Publications by authors named "Sho Joseph Ozaki Tan"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pharmacological Targeting of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Osteoarthritis.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Medical Center for Translational and Clinical Research, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima 7348551, Japan.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common aging-associated disease that clinically manifests as joint pain, mobility limitations, and compromised quality of life. Today, OA treatment is limited to pain management and joint arthroplasty at the later stages of disease progression. OA pathogenesis is predominantly mediated by oxidative damage to joint cartilage extracellular matrix and local cells such as chondrocytes, osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and synovial fibroblasts. Under normal conditions, cells prevent the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under oxidatively stressful conditions through their adaptive cytoprotective mechanisms. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an iron-dependent cytoprotective enzyme that functions as the inducible form of HO. HO-1 and its metabolites carbon monoxide and biliverdin contribute towards the maintenance of redox homeostasis. HO-1 expression is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level through transcriptional factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), specificity protein 1 (Sp1), transcriptional repressor BTB-and-CNC homology 1 (Bach1), and epigenetic regulation. Several studies report that HO-1 expression can be regulated using various antioxidative factors and chemical compounds, suggesting therapeutic implications in OA pathogenesis as well as in the wider context of joint disease. Here, we review the protective role of HO-1 in OA with a focus on the regulatory mechanisms that mediate HO-1 activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001640PMC
March 2021

Novel Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-derived Exosomes for Myocardial Infarction Therapeutics.

Biomolecules 2020 05 2;10(5). Epub 2020 May 2.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally, representing approximately a third of all deaths every year. The greater part of these cases is represented by myocardial infarction (MI), or heart attack as it is better known, which occurs when declining blood flow to the heart causes injury to cardiac tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that represent a promising vector for cell therapies that aim to treat MI due to their potent regenerative effects. However, it remains unclear the extent to which MSC-based therapies are able to induce regeneration in the heart and even less clear the degree to which clinical outcomes could be improved. Exosomes, which are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) known to have implications in intracellular communication, derived from MSCs (MSC-Exos), have recently emerged as a novel cell-free vector that is capable of conferring cardio-protection and regeneration in target cardiac cells. In this review, we assess the current state of research of MSC-Exos in the context of MI. In particular, we place emphasis on the mechanisms of action by which MSC-Exos accomplish their therapeutic effects, along with commentary on the current difficulties faced with exosome research and the ongoing clinical applications of stem-cell derived exosomes in different medical contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10050707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277090PMC
May 2020