dwelling older adults in a metropolitan area of Japan. Social and non-social isolation and type of pet ownership (i.e., dog or cat) were stratified to examine the psychological health. Logistic regression models indicated that, after adjusting for demographic and potential confounders, socially isolated older adults who never owned a dog were 1.22 times more likely to report lower psychological health in comparison to socially isolated current or past dog owners. No such difference was observed among cat owners. The results suggest that the experience of dog ownership may be effective to improve the psychological health among socially isolated older adult.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11030595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996149PMC
February 2021

[Trajectories of Dietary Variety Score among community-dwelling older Japanese and their related factors].

Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 2021 ;58(1):81-90

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology.

Aim: To categorize the age-related trajectories of dietary variety score (DVS) in the community-dwelling elderly and to examine the associated factors.

Methods: The study population included 1,195 people who underwent a medical checkup for the elderly in Kusatsu-town, Gunma Prefecture in 2012 to 2017. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors associated with the age-related trajectories of DVS. The dependent variables were sex, age, family structure, years of education, BMI, subjective chewing ability, TMIG-IC, GDS-15, MMSE, smoking, alcohol consumption, and history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and stroke.

Results: The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of the low trajectory group in comparison to the medium trajectory group were 2.69 (1.02-7.08) for subjective chewing ability (no chewing), 1.11 (1.06-1.17) for GDS-15, 1.76 (1.14-2.73) for current smoking, and 1.70 (1.19-2.43) for past smoking. In contrast, the adjusted odds ratio of the high trajectory group in comparison to the medium trajectory group were 0.61 (0.37-1.00) for men, 1.04 (1.01-1.07) for age, 0.58 (0.38-0.89) for subjective masticatory ability (difficult to chew), 0.88 (0.82-0.96) for GDS-15, and 0.55 (0.37-0.83) for a history of hypertension.

Conclusions: The age-related trajectory patterns of DVS in the community-dwelling elderly can be categorized into three types. In order to maintain a high quality of food intake, it was shown that, in addition to subjective masticatory ability and mental health factors, such as depression, we should pay attention to the control of hypertension, which is a risk factor for lifestyle diseases, and lifestyle habits such as smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3143/geriatrics.58.81DOI Listing
February 2021

Short-, medium-, and long-term weight changes and all-cause mortality in old age: Findings from the National Survey of the Japanese Elderly.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Sakae-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Recent studies, predominantly in Western populations, suggest that both weight loss and weight gain are associated with an increased mortality risk in old age. However, evidence of this association in older Asian populations remains sparse. This study aimed to examine the association between weight change and all-cause mortality in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older Japanese people.

Methods: Data were obtained from the National Survey of the Japanese Elderly, which included 4,869 adults aged ≥60 years. Participants were followed for up to 30 years. We considered three indicators of weight change according to the follow-up interval: short-term (3 years), medium-term (6-7 years), and long-term (12-13 years). Weight change was classified as loss ≥5%, loss 2.5-4.9%, stable (±2.4%), gain 2.5-4.9%, and gain ≥5%. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the relative mortality risk of each weight change category.

Results: Weight loss ≥5% for all intervals was associated with higher mortality than stable weight and the effects were largely similar across all three intervals (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.36 [1.22-1.51] for short-term, 1.36 [1.22-1.51] for medium-term, and 1.31 [1.11-1.54] for long-term). A similar pattern of results was observed among the young-old and old-old, and among men and women. The effect of weight loss on higher mortality was greater among those with a lower body mass index at baseline.

Conclusions: These findings could inform clinical and public health approaches to body-weight management aimed at improving the health and survival of older adults, particularly in Asian populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab052DOI Listing
February 2021

Oral frailty and gait performance in community-dwelling older adults: findings from the Takashimadaira study.

J Prosthodont Res 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo.

Purpose: This cross-sectional study compared gait performance between community-dwelling older adults with and without accumulated deficits in oral health, defined as oral frailty.

Methods: A total of 1,082 individuals (439 men and 643 women; mean age, 77.1 years) from the Takashimadaira study were included in the current analysis. Based on a multifaceted oral health assessment, oral frailty was defined as having three or more of the following six components: (i) fewer teeth, (ii) low masticatory performance, (iii) low articulatory oral motor skills, (iv) low tongue pressure, (v) difficulties in eating, and (vi) swallowing. Eight gait parameters were assessed using an electronic walkway. Gait characteristics comparison between groups with and without oral frailty was performed using multiple linear regression models. Models were adjusted for age, sex, educational status, income, smoking, drinking, physical activity level, height, body mass index, comorbidities, and the presence of chronic pain.

Results: Oral frailty was observed in 227 (21.0%) participants. After adjusting for potential confounders, the participants with oral frailty had slower gait speed, shorter stride and step length, wider step width, and longer double support duration as well as higher variability of stride length and step length.

Conclusions: Oral frailty was associated with poor gait performance among community-dwelling older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2186/jpr.JPR_D_20_00129DOI Listing
February 2021

Differences in the association between white matter hyperintensities and gait performance among older adults with and without cognitive impairment.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021 Mar 25;21(3):313-320. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Research Team for Promoting Independence and Mental Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: Gait impairment implies subtle cognitive impairment (CI) and is associated with severity of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). However, cognitive differences in such an association are not yet fully understood. This study examined the association between WMHs and gait performance among three cognitively different older groups.

Methods: Gait performance and WMHs were assessed in 150 community-dwelling older adults, comprising 53 with CI (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score <24), 63 with mild CI (MMSE score ≥24 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA] score <25), and 34 who were cognitively normal or preserved (MMSE ≥24 and MoCA score ≥25). Gait velocity and variability were assessed on a 5-m electronic walkway. Furthermore, WMH volume was derived by automated segmentation using 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: Adjusted multiple regression analyses showed that greater WMHs were associated with slower gait velocity and greater temporal (stride time) and spatial (stride and step lengths) variabilities among older adults with CI. In contrast, WMH was only associated with spatial variability in older adults with mild CI and in cognitively normal or preserved older adults.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that gait variability measures are more sensitive to subtle underlying neurological pathologies including WMHs in older adults. The cognitive-dependent differences found in the association between WMHs and gait performance suggests that the level of cognitive function interferes with the association between WMH and gait performance. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; ••: ••-••.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.14132DOI Listing
March 2021

Dietary variety is associated with sleep efficiency in urban-dwelling older adults: A longitudinal study.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Feb 9;41:391-397. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Graduate School of Food and Nutritional Science, Toyo University, 1-1-1, Izumino, Itakura-machi, Ora-gun, Gunma, 374-0193, Japan; Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2, Sakae-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-0015, Japan; Gerodontology, Department of Oral Health Science, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, 7-13, Kita-ku, Sapporo-city, Hokkaido, 060-8586, Japan.

Background & Aims: Improving sleep quality is important for an aging society. However, no study has been conducted on the association between dietary variety and sleep efficiency among older Japanese adults using longitudinal data. The current study is a longitudinal study that aimed to elucidate the association between dietary variety and sleep efficiency in older Japanese adults.

Methods: This study was conducted among older adults (≥70 years old in 2016) in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan, between 2016 and 2018. Dietary variety score (DVS) and sleep efficiency were determined for all participants and were used to assess dietary habits and sleep quality, respectively. A cross-lagged panel analysis was used to consider the prospective associations between DVS and sleep efficiency, and this analysis was performed before and after adjusting for possible covariates in the 2016 data.

Results: After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, current drinking status, current smoking status, exercise habits, living (alone or with others) style, the Japanese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form), sleep duration and retiring time the DVS in 2016 predicted the sleep efficiency in 2018 (β = 0.130, p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The possibility that DVS can predict sleep efficiency 2 years later was demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.10.013DOI Listing
February 2021

Association of nutrient-derived dietary patterns with sarcopenia and its components in community-dwelling older Japanese: a cross-sectional study.

Nutr J 2021 01 18;20(1). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2 Sakae-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-0015, Japan.

Background: Diet is a modifiable factor affecting sarcopenia, and accumulating evidence links dietary factors to muscle mass, strength, and function in older adults. However, few studies have examined the association of dietary patterns with sarcopenia. This study examined the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced-rank regression (RRR) with sarcopenia and its components in community-dwelling older Japanese.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1606 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Nutrient-derived dietary patterns were identified by using RRR, with sarcopenia-related nutrients (protein, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate, vitamin K, magnesium, iron, and calcium intakes) as response variables. Sarcopenia was defined by using the algorithm of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019. Multivariate regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association of dietary patterns with sarcopenia and its components.

Results: The first RRR dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of fish, soybean products, potatoes, most vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, and fruit and a low intake of rice and was associated with decreased prevalence of sarcopenia: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of sarcopenia was 0.57 (95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.94; p for trend=0.022) in the highest versus the lowest tertile of dietary pattern. This dietary pattern was also significantly positively associated with usual gait speed (β: 0.02, p=0.024).

Conclusions: A dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of fish, soybean products, potatoes, most vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, and fruits and low rice intake was inversely associated with sarcopenia in community-dwelling older Japanese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-021-00665-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814431PMC
January 2021

Decomposition of gender differences in cognitive functioning: National Survey of the Japanese elderly.

BMC Geriatr 2021 Jan 10;21(1):38. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2 Sakaecho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-0015, Japan.

Background: It is well known that females generally live longer than males, but women tend to suffer from more illnesses and limitations than men do, also for dementia. However, limited empirical evidence is available why this 'male-female health-survival paradox' is observed. This study aimed to investigate factors which account for gender differences in health, particularly cognitive functioning and decline among older adults.

Methods: Data were retrieved from the National Survey of the Japanese Elderly, which is a longitudinal survey of a nationwide representative sample of Japanese adults aged 60 or over. Gender differences in cognitive functioning and decline in three-year follow-ups were decomposed using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis, regarding demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors into the 'explained' component, by differences in individual attributes listed above, and the 'unexplained' component.

Results: Empirical analyses showed that women's lower cognitive functioning was partly explained by the endowment effect. Moreover, a shorter duration of formal education and a larger proportion with their longest occupation being domestic worker accounted for steeper cognitive decline and more prevalent mild cognitive impairment in women than in men.

Conclusion: This empirical study suggested that gender differences in cognitive functioning and decline account for different individual attributes of social determinants among men and women. Particularly, men seem to be more engaged in activities which accumulate intellectual experiences through education and occupation, as suggested by the cognitive reserve hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-01990-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798327PMC
January 2021

MMSE Cutoff Discriminates Hippocampal Atrophy: Neural Evidence for the Cutoff of 24 Points.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Mar 8;69(3):839-841. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Research Team for Promoting Independence and Mental Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17010DOI Listing
March 2021

A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of the Association between Oral Frailty and Deteriorating Nutritional Status among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 30;18(1). Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan.

Background: Limited longitudinal studies exist to evaluate whether poor oral health and functions affect the incidence of deteriorating nutritional status. We investigated if there were longitudinal associations between oral frailty, defined as accumulated deficits in oral health, and deteriorating nutritional status among community-dwelling older adults.

Methods: The study population consisted of 191 men and 275 women (mean age, 76.4 years) from the Takashimadaira Study. Multifaced oral health assessment was performed at baseline, and oral frailty was defined as having ≥3 of the following six components: fewer teeth, low masticatory performance, low articulatory oral motor skill, low tongue pressure, and difficulties in chewing and swallowing. Nutritional status assessment was performed at baseline and two-year follow-up using the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF). Deteriorating nutritional status was defined as a decline in the nutritional status categories based on the MNA-SF score during the study period. The association between oral frailty and deteriorating nutritional status was assessed using logistic regression analyses.

Results: Oral frailty was observed in 67 (14.4%) participants at baseline. During the study, 58 (12.4%) participants exhibited deteriorating nutritional status. After adjusting for potential confounders, oral frailty was significantly associated with deteriorating nutritional status (adjusted odds ratio, 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-4.63).

Conclusion: Community-dwelling older adults with oral frailty had an increased risk of deteriorating nutritional status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796237PMC
December 2020

A comparison of colorimetric and visual methods for the assessment of masticatory performance with color-changeable chewing gum in older persons.

J Dent Sci 2021 Jan 2;16(1):380-388. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Research Team for Promoting Independence and Mental Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.

Background/purpose: Color-changeable chewing gum is used for the evaluation of masticatory performance. However, it is currently unclear whether colorimetric and visual assessment methods yield consistent results. This study aimed to clarify the consistency between colorimetric and visual methods used for the evaluation of color changes in color-changeable chewing gum.

Materials And Methods: The sample comprised 644 older persons (mean age, 75.4 ± 6.4 years). The chewing gum was masticated 60 times at the participant's own chewing rate and then expectorated. The color of the chewing gum was evaluated with the ΔE values and a∗ values, measured using a colorimeter, and the 10 Color Shades (10CSh) and 5 Color Scales (5CSc), using visual evaluation. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the results obtained by the four methods. The significance level was set at α = 0.05.

Results: The ΔE values, a∗ values, 10CSh scores, and 5CSc scores were all significantly correlated. The highest correlation coefficient (0.979) was between the ΔE values and a∗ values. The lowest correlation coefficient (0.847) was between the a∗ values and 5CSc scores. Decreased masticatory performance was observed with increased age.

Conclusion: Significant correlations were found for all four methods used in the assessment of masticatory performance with color-changeable chewing gum. While visually based assessments are valid, colorimetric methods are more sensitive to smaller changes in masticatory performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2020.08.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770443PMC
January 2021

[Effects of a multifactorial intervention for improving frailty on risk of long-term care insurance certification, death, and long-term care cost among community-dwelling older adults: A quasi-experimental study using propensity score matching].

Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2020 ;67(10):752-762

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology.

Objectives To examine the effects of a multifactorial intervention for improving frailty-comprising resistance exercise and nutritional and psychosocial programs-on the risk of long-term care insurance (LTCI) certification, death, and long-term care (LTC) cost among community-dwelling older adults.Methods Seventy-seven individuals (47 in 2011 and 30 in 2013) from the Hatoyama Cohort Study (742 individuals) participated in a multifactorial intervention. Non-participants were from the same cohort (including people who were invited to participate in the multifactorial intervention but declined). We performed propensity score matching with a ratio of 1 : 2 (intervention group vs. non-participant group). Afterward, 70 individuals undergoing the multifactorial intervention and 140 non-participants were selected. The risk of LTCI certification and/or death and the mean LTC cost during the follow-up period (32 months) were compared using the Cox proportional hazards model and generalized linear model (gamma regression model).Results The incidence of new LTCI certification (per 1,000 person-years) tended to be lower in the intervention group than in the non-participant group (1.8 vs. 3.6), but this was not statistically significant as per the Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio=0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.17-1.54). Although the incidence of LTC cost was not significant, the mean cumulative LTC cost during the 32 months and the mean LTC cost per unit during the follow-up period (1 month) were 375,308 JPY and 11,906 JPY/month, respectively, in the intervention group and 1,040,727 JPY and 33,460 JPY/month, respectively, in the non-participant group. Cost tended to be lower in the intervention group than in the non-participant group as per the gamma regression model (cumulative LTC cost: cost ratio=0.36, 95%CI=0.11-1.21, P=0.099; LTC cost per unit follow-up period: cost ratio=0.36, 95%CI=0.11-1.12, P=0.076).Conclusions These results suggest that a multifactorial intervention comprising resistance exercise, nutritional, and psychosocial programs is effective in lowering the incidence of LTCI certification, consequently saving LTC cost, although the results were not statistically significant. Further research with a stricter study design is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11236/jph.67.10_752DOI Listing
February 2021

Sarcopenia: prevalence, associated factors, and the risk of mortality and disability in Japanese older adults.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Feb 25;12(1):30-38. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: There is limited evidence on sarcopenia in Asian populations. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence, associated factors, and the magnitude of association with mortality and incident disability for sarcopenia and combinations of its components among Japanese community-dwelling older adults.

Methods: We conducted a 5.8 year prospective study of 1851 Japanese residents aged 65 years or older (50.5% women; mean age 72.0 ± 5.9) who participated in health check-ups. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019 algorithm. Appendicular lean mass index (ALMI) was measured using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify associations of sarcopenia and the combinations of its components with all-cause mortality and incident disability.

Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia was 11.5% (105/917) in men and 16.7% (156/934) in women. Significant sarcopenia-related factors other than ageing were hypoalbuminaemia, cognitive impairment, low activity, and recent hospitalization (all P-values <0.05) among men and cognitive impairment (P = 0.004) and depressed mood (P < 0.001) among women. Individuals with sarcopenia had higher risks of mortality [hazard ratios (95% confidence interval): 2.0 (1.2-3.5) in men and 2.3 (1.1-4.9) in women] and incident disability [1.6 (1.0-2.7) in men and 1.7 (1.1-2.7) in women]. Compared with the individuals without any sarcopenia components, those having low grip strength and/or slow gait speed without low ALMI tended to have an increased risk of disability [1.4 (1.0-2.0), P = 0.087], but not mortality [1.3 (0.8-2.2)]. We did not find increased risks of these outcomes in participants having low ALMI in the absence of low grip strength and slow gait speed [1.2 (0.8-1.9) for mortality and 0.9 (0.6-1.3) for incident disability].

Conclusions: Japanese older men and women meeting Asian criteria of sarcopenia had increased risks of all-cause mortality and disability. There were no significant increased risks of death or incident disability for both participants with muscle weakness and/or low performance without low muscle mass and those with low muscle mass with neither muscle weakness nor low performance. Further studies are needed to examine the interaction between muscle loss, muscle weakness, and low performance for adverse health-related outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890144PMC
February 2021

Associations of aging trajectories for an index of frailty score with mortality and medical and long-term care costs among older Japanese undergoing health checkups.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020 Nov 30;20(11):1072-1078. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: Using up to 13 years of repeated-measures data, we identified aging trajectories for an index in frailty score among older Japanese undergoing health checkups. In addition, we examined whether these trajectories were associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality and healthcare costs.

Methods: In total, 1698 adults aged ≥65 years completed annual assessments during 2002-2014. During follow-up, the average number of follow-up assessments was 3.9, and the total number of observations was 6373. Frailty was defined by using the following criteria from Fried's phenotype: slowness, weakness, exhaustion, low physical activity and weight loss.

Results: We identified four aging trajectories for frailty. Specifically, 6.5%, 47.3%, 30.3% and 16.0% of participants were in the high, second, third and low trajectory groups, respectively. As compared with the low trajectory group, the high trajectory group had greater risks of cardiovascular disease (adjusted hazard ratios of 3.42) and other-cause death (adjusted hazard ratios of 3.04). The high trajectory group had the highest medical costs until late in the eighth decade of life, costs decreased after age 70 years and were lowest at age 90 years (estimated at $116.7); however, medical and long-term care costs greatly increased after age 80 years in the second and third trajectory groups.

Conclusions: Higher aging trajectories in frailty score were associated with elevated risks for cardiovascular, other-cause and all-cause death among older Japanese receiving health checkups. Medical and care needs greatly increased for the second and third trajectory groups when their frailty level was progressed in later life. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 1072-1078..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.14049DOI Listing
November 2020

A combined stepping and visual tracking task predicts cognitive decline in older adults better than gait or visual tracking tasks alone: a prospective study.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2020 Sep 23. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Graduate School of Nutrition and Health Science, Kagawa Nutrition University, Sakato, Japan.

Background: It is unclear whether motor-cognitive dual tasks predict cognitive decline better than either motor or cognitive tasks alone.

Aims: To examine the utility of the novel motor-cognitive dual-task test [Stepping Trail Making Test (S-TMT)], as a predictor of cognitive decline, and compare its predictive performance with single motor or cognitive tests.

Methods: This 2-year population-based prospective study included 626 adults aged ≥ 70 years from Takashimadaira, Itabashi, Tokyo. The S-TMT measured the time taken to step on 16 numbers in order. Gait speed and TMT-A were assessed with standardized methods as single motor and cognitive tasks, respectively. A decline in the Mini-Mental State Examination score by ≥ 3 points over 2 years was defined as a significant cognitive decline.

Results: Over 2 years, 97 (15.5%) experienced cognitive decline. After adjusting for confounders, binary logistic regression models showed no significant associations between gait speed, TMT-A time tertiles, and risk of cognitive decline, but participants in the longest tertile of S-TMT time were more likely to develop cognitive decline than those of the shortest tertile (odds ratio 2.14; 95% confidence interval 1.17-3.90). Only the addition of the S-TMT time to the covariates model significantly improved the reclassification indices for predicting cognitive decline (net reclassification improvement: 0.31, P < 0.01; integrated discrimination improvement: 0.01, P = 0.02).

Discussion And Conclusion: Only the S-TMT was significantly associated with cognitive decline and improved reclassification indices, indicating that it is more useful for predicting cognitive decline than individual gait speed or visual tracking tests alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-020-01714-wDOI Listing
September 2020

A Stepping Trail Making Test as an Indicator of Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 2;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Graduate School of Nutrition and Health Science, Kagawa Nutrition University, Saitama 350-0288, Japan.

This study aimed to examine the concurrent validity of a novel motor-cognitive dual-task test, the Stepping Trail Making Test (S-TMT), as an indicator of cognitive impairment (CI), and compare its screening performance to that of motor or cognitive tests alone. This was a population-based cross-sectional study including 965 Japanese adults aged ≥ 70 years. To measure the time taken to perform the S-TMT, the participants were instructed to step on 16 numbers in sequence as quickly and accurately as possible. Motor and cognitive functions were assessed by gait speed and TMT part A (TMT-A), respectively. Participants were classified into CI (< 24 points), mild CI (MCI, 24-27 points), and intact cognition (> 27 points) categories based on their Mini-Mental State Examination score. Binary logistic regression models showed that the addition of the S-TMT to the covariates model gave the highest discrimination index (c-statistics), and significantly improved reclassification indices (net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement) for screening both CI and MCI compared to those of gait speed or TMT-A alone. These results show that S-TMT has a concurrent validity as a dual-task test for screening CI and MCI and better discrimination and reclassification performance than motor or cognitive tests alone in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563673PMC
September 2020

Frailty Status and Transport Disadvantage: Comparison of Older Adults' Travel Behaviours between Metropolitan, Suburban, and Rural Areas of Japan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 1;17(17). Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Kagawa Nutrition University, Sakado 350-0288, Japan.

This study examined differences in older adults' travel behaviours by frailty status in metropolitan, suburban, and rural areas of Japan. Data were collected from 9104 older adults (73.5 ± 5.7 years; 51% women; 19% frail) living in metropolitan (n = 5032), suburban (n = 2853), and rural areas (n = 1219) of Japan. Participants reported if they walked, cycled, drove a car, rode a car as a passenger, and used public transportation (PT) once per week or more. A standardised questionnaire was used to assess frailty status. We conducted logistic regression analysis to calculate the odds ratios of using each travel mode by frailty status stratified by locality. Relative to non-frail participants, frail participants were less likely to walk and drive a car in all three areas. Frail participants had significantly higher odds of being a car passenger in the suburban (OR = 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32, 2.25)) and rural areas (OR = 1.61 (1.10, 2.35)) but not in the metropolitan area (OR = 1.08 (0.87, 1.33)). This study found that frail older adults living in suburban and rural areas tended to rely more on cars driven by someone else, suggesting that transport disadvantage is more pronounced in suburban and rural areas than in metropolitan areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504364PMC
September 2020

Cross-sectional study of age-specific differences in salivary occult blood test results in older adults.

J Oral Sci 2020 Sep 26;62(4):410-414. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology.

This study aimed to identify factors associated with poor oral health status, as indicated by salivary occult blood (SOB) level, in community-dwelling older adults. A total of 592 community-dwelling participants aged 70 to 84 years with 20 to 28 teeth participated in the survey and SOB evaluation. Survey items included behaviors during dental visits, systemic diseases, smoking habit, cognitive function, and findings of intraoral examination. To identify factors associated with high SOB levels, binomial logistic regression analysis was performed after classifying participants as having high and low SOB on the basis of 75th-percentile SOB measurements. Presence of dental plaque (odds ratio [OR]: 2.26), poor subjective oral health (OR: 2.99) (for the age group 70 to 74 years), fewer remaining teeth (OR: 0.80), no dental visits during the previous year (OR: 2.80) (for the age group 75 to 79 years), and no dental visits during the previous year (OR: 3.93) (for the age group 80 to 84 years) were significantly associated with high SOB levels. The factors associated with high SOB, which indicates poor oral health status, differed by age group in community-dwelling older adults. Therefore, oral health management may improve oral health by providing different age groups with care that accounts for their physical and social functional abilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.19-0392DOI Listing
September 2020

National prevalence of frailty in the older Japanese population: Findings from a nationally representative survey.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2020 Aug 9;91:104220. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2 Sakae-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-0015, Japan.

Background: Japan has the largest aging population in the world, thus, a focus on frailty is important in clinical geriatric practice. Using a nationally representative sample, this study provided national estimates of the prevalence of frailty among community-dwelling older Japanese people. We also examined variations in the prevalence by sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and geographical regions.

Methods: Data came from the National Survey of the Japanese Elderly in 2012. The data were collected using a home visit and face-to-face interviews with trained interviewers. The sample consisted of 2206 adults aged ≥65 years. We used the widely accepted definition of physical frailty phenotype and calculated weighted estimates of the prevalence of frailty.

Results: Overall estimated prevalence was 8.7 % (7.5 %-9.9 %) for frail, 40.8 % (38.7 %-42.9 %) for prefrail, and 50.5 % (48.4 %-52.6 %) for robust. Frailty was more prevalent in older groups, women, and those with lower socioeconomic status, which was measured by education and household income. Frail people tended to have worse health. We also observed a regional variation: frailty prevalence tended to be higher in eastern than western Japan.

Conclusions: This study provides important evidence on the prevalence of frailty in older Japanese people and found substantial disparities by sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and geographical regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2020.104220DOI Listing
August 2020

[Awareness of the term "frailty" and its correlates among older adults living in a metropolitan area].

Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2020 ;67(6):399-412

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology.

Objectives This study aimed to examine the awareness of the term "frailty" and its correlates among older adults living in a Japanese metropolitan area.Methods We used baseline and 2-year follow-up data from a community-wide intervention on preventing frailty in Ota City, Tokyo. In July 2016, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey via mail to investigate the lifestyle and health status of 15,500 non-disabled residents aged 65-84 years from all 18 districts. In July 2018, we investigated the awareness of the term "frailty" in the same sample using a different questionnaire, and 10,228 people (4,977 men and 5,251 women) were included in the analyses. In addition, 9,069 people (4,347 men and 4,722 women) who responded to both 2016 and 2018 surveys were analyzed for correlates of awareness of the term "frailty." We categorized the responses "I know the meaning" or "I have heard of it but do not know the meaning" as awareness of the term. Decision tree and multilevel Poisson regression analyses were performed to examine the association of the following with awareness of "frailty": age, marital status, living situation, education, equivalent income, body mass index, number of chronic diseases, alcohol consumption, smoking status, Dietary Variety Score (DVS), and presence or absence of lower back and knee pains, depressive mood, exercise habits, social activity, social isolation, and frailty.Results Awareness of the term "frailty" was estimated as 20.1% in total (15.5% in men and 24.3% in women). The subgroup with the highest "frailty" awareness was women who exercised, were socially active, and had a DVS of 4 or more (awareness of 36.3%). Significant independent correlates of "frailty" awareness were age (as per year: multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio=1.03, [95% confidence interval=1.02-1.04]), sex (women: 1.35 [1.21-1.51]), educational attainment (high school: 1.27 [1.11-1.45], higher than junior college/vocational schools: 1.47 [1.28-1.70]), equivalent income (more than 2.5 million yen/year: 1.12 [1.01-1.25]), exercise habits (presence: 1.26 [1.11-1.43]), DVS (6 points or more: 1.37 [1.21-1.55]), social activity (presence: 1.33 [1.20-1.49]), social isolation (presence: 0.75 [0.67-0.85]), and frailty (presence: 0.72 [0.62-0.84]).Conclusions Although many policies refer to "frailty," the level of awareness of the term among older adults was low. Older adults, especially women, who had higher socioeconomic status, better exercise and dietary habits, and stronger social connections, were significantly more aware of the term. In contrast, individuals who were socially isolated and/or frail did not know the term. Thus, it is crucial to develop specific measures to promote frailty prevention among high-risk individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11236/jph.67.6_399DOI Listing
September 2020

Healthy lifestyle behaviors and transitions in frailty status among independent community-dwelling older adults: The Yabu cohort study.

Maturitas 2020 Jun 18;136:54-59. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.

Frailty is a dynamic condition that can worsen or improve. Although previous studies have identified demographic and intrinsic factors associated with transitions in frailty status, less evidence is available regarding associations with daily activities. This longitudinal study examined associations of behavioral factors with incident frailty, adverse events (e.g. residence in a nursing home, hospitalization, and death), and frailty improvement among older adults. The analysis included data from 3,769 independent older adults aged 65 years or more (mean age, 76.3 ± 7.2years; proportion of frail participants, 30.1%) from the Yabu cohort study (baseline, 2012; follow-up, 2017). The Kaigo-Yobo Checklist, a standardized questionnaire, was used to assess frailty status (non-frail or frail) and seven behavioral factors: farming, shopping, exercise, eating habit, intellectual activity, social participation, and smoking. At the 5-year follow-up survey, the proportions of participants transitioning from non-frail to frail, from non-frail to incident adverse events, from frail to non-frail, and from frail to incident adverse events were 16.8%, 13.9%, 15.2%, and 50.1%, respectively. In the analysis of non-frail participants, farming, exercise, intellectual activity, and social participation were associated with lower odds of becoming frail and experiencing adverse events. In the analysis for frail participants, farming, intellectual activity, and social participation were significantly associated with improvement in frailty status, and farming, shopping, and social participation were associated with lower odds of incident adverse events. These findings suggest that farming, healthy daily activities, and social participation help improve and prevent frailty/adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.04.007DOI Listing
June 2020

Socioeconomic Differences in Trajectories of Functional Capacity Among Older Japanese: A 25-Year Longitudinal Study.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 06 18;21(6):734-739.e1. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: There is limited research on long-term changes in functional capacity among older Japanese, who differ significantly from their counterparts in Western, developed nations. This study aimed to identify distinct trajectories of functional capacity over a 25-year period and to explore socioeconomic differences in trajectory-group membership probabilities, using a national sample of older Japanese.

Design: Longitudinal panel study with 8 observation points from 1987 to 2012.

Setting And Participants: The data came from the National Survey of the Japanese Elderly, which consisted of 6193 samples of community-dwelling Japanese aged 60 years and older at baseline.

Methods: Functional capacity measure included basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Group-based mixture models were used for data analysis.

Results: Among participants aged 60 to 74 years at baseline, 4 trajectories were identified: minimal disability (80.3%), late-onset disability (11.6%), early-onset disability (6.2%), and moderate disability (1.9%). Those aged ≥75 years at baseline experienced higher levels of disability but somewhat parallel trajectories, including minimal disability (73.3%), early-onset disability (11.2%), moderate disability (11.3%), and severe and worsening disability (4.2%). Lower socioeconomic status, including education and household income, was associated with a higher risk of experiencing trajectories of poorer functional capacity among those aged 60 to 74 years, but no such association existed among those aged ≥75 years.

Conclusions And Implications: We found that approximately 70% to 80% of older Japanese maintained healthy functional capacity over time. Although we could not follow those who dropped out during the observation period, this study provided useful evidence that socioeconomic disparities in functional health converge with age. Our findings inform the design of health policies and interventions aiming to maintain functional health among older adults with diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. In particular, public policies aiming to reduce socioeconomic disparities should be emphasized to promote healthy aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.02.012DOI Listing
June 2020

[Food diversity and its relationship with nutrient intakes and meal days involving staple foods, main dishes, and side dishes in community-dwelling elderly adults].

Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2020 ;67(3):171-182

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology.

Objectives One of the diversity indicators of food intake in the elderly Japanese population is the Dietary Variety Score (DVS). Studies on elderly people have reported the relationship of food intake with health outcomes, such as body function, higher-level functional capacity, fall risk, and sarcopenia. However, the index have not been studied enough whether it is suggestive of nutrients and the characteristics of the meal by various food intakes. The purpose of this study was to clarify the DVS and its relationship with nutrient intakes and meal days consisting of staple foods, main dishes, and side dishes among elderly adults.Methods The participants were 182 community-dwelling elderly adults (65-84 years) in Itabashi city, Tokyo. For the food diversity indicator, we used the DVS developed by Kumagai et al. and classified the patients as follows: the low score group (0-3 points), the medium score group (4-6 points), and the high score group (7-10 points). Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3-day dietary record. The daily amounts from foods and nutrients, and days of balanced diet with staple foods, main dishes, and side dishes greater than twice a day (hereafter "balanced meal days") were calculated. The relationships between the DVS classification and each dietary index were evaluated by the general linear model adjusted for sex, age, and energy levels. Additionally, we calculated the percentage of people with intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR) of each nutrient and estimated the risk of below the EAR in the groups by multiple logistic regression analysis.Results The low DVS group had significantly fewer balanced meal days (low 1.4 [1.2-1.6] days, medium 1.8 [1.6-1.9] days, high 1.9 [1.7-2.1] days, p for trend=0.001) than the high DVS group. The low DVS group showed significantly low energy ratios of protein and fat, as well as lower intakes of protein, dietary fiber, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, vitamin K, and vitamin B12. In contrast, the low DVS group showed significantly higher energy ratios of carbohydrates and grains and higher carbohydrate intake. Compared to the high DVS group, the odds ratio for inadequate vitamin C intake (below the EAR) was significantly high in the low DVS group, and the odds ratios for inadequate intakes of magnesium, zinc, and vitamin B6 were significantly high in the middle DVS group.Conclusion The high DVS group had significant associations with increased intake of protein and micronutrients, as well as balanced meal days. DVS can be a dietary indicator that leads to the intake of a desirable variety of food and nutrients in old age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11236/jph.67.3_171DOI Listing
August 2020

Number of functional teeth more strongly predicts all-cause mortality than number of present teeth in Japanese older adults.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020 Jun 29;20(6):607-614. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Meikai University School of Dentistry, Sakado, Japan.

Aim: Previous studies on the association between intraoral conditions and mortality in community-dwelling older individuals reported that fewer present teeth (PT) are significant risk factors for mortality. However, how the number of PT relative to the number of functional teeth (FT), including both present and rehabilitated teeth, influences mortality has not been investigated fully. This study examined the impact of the number of FT on mortality among community-dwelling Japanese older adults.

Methods: This study was a retrospective, observational and population-based follow-up study, which examined 1188 older individuals who participated in an annual geriatric health examination from 2009 to 2015. The average follow-up period was 1697.0 ± 774.5 days. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at follow-up. The numbers of PT and FT of each participant were counted during an oral examination. In addition, demographics, clinical variables, blood nutrient markers, physical functions and perceived masticatory function were measured.

Results: Kaplan-Meier analysis, followed by a log-rank test, revealed that fewer PT (P < 0.001) and FT (P = 0.002) were significantly associated with a reduced survival rate. Cox's proportional hazard analysis indicated that the number of FT, but not the number of PT, was a significant independent mortality risk factor after adjusting for demographics, clinical variables, nutrient markers and physical functioning (P = 0.036, hazard ratio: 2.089).

Conclusions: Current results suggest that the number of FT more strongly predicts all-cause mortality than the number of PT among community-dwelling older adults. Further studies are necessary to consider the confounding of socioeconomic status and disability status. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; ••: ••-••.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.13911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317780PMC
June 2020

Sarcoscore: A Novel Approach for Assessing Sarcopenia and Functional Disability in Older Adults.

J Clin Med 2020 Mar 4;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Research on Social and Human Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan.

Sarcopenia is associated with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (BADL) disabilities. We developed an index for assessing sarcopenia degree (sarcoscore) and compared it to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. Principal component analyses of walking speed, handgrip strength, and skeletal muscle index were performed to develop a sarcoscore using 3088 Japanese population-based cross-sectional data. During the nine-year follow-up, 278 of 2571 and 88 of 2341 participants developed IADL and BADL disabilities, respectively. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models showed that the sarcoscore criteria, defined as proportional to the sarcopenia prevalence diagnosed by the AWGS criteria, had higher hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for disability onset than the AWGS criteria (IADL disability: 2.19 (1.64-2.93) vs 1.79 (1.32-2.43), BADL disability: 4.28 (2.63-6.96) vs 3.22 (1.97-5.27)). The adjusted HRs for IADL and BADL disabilities were reduced by 4% and 8% per point increase in the sarcoscore, respectively. The sarcoscore assessed the degree of sarcopenia and had a satisfactory performance for predicting functional disabilities in older Japanese adults, suggesting its usefulness as a complementary composite marker for clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141295PMC
March 2020

Rate of oral frailty and oral hypofunction in rural community-dwelling older Japanese individuals.

Gerodontology 2020 Dec 6;37(4):342-352. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Research Team for Promoting Independence and Mental Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: To clarify the rate of oral frailty and oral hypofunction in rural community-dwelling older adults in Japan.

Background: Recently, the oral function of Japanese older adults has been evaluated multilaterally based on two concepts: oral frailty and oral hypofunction. Oral frailty is defined as a decrease in the oral function accompanied by a decrease in mental and physical functions. Oral hypofunction is a disease where the oral function is comprehensively decreased. However, their rates have not yet been elucidated.

Materials And Methods: Oral frailty and oral hypofunction were evaluated in 679 older adults from rural areas. To investigate the differences in occurrence rates due to the evaluation methods, one of the subordinate symptoms of oral hypofunction, the reduced occlusal force, was evaluated based on both the occlusal force (main method) and the number of teeth (alternative method).

Results: The rate of oral frailty was 22.3% in men and 22.7% in women. The rate of oral hypofunction was 39.0% in men and 46.9% in women. The overall rate of oral hypofunction was 43.6% when the reduced occlusal force of oral hypofunction was evaluated using the main method and 46.4% when evaluated using the alternative method. The proportion of participants with decreased occlusal force, the number of present teeth, oral diadochokinesis, tongue pressure and masticatory performance increased with age in both men and women.

Conclusion: Among rural community-dwelling older adults, the rate of oral frailty was 22.5% and that of oral hypofunction was 43.6%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ger.12468DOI Listing
December 2020

[Impact of lifestyle-related diseases and frailty on the incidence of loss of independence in Japanese community-dwelling older adults: A Longitudinal Study on Aging and Health in Kusatsu].

Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2020 ;67(2):134-145

Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives This study aimed to determine risk factors for frailty and lifestyle-related diseases impacting the incidence of loss of independence among Japanese community-dwelling older adults, and to measure the magnitude of these associations.Methods We conducted an 8.1-year prospective study involving 1,214 residents of the town of Kusatsu, aged 65 years and over, who were initially free of disability and underwent the comprehensive geriatric assessment between 2002 and 2011. Loss of independence was defined as the incidence of disability or having died before the occurrence of disability was certified by the Long-Term Care Insurance program in Japan. Risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases and health status comprised hypertension, diabetes mellitus, overweight, chronic kidney disease, current smoking, past history of stroke, heart disease and cancer, frailty, underweight, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and cognitive decline. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following criteria: Weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, slowness, and low levels of physical activity. Prefrailty was defined as the presence of one or two of these same criteria. Cox proportional-hazard regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of loss of independence.Results During the follow-up, 475 cases, including 372 disabilities and 103 deaths, were identified as having experienced loss of independence. The multivariable HRs for the loss of independence were 1.3 to 2.2-fold higher for the presence of frailty, past history of stroke, cognitive decline, prefrailty, and smoking. The PAF of loss of independence was the greatest for prefrailty (19%), followed by frailty (12%). The PAF was relatively large for prefrailty (19%) and smoking (11%) in men, and frailty (18%), prefrailty (18%), and chronic kidney disease (11%) in women. Stratified by age category, participants aged 65-74 years having frailty and several lifestyle-related diseases showed significantly higher HRs for loss of independence and greater PAFs for prefrailty (18%), frailty (13%), and smoking (11%).Conclusions Loss of independence among Japanese community-dwelling older adults who underwent screening examinations was largely attributed to frailty and prefrailty. Our findings suggest that the screening and the intervention for frailty and lifestyle-related diseases in the early stages of old age might be beneficial in prolonging healthy life expectancy of Japanese community-dwelling older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11236/jph.67.2_134DOI Listing
August 2020