Dr Shoeb Ahmed Ilyas, B.Sc.,BDS, PGDMLE, PGDHA, PGDHM, MS, MHA, MPH, MHRM, MA, M.Sc., FHTA,  - Ruby Med Plus - Dr

Dr Shoeb Ahmed Ilyas


Ruby Med Plus


Hyderabad, TELANGANA | India

Main Specialties: Biotechnology, Dentistry, Geriatric Medicine, Medical Humanities, Oral Medicine, Preventive Medicine, Public Health, Statistics

Additional Specialties: Dentistry, public Health, Health care Services, Health Care Policy, social Work, social policy, medical laws and ethics

ORCID logohttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2386-5977

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Dr Shoeb Ahmed Ilyas, B.Sc.,BDS, PGDMLE, PGDHA, PGDHM, MS, MHA, MPH, MHRM, MA, M.Sc., FHTA,  - Ruby Med Plus - Dr

Dr Shoeb Ahmed Ilyas



Dr.Shoeb Ahmed Ilyas is a adjunct faculty of the Department of Healthcare of ICFAI University Hyderabad, India from March 2017 to the present and he is also Consultants at Ruby Med Plus, Hyderabad. He received Master in Public Health from Vilnius University, Lithuania in 2011 and Master in Health Systems from Deusto University, Spain in 2011. He did M.Phil in Hospital and Health System Management from BITS, Pilani. He has been deeply engaged with Public Health research for the last five years. His research interests are: Geriatrics population accessibility to health care, social support, Mental Health, Climate Change and Public Health, Health Issues of Marginalized Communities, Human Rights and Health, Health-seeking Behavior, Violence and Health, Social Capital and Health, Ageing and Health, Health of Divorced People, Research Methods, Socio-cultural Discrimination and Health, Dental Public Health, Evidence Based Dentistry, Health Economics, Quality Management, Patient Safety, Clinical Risk Management, NABH, NABL and JCI, and HTA. He has so far published numerous articles in many national and international peer reviewed journals.

Primary Affiliation: Ruby Med Plus - Hyderabad, TELANGANA , India


Additional Specialties:

View Dr Shoeb Ahmed Ilyas’s Resume / CV


Dec 2017
Centre for Economic and Social Studies
Development Studies
May 2013
WHO, IIT, Madras and NHRC, New Delhi
Health Technology Assesment
Oct 2011
World Bank
Cert. In Health Economics
Health Economics
Jun 2011
Vilnius University
Public Health
Jun 2010
Deusto University, Spain and Corvinus University, Hungary, Verona University, Italy
Health Care Management
May 2009
Kakatiya University
Human Resource Management
Aug 2007
Kakatiya University
Dec 2006
Birla Institute of Science and Technology
Hospital and Health Systems Management
Apr 2005
Punjab Technical University
Jul 2004
Balaji Institute of Modern Management
Hospital Administration
Jun 2003
National Law School of India University
Medical Laws and Ethics
Sep 2002
Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences
May 1998
Andhra University
Biotechnology, Biochemistry and Chemistry


Mar 2017
Adjunct Faculty
ICFAI University
Jun 2015
Quality Manager
IMC Hospital
May 2014
Sales Manager
May 2014
Sales Manager
Jun 2013
Project Manager /Public Health Consultant
Mar 2012
Faculty at MAPS University
Teaching Modules in Hospital Administration and Human Resource Management
Dec 2011
Health Technology Assessment Consultant
Formulating Policies,Training, Improving Tertiary and Secondary Health Care, Procurement of Capital Equipments.
Dec 2011
Health Technology Assessment Consultant
Formulating Policies,Training, Improving Tertiary and Secondary Health Care, Procurement of Capital Equipments.
Apr 2011
Quality and Patient Safety Intern
SanBonifacio Hospital, Italy
Apr 2011
Quality and Patient Safety Intern
SanBonifacio Hospital, Italy
Apr 2007
Chief Operations Manager
Dec 2003
General Dental Practioner




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Changing Family Structure, Social Support and their Impact on the care of geriatric women in India

Shoeb Ahmed Ilyas (2020), Changing Family Structure, Social Support and their Impact on the care of geriatric women in India. South Asia Institute For Research and Publications, Vol-1, P47

South Asia Institute For Research and Publications


Globalization, modernization, industrialization, urbanization, migration, education and exposure to western lifestyles are bringing changes in family structures, social values and lifestyle in Indian households thereby weakening the family ties. The demographic transition and changes in society are posing challenges to elder physical and emotional well-being. There is a paradigm shift in India from an elevated‐mortality society to a low‐mortality society which has increased the number of older adults. The difference between rural and urban old-age dependency ratio has increased significantly. Today’s demographic and cultural changes have decreased social support for older people due to changes in family structure, family roles and functions, and patterns of care given to older adults. Migration of children, lack of poor relationship between family members and poor social support in the family, insufficient housing, economic hardship and the break-up of joint family have made the elder adults more vulnerable. Older women suffering from frailty and incapacity due to chronic conditions and widowhood statuses require more extensive social support and care giving. Family structures can facilitate older women in providing basic economic and resource support, companionship, shared values, and competence to cope with stress and improve quality of life. Cohesive family networks and network size are important factors that help determine what social support elder women receive. There is an urgent need for family-oriented social policies to increase social support by family caregivers, friends, and communities which facilitate the capacity of older women to cope with stress and strains of aging and improve the quality of life. In the future, families must continue to provide substantial care for older women. 

Key Terms: Geriatric Women, Family Structure, Social Support, Living arrangements and Quality of Life

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March 2020
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Gap Analysis: Patient Expectations and Perceptions of Dental Service Quality in Hyderabad City, India

Shoeb Ahmed Ilyas (2020),Gap Analysis: Patient Expectations and Perceptions of Dental Service Quality in Hyderabad City, India. International Journal of Innovative Medicine and Health Science, Volume 12, P1-7

International Journal of Innovative Medicine and Health Science


Background: Dental hospitals share substantial commonalities in their delivery of technical services, monitoring of the non-technical aspects of dental service quality is essential for patient satisfaction. This study aims to measure the service quality gap of patients’ perceptions and expectations in five dimensions at a dental facility in Hyderabad city, India using the SERVQUAL tool. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study conducted at a super specialty dental facility. The purpose of this research was to investigate patients’ perceptions of dental service quality by measuring patients’ expectations from dental service and perception of actual service provided and to identify areas of dental services that need improvement. Dental patients receiving dental care in multiple visits were selected. The required data were collected using the modified SERVQUAL questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and t-test were used to analyze subjects’ responses. Results: Quality of services provided to patients was significantly lower than their expectations. The highest quality gap was related to the affordability of dental treatment fees (−1.9) and lowest in communication and infection control practices of dental staff (−0.12) respectively. There was a significant difference between the patients’ expectations and their perceptions of service provided concerning all dimensions. Conclusion: This study provides gaps in dental service quality to improve service quality standards effectively. The dental facility management should take steps toward improving the quality of services in all dimensions, especially the affordability of dental treatment, through improving the efficiency of dental services, meticulous costing, and word of mouth referrals. The process of improving quality is continuous and incremental; hence one must not take a big leap forward.

 Keywords: Gap Analysis, Dental service quality, SERVQUAL, Patient satisfaction

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January 2020
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What Elders Lost: Review of Factors Affecting Elderly Quality of Life

Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed (2020), Indian Journal of GERONTOLOGY, Vol. 34, No.1, pp. 84–95 ISSN: 0971–4189. (http://www.gerontologyindia.com/pdf/vol-34-1.pdf)

Indian Journal of GERONTOLOGY

AbstractThis paper is based on a descriptive research design by secondary data method to describe the factors affecting the elderly quality of life. This review presents challenges faced by ageing elderly and gives a timely warning of the enormous health system challenges alarming in India’s near future, at a time when Indian social care and health system are unprepared to handle the existing burden of elderly care of the Indian population. The future burden of elderly care emphasize on the prevention of high risk factors for chronic diseases and mental health disabilities which has great impact on quality of life of elderly and there is urgent need for strong call for action on addressing socio-cultural norms, health service planning and funding, workforce training and preparation for the Indian Ageing society. The challenges for the health and social care services are huge, with substantial financial and workforce planning predicaments. Key words: Quality of life, Ageing, Social Support, NCDs, mental health, Health Care Services.Ageing is the progression of change in the biological, psychological and social formation of an individual. Aging occurs among other large social trends that have an impact on the lives of the elderly. Globally, population Aging is considered as a holistic concept with a broad range of issues and acknowledged as an important trend in which “we are in the center of a population aging revolution” and this uprising of Aging is seen the world over, but high in the developing countries like India and China affecting sustainable development. The elderly population is expected to increase its share to more than 10 per cent by the year 2021 (Central Statistics Office, 2011). India is expected to become an Aging society by 2024; the focus would be on its preparedness towards meeting the Aging crisis from the present unstructured system (Lee et al., 2011). In India, as per Census 2011, 8.6 per cent (103 million) of the population out of 1210 million total populations is above the age of 60 and 11 million of the population is over 80 years of age. It is forecasted that by the year 2026, the elderly would increase to 173.2 million and by 2050 the elderly population is expected to be around 300 million and below 60 years of age population would increase by 20 per cent, that above 60 years population would increase by 300 per cent and that above 80 years of population increase by 500 per cent. This demographic transition has intense social, economic and political implications for India. This is the extent of the challenge the Indian society and health care systems may face as “today’s youth are tomorrow’s elderly” and protecting the rights of elderly and ensuring their well-being will be the primary focus. Aging Elderly Population Burden on Health Systems Population Aging has intense social, economic and political implications for India. The growing number of older persons put a strain on health care and social care systems due to their ailment and diseases which needs to be addressed by medical services, i.e. hospitals, doctors, nurses are required and also need other facilities and resources. Very old people, due to their reduced mobility and debilitating disabilities, need support from other people to do things for them and to share their concerns and emotional support. Old age is also associated with a higher risk of exposure to various stressors such as the onset of chronic conditions, loss of functions, loss of sources of income, role losses, and loss of spouse and confidants (Nemeroff et al., 2010). Study on the appraisal of unmet needs of the elderly in India highlights that most of the elderly (46%) were unaware of the availability of any geriatric health care services near their residence and 96 per cent had never used any geriatric welfare service (Goel et al., 1999). National Sample Survey (2004) predicts that the proportion of elderly who cannot move and are confined to their bed or home ranges from 77 per 1,000 in urban areas to 84 per 1,000 in rural areas.Changing Family Structure and Elderly The conventional Indian society with an age-old joint family system has been instrumental in the protection of the social and economic security of the elderly people. The traditional socio-cultural norms and values of Indian society stressed on showing respect and providing care for the elderly. But, with the rising prevalence of nuclear family set-ups in recent years, the elderly have been exposed to emotional, physical and financial insecurity and with fewer children in the family, the care of older persons in the families gets increasingly difficult and is facing social isolation. There is increase in prevalence of neglect and abuse of elderly, violation of their rights, financial insecurity, engagement of elderly in informal sector and most importantly physical, social, economic and emotional vulnerability of elderly leads them to isolation, disability, psychological distress, less satisfaction in life which may lead to mental health issues in elderly. Elderly may face a decline in available sources of social support as a result of changes in the structure of the family, decline in fertility rates and family sizes, as fewer adult children are available to take care and support elderly (Chang, 1992). As a result of broad social changes such as migration, modernization, urbanization, the younger population has later age of marriage, higher divorce rates; preferences for one or two children, higher education, and participation of women in employment, generation gaps and intergenerational challenges have a great influence on functions of the family. Victor (2005) showed that high negative effect on family ties and relationships among family members are seen universally due to social and family changes. High out-migration of the working-age population, contributes to the process of rapid demographic Aging. According to the United Nations (UN), worldwide the „old-age support ratio was 9 in 2009, this is projected to fall to 4 persons of working age per a person aged 65 or over in 2050. In India, Old-age support ratio in 2012 was 10.8 and decline in the old-age support ratio 2012–50 was 4.8. More than 73 million persons, i.e. 71 per cent of the elderly population reside in rural areas while 31 million or 29 per cent of the elderly population is in urban areas.Lack of Social Support among Elderly Cobb (1976) defined social support as ‘the individual belief that one is cared for and loved, esteemed and valued, and belongs to a network of communication and mutual obligations’. Social support is an important issue for the elderly and research on social support has continued to be a dominant force in gerontological literature. It determines the subjective well-being in old age (Rathore, 2009). Social support is an essential requirement for elderly as old age is associated with an increased risk of exposure to various stressors such as onset of chronic conditions, loss of function, loss of sources of income, role losses, and loss of spouse and confidants (Nemeroff et al., 2010). The elderly may also suffer from ill effects of stress (Oxman et al., 1992; McLeod and Kessler, 1990). Social support acts as a buffer to these stresses and also extends practical help in facing challenges of Aging (Johnson, 1998; Langford et al., 1997). Lack of social support may have negative effects on the mental health of elderly, as social support is believed to play a key role in moderating the effects of stress (Lakey and Cronin, 2008; Cooper et al., 1999; Cohen et al., 1997). Antonucci and Akiyama (1987) stated that females have a wider social network than males and males tend to heavily rely on their spouses for social support. Social isolation and loneliness have increased over the years (Rajan, 2006). In a study done by Lena et al. (2009) almost half of the respondents felt neglected and sad and felt that people had an indifferent attitude towards the elderly. It was also found that 47 per cent feel sad in life and 36.2 per cent felt they were a burden to the family. The elderly decrease in the frequency of visits to religious places decreases the interaction with social network, companionship and needed counseling, coping mechanism and emotional support which all harm social support. Lack of social support was a significant predictor of depression for women, while this was not the case for men (Huang et al., 2011).Social support literature indicates that specifically spousal relationships appear to be more central to the emotional well-being of men than women (Dykstra and de Jong Gierveld, 2004). Mental health status differs from male individuals to female individuals. Agarawal et al. (2002) conducted a study on depressed and no depressed elderly. The results pointed out that depressing events were significantly more among females as compared to male. Women appear to be sensitive to levels of social support, and may experience more detrimental consequences to mental health when support is lacking, as the mental health of women is worse than that of men and the proposed explanation might be as women face greater exposure to life stressors and range of biosocial factors.Family Support, Size of Family and Mental Health The study conducted by Ramachandran et al. (1981) on family structure and mental illness in old age revealed that mental illness was higher in old age, and with subjects living in small size family. Taqui et al. (2007) carried out a study on depression in the elderly: Does family system play a role? A cross-sectional study with a sample of 400 elderly people revealed that those who were living in a nuclear family system were more likely to have depression than those who were living in the joint family system. Arif and Pallavi, (2016) showed that the scores on family social support, friends’ social support, and significant other social support were higher in female as compared to males and a significant difference was found in all the domain of perceived social support. Social pressure and scarce resources create many dysfunctional attitudes in elderly such as attitudes towards old age, deprivation of status in the community; problems of isolation, loneliness, and the generation gap are the well-known driving forces resulting in socio-psychological frustration among the elderly (Mohanty, 1989). Family support is found to be a significant factor for socio-psychological well-being of the elderly (Devi and Murugesan, 2006)Elderly Economic Dependency Economic conditions are the most important determinant of life satisfaction among the elderly (Jung et al., 2010). Elderly live with their children in India (Bloom et al., 2010), and their economic security and well-being are mainly dependent on the economic capacity of the family unit (Siva Raju, 2011). According to 52nd round of the National Sample Survey Organization, nearly half of the elderly are fully dependent on others, while another 20 per cent are partially dependent for their economic needs [NSSO, 1998]. The situation was even worse for elderly females [GOI, 2011]. Females depend on others, given economic dependency, lower literacy and higher incidence of widowhood among them (Gopal, 2006). The challenge to the welfare of the older person is poverty, which is a multiplier of risk for abuse (Shenoy, 2014). Migration of youth, lack of proper care in the family, insufficient housing, economic hardship and the break-up of joint family have made the old age homes seem more relevant even in the Indian context (Bajwa, Buttar, 2002).Quality of Life (QOL) of Elderly The Quality Of Life (QOL) of the elderly is a global challenge for the twenty-first century. Studying the quality of life of the elderly plays a significant role in social planning. Quality of Life is defined by Barcaccia (2013, p. 1) as ‘the general well-being of persons and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.’ Andelman et al. (1998, p. 3) focused on the quality of life (QOL) and emphasized that ‘quality of life aggregates the seven domains like well being, health, productivity, intimacy, safety, community, and the emotional well-being. Two important indicators used in quality of life, i.e. objective approach and the subjective approach. The objective approach focuses on individual capacities to meet their needs with available resources like health, income, education, amenities, justice, etc. Whereas, the subjective approach focuses on the individual perception of his life or psychological state of mind. Good health is a very important dimension of QOL to elderly people as it enables them to continue working and functioning independently. Health is an important indicator of human capabilities which is essential for a good QOL (Sen, 1985). Quality of life (QOL) is evaluated on the following indicators like adaptation and resilience, health, social contacts, dependency, material circumstances, and social comparisons. Policymakers, researchers, clinical practitioners, social workers, national and international NGOs and geriatric agencies have been working hard to enhance how the elderly can achieve optimum quality of life. To enjoy the QOL, elderly need belonging to the society and community in which they live, which emphasize their acceptance and access to community resources by and large.Chronic Diseases and QOL in Elderly Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease), hypertension, stroke, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, musculoskeletal conditions (arthritis and osteoporosis), mental health conditions (dementia and depression) and blindness and visual impairment, etc. (WHO, 1998) are most common in elderly people. These chronic diseases cause medical, social and psychological problems in the elderly, which can decrease physical functions and the QOL in the elderly. In old age, there is a greater probability of social disruptions such as bereavement, social isolation, physical disability, and cognitive decline, all of which contribute to depression and affects QOL (Shear et al., 2005). The QOL index of elderly is absolutely influenced by higher educational status, involvement in decision making, satisfaction with general health, level of stress and marital status (i.e. married). But factors like the advanced age of elderly, acute and chronic morbidity, living alone, financial difficulties and experience of abuse are negative influences on the QOL index of elderly (UNFPA, 1999)The Decrease in Elderly Satisfaction of Health and Accessibility to Health Care Health is one of many dimensions contributing to the overall quality of life (Rathore, 2009). The stress caused by illness and the following treatment may surpass one’s ability to cope, thus negatively affecting the quality of life (QOL). Quality of life is an important measure in order to evaluate the medical therapy of chronic diseases. Older age is one of the situations when quality of life will be decreased due to stressors. As a result of the lack of family support or reduced social support networks, elderly people might experience loneliness and may face physical and emotional health problems. Lack of physical health infrastructure and drugs in primary health centers, unaffordable medicines and treatment are major restraints for providing health care access to the aged. The other issues are lack of diagnostic infrastructure, limited manpower, poor quality of care and overcrowding in healthcare facilities due to insufficient focus on elderly care (FICCI-Deloitte, 2014) Daycare centers, old age residential homes, counseling and recreational facilities for the elderly are urban-based and not available to all the elderly. The geriatric outpatient department services are mostly available at tertiary care hospitals (Mane et al., 2014). As 75 per cent of the elderly live in rural areas, accessibility to geriatric health care services is challenging. Dhar (2005) has pointed out the neglect in the provision of facilities for geriatric patient care as well as training and development of human resource in geriatrics in the Indian public health context is challenging. As pointed out by Dey et al. (2012), the basic challenges to access and affordability of health care services for elderly population includes reduced mobility, social and structural barriers, wage loss, familial dependencies, and declining social engagement. The stigma of aging is a further social barrier to access of health in addition to the health and social conditions the elderly normally face such as dementia, depression, incontinence and widowhood (Patel, Prince, 2001). Giving access to nursing care, social support levels, medical therapy, education and counseling to the elderly, in particular to women widows, could improve QOL.Conclusion As two-thirds of elderly population live in rural areas, geriatric health care services must be delivered in primary health care centers, which require training of healthcare professionals in geriatrics. The elderly must be sensitized on legal protections offered by the government of India and improve accessibility to various social welfare policies. Policymakers must focus on capacity building of health care staff working in primary health care centers, NGO’s, family members, caregivers, etc. on the care of elderly which has a direct impact on improving the QOL of elderly.Research on QOL, Activity of Daily Living (ADL), functional status, chronic diseases, etc. of elderly needs to be encouraged and further strengthened. Maintenance and improvement in Quality Of Life should be included among the goals of the welfare of the geriatric population. Medico-social services for the elderly must be prioritized in rural health care settings. Improving the Quality Of Life of elderly needs a holistic approach and concerted efforts by the various stakeholders like government and health-related sectors, family and caregivers, etc.References Agarwal M, Hamilton Jb, Moore Ce, Crandell J., (2010): Predictors of depression among older African American cancer patients. Cancer nursing. 33:156–63. Andelman, R. et al. (1998): Quality of life: Definitions and terminology. In A. C. Robert (ed.), A discussion document from the international society of quality of life studies, International Society of Quality of Life Studies, Vol. 3.Antonucci, T. C, Akiyama, H., (1987): An examination of sex differences in social support among older men and women. Sex Roles, 17(11 and 12), 737–749. Arif Ali, Pallavi Kwan Hazarika., (2016): Gender, Quality of Life and Perceived Social Support among Rural Elderly Population: A Study from Sonitpur District, Assam. Indian Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 441–451. Bajwa A, Buttar A., (2002): Principles of geriatric rehabilitation. In: Rosenblatt DE, Natarajan VS (eds). Primer on geriatric care, Cochin, Pixel studio 232–243.

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January 2020
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The Socio-cultural Dynamics of Antibiotic Misuse in Hyderabad City, India: a Qualitative Study of Dentist and Pharmacist

Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed (2019), he Socio-cultural Dynamics of Antibiotic Misuse in Hyderabad City, India: a Qualitative Study of Dentist and Pharmacist. Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences, Vol2 No.3

Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences


 Background: Antibiotic resistance and antibiotic-associated adverse events are rapidly escalating and considered as a global health threat and public health problem. There is poor evidence base on the contextual specificities and everyday use of antibiotic in public health dentistry and pharmacy dispensing practices. The study explores the socio-cultural dynamics emergent around antimicrobials in the Indian Public dentistry and pharmacy practice in India.

Methods: Using purposive sampling, dentists and pharmacists were recruited for the study in Hyderabad City, Telangana State, India. Using semi-structured interviews, dentists and pharmacists were asked about how antibiotics were prescribed and dispensed, perceptions of antibiotic use in community and socio-cultural norms prevailing in the use of the antimicrobial practice.

Results: The dominant themes, emerged by both dentists and pharmacists, was the avoidance of dentist visit on encountering dental infection, reliance on self-medication, use of over-the-counter antibiotics and easy accessibility of antibiotics without prescription as a primary driver of antibiotic misuse and development of antimicrobial resistance, which is associated with socio-cultural practices and economic problems. 

Conclusions: The speculations of qualitative responses to antimicrobial resistance are profoundly entangled in the specificities of dental infection management across cultures and locales in daily life. This study emphasizes the need for enforcement of regulatory mechanism on antibiotic dispensing over the counters, educating dental patients in avoiding self medications, educational and training initiatives are necessary to sensitize and rationalize dentist and pharmacist in the use of antibiotics. 

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December 2019
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Social Determinants and Economic Burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) on Health Systems in India

Status of Education, Health and Environment in India. Conference Proceedings of Department of Economics, Kakatiya University, Warangal

ABSTRACTBackground Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major threat to development, economic growth and human health. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, and other NCDs are estimated to account for 60% of all deaths in India, making them the leading cause of death. NCD’s are driven by underlying ‘social determinants’ like social, economic, political, environmental and cultural factors.  Increasing burden of NCDs will have social, economic and developmental consequences and creates bottleneck to India’s GDP growth. ObjectivesThis study investigates social and economic impact of NCDs in India at household, health system and the macroeconomic level which will help us to understand the major reasons for the increase in NCDs, the current and future risk factor and disease burdens.MethodologyThis study was conducted by applying ‘Systematic Review and Content Analysis’ as research method.ResultsThe study results manifested that, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), and are rapidly rising. Potential shifts in diets patterns and changes in the composition of people's food choices are identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity leading to development of many NCDS.  Main etiological factors identified are alcohol, diet and physical inactivity in rise of NCD’s. There is Increase in expense of NCD care, raising questions of sustainability of Health systems without concomitant changes in treatment technology and greater investments in prevention by Government of India. Access to medicines, including their availability and affordability, is a major public health challenge In India. The social and economic costs at household levels are especially severe among those already marginalized and vulnerable to shocks. Costs of medical care have shifted income of middle and lower middle classes from goals such as asset accumulation, education and food security. In India, the catastrophic hospitalization expenditures are for cancer care is much higher than for a communicable disease.ConclusionsNCDs deepen poverty, perpetuates intergenerational deprivation and challenge Heath systems with increase in disease burden and constraint resources for the management of NCDs. Multisectoral responses that tackle the underlying, overlapping and interacting socio-economic determinants of NCDs will be required.  Ky Words: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs),  Systematic Review, Economic Burden, Health Systems

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February 2018
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Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed (2017),



The objective of Mission Kakatiya is to enhance the development of Minor Irrigation infrastructure, strengthening community based irrigation management, adopting a comprehensive programme for restoration of tanks. Mission Kakatiya needs a holistic approach involving Community Participation other than scientific planning to save the tanks and meet basic objective of providing water for irrigation. Review of literature on tank degeneration and tank use and management suggests fading of village institutions and lack of community involvement and will to mobilize resource and labour to undertake regular maintenance activity of tanks to enforce norms and obligations.

This paper empowers social workers with sound knowledge of a range of evidence-based social interventions coupled with Social Capital to establish new relationship between tanks and tank communities such that tanks play a more purposeful role of enhanced value creation for all stakeholders in water acquisition, water allocation and distribution, resource mobilization, operation and maintenance, decision making, enforcement of decisions and conflict resolution in sustainability of Mission Kakatiya program in Telangana state of India.


This Paper analysis is based on examination of conceptualizations of social practice in a transdisciplinary, evidence-based practice and Social Capital context in empowering social workers role in Mission Kakatiya program of Telangana state of India.


This review identifies key knowledge domains significant to a transdisciplinary systems conceptualization of evidence-based practice and Social Capital pertaining to role of Social workers in Community participation in mission Kakatiya.


Empowering social workers with development of evidence-based knowledge for social practice interventions and use of Social Capital will enhance their ability in using comparative effectiveness research strategies using a range of research methods tailored to specific questions and resource requirements for mission Kakatiya program. Evidence-based research regarding social intervention outcomes can benefit social workers in using conceptual models that view social intervention effects as contingent on sets of interacting domains including environmental, organizational, tank system, technology, and technique variables that are used in Mission Kakatiya program will help them in leading communities in right direction of sustaining irrigation tanks and achieving the goals of Mission Kakatiya program.

 Key Words: Comparative effectiveness research, evidence-based practice, Social Capital, Social Workers, Transdisciplinary practice and Mission Kakatiya.

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June 2017
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DOI https://doi.org/10.25081/ijgd.2017.v1i1.23


Introduction and Aims: Congenital malformations (CMs) are a worldwide public health problem. The adequate use of FA by Women of Reproductive Age (WRA) seeking conception or not excluding the possibility of a pregnancy resulted to be insufficient throughout the country. One of the presumed factors is awareness level and attitudes of healthcare professionals recommending FA and preconception counseling WRA. To date very few studies have been carried out to investigate healthcare professionals’ awareness about CMs and preventing measures. Materials and Method: The main aim of this research study was to assess the awareness level of healthcare professionals involved in preconception counseling for reducing CMs in Telangana state of India. A preliminary survey on a sample of 141 healthcare professionals was carried out in Hyderabad and Warangal districts of Telangana state, India. The instrument used for conducting the survey was a self-administrated questionnaire with 14 questions. Targeted populations were different healthcare professionals working in the private hospitals. Results: Majority of healthcare professionals identified smoking (64%), alcohol drinking (70%), rubella (94%), varicella and toxoplasmosis (97%) as risk factors for increased occurrence of CMs. Around 96% of the healthcare professionals know that intake of Folic Acid (FA) only from daily diet at Women of Reproductive Age (WRA) seeking pregnancy is insufficient, and 97.16% are well informed that additional supplementation should be taken. However only 60% of them are correctly informed on the appropriate time, when FA should be used as supplement. Conclusions: The awareness level of healthcare staff is almost at satisfactory level, and only few gaps were noticed, especially about recommendation of preventive measures and the right time to adopt them. To fill the identified gaps on specific aspects of healthcare professionals’ knowledge, there is a need for actions and training strategies to update the staff. However, these preliminary results make clear the fact that the healthcare professionals’ awareness level is not automatically translated into an effective transfer of information to women. Finally, further research studies are needed to advance in discovering the real causes of awareness predicting factors among women and modalities to increase it.

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March 2017
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Shoeb Ahmed

Ahmed, Shoeb. (2017). HOW OBJECTIVITY IN SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH CAN BE ENSURED. 10.13140/RG.2.2.31758.97600.

ABSTRACTObjectivity is considered as an ideal for scientific inquiry, as a good reason for valuing scientific knowledge, and as the foundation of the authority of science in society. It expresses the thought that the claims, methods and results of science are not, or should not be influenced by particular perspectives, value commitments, community bias or personal interests, to name a few significant factors. Scientific objectivity is a feature of scientific claims, methods and results. The only way in which we can strive for ‘objectivity’ in theoretical analysis is to expose the valuations to full light, make them conscious, specific, and explicit, and permit them to determine the theoretical research. A more balanced view of objectivity both as a method as well as ideal must be considered. Objectivity, if it is to remain at the core of the ethos of the social sciences, social researchers must be conscious and remember that Putnam (2002: 145) termed the last dogma of empiricism: the presupposition that “facts are objective and values are subjective and „never the twain shall meet‟”.

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March 2017
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Validation of the safety attitudes questionnaire (short form 2006) in Italian in hospitals in the northeast of Italy.

BMC Health Serv Res 2015 Jul 24;15:284. Epub 2015 Jul 24.

Girolamo Fracastoro hospital, San Bonifacio, Verona, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-015-0951-8DOI Listing
July 2015
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1.659 Impact Factor

Situation Analysis on medical equipment in Maldives

Ahmed, Shoeb & Ilyas, Shoeb. (2014). Situation Analysis on medical equipment in Maldives.

ABSTRACTThis study was commissioned by the Caritas, Italiana and Ministry of Health and Family (MoHF), Maldives. One of the objectives of caritas project was to ensure the availability of appropriate and functional biomedical equipments through health technology assessment, maintenance and logistic system development and their management by skilled professionals. Caritas funded this project to design and support the implementation of a policy that must identify priorities based on systematic analysis of safety, efficacy, and cost effectiveness, appropriateness according to the level of sophistication of the Maldivian health care system, its components, social and cultural context. The policy will represent the foundation for MoHF informed health care technology decisions including evaluation, selection, procurement, maintenance and replacement of health care equipment and will support alignment of capital investments with MoHF strategic, clinical and financial goals. The analysis on which the policy and strategic plan are built will include a comprehensive classification of current medical technology availability and future needs, identification of existing processes throughout the technology lifecycle, from evaluation of new technology to everyday use issues to disposal of obsolete equipment and areas of potential improvement in particular redundancies and unnecessary expenditures. The health technology strategy will also include a practical and flexible computerized systems applicable at all levels, from MoHF to individual hospitals and health centers.

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March 2014
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Measuring Culture of Patient Safety in a teaching and non-teaching hospitals in Italy

Shoeb Ahmed

Shoeb Ahmed (2012), Measuring culture of patient safety in a teaching and a non-teaching hospitals in Italy. Journal of Sustainable Regional Health Systems, Vol-1, Issue-1p 22-28

Journal of sustainable Regional Health Systems

ABSTRACT (http://projektai.vu.lt/erasmusmundus/sites/default/files/u3/Regional%20Health%20Systems_Issue%201_Volume%201_May_2012.pdf)Background: Creating a culture of safety has received great attention to ensure that patients receive the safest possible care. A key precept of patient safety programs is the removal of the “culture of blame.” Patient safety has been and still is a priority in Italian Hospitals. The aim of this study was to measure the safety culture in teaching and non-teaching hospitals of Italy. Methods: Data were collected from 261 staffs working in the teaching and non-teaching hospitals by means of the Italian version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire-Short form 2006. Results: Mean response rate from returned valid questionnaires was 60%. Both hospitals did not differ significantly in SAQ dimensions except unit management. Clinical departments differ with each SAQ dimension as indicated by Kruskal Wallis test. Regression analysis showed positive trend between safety climate and other SAQ dimensions except for stress recognition dimension. Physicians scored high in team climate, safety climate and job satisfaction and non-physicians scored high in stress recognition and job satisfaction. Comparing the gender scores, stress recognition and job satisfaction dimensions scored high with females and Males scored high in team climate and job satisfaction. Both at professional and gender level hospital management scores were low. Conclusion: This cross sectional survey provides benchmark data for both hospital safety cultures. Results point out critical attention to patient safety at teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Further research is needed to check safety culture impact on patient outcomes in both the hospitals. Keywords: patient safety, safety culture and safety attitudes

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May 2012
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Health Technology Assessment, Utilization of Capital Investment System, Database Management of Biomedical Equipment

ShoebIlyas (2012), Health Technology Assessment, Utilization of Capital Investment System, Database Management of Biomedical Equipment. Ministry of Health and Family, Maldives.

ABSTRACTWithin the health system, the need for planning and decision-making to have a well documented basis is growing, to address this need this training manual is written with the perspective of planning and implementing of Health technology assessment, Capital investment Utilization and database management of medical equipment. The target audience includes hospital managers, public sector managers at the atoll, regional and national levels of the health system.

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April 2012
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