Publications by authors named "Shmuel Gottlieb"

60 Publications

Characteristics and outcomes of patients with cancer presenting with acute myocardial infarction.

Coron Artery Dis 2019 08;30(5):332-338

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University.

Background: Limited data are available regarding the optimal management of patients with cancer in the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) setting.

Patients And Methods: We studied consecutive patients with AMI included in a national registry (years 2010, 2016) with the diagnosis of past or active malignancy and followed them for 1 year.

Results: Our cohort consisted of 2937 cancer-naive patients and 152 patients with cancer, of whom 35% presented with active malignancies. Compared with cancer-naive patients, patients with cancer were older, with female predominance, and presented more often with a history of hypertension and chronic kidney disease (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The rate of ST-elevation AMI was comparable (P=0.067). GRACE score more than 140 was more common in the cancer group (P<0.001). Most patients with cancer were referred to coronary angiography, though less than cancer-naive patients (87 vs. 93%; P=0.004). The rate of percutaneous coronary intervention was similar (P=0.265). Propensity score matching demonstrated similar rates of in-hospital complications between groups, and no mortality or major cardiac adverse event differences were noted at 30 days. Moreover, short-term mortality was similar between patients with active versus past malignancies, and between patients with solid and nonsolid tumors. However, cancer in patients with AMI was found to predict an increased mortality risk at 1 year by multivariable analysis (hazard ratio=2.52; P<0.001).

Conclusion: Patients with cancer and AMI have a more complicated clinical presentation, yet their short-term prognosis is similar to cancer-naive patients. Nevertheless, 1-year outcome is worse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000733DOI Listing
August 2019

Impact of Self-Reported Family History of Premature Cardiovascular Disease on the Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized for Acute Coronary Syndrome (from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israel Survey [ACSIS] 2000 to 2013).

Am J Cardiol 2018 09 25;122(6):917-921. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Family history of premature cardiovascular disease (FHpCVD) is a well-established risk factor for development of coronary artery disease. However, little is known about the impact of FHpCVD on the outcome of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We therefore aimed to evaluate the outcomes of ACS patients grouped by the presence and/or absence of FHpCVD. All patients ≤65 at admission who had an ACS event and were enrolled in the national ACS Israel Survey registry from 2000 to 2013 were included. Patients were grouped by the presence or absence of self-reported FHpCVD. Nearest neighbor propensity score matching was applied to create an evenly matched cohort of patients. Outcomes included 30-day MACE (defined as the composite of death, unstable angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, stent thrombosis, and urgent revascularization) and its individual components. Of 7,173 ACS patients, 33.9% reported FHpCVD. These patients were younger, with lower prevalence of diabetes, previous cerebrovascular and kidney diseases, but had higher prevalence of smoking and hyperlipidemia (p <0.001 for each). The propensity score-matching cohort included 1,793 pairs of evenly matched patients. The rate of 30-day MACE did not differ in the groups, as well as 1-year mortality (2.4% vs 2.2%, with vs without FHpCVD, respectively). During long-term follow-up (median 7.6 years), mortality rate was lower in the FHpCVD group (hazard ratio 0.82, 95% confidence intervals 0.69 to 0.99). In conclusion, we observed no differences in short- and intermediate-term outcomes based on the presence and/or absence of FHpCVD. However, patients with FHpCVD had better long-term survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.06.008DOI Listing
September 2018

High-grade atrioventricular block in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Insights from a contemporary multi-center survey.

J Electrocardiol 2018 May - Jun;51(3):386-391. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

High-grade atrioventricular block (HAVB) is a frequent complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the incidence, predictors, and prognostic significance of HAVB in a contemporary cohort of patients with AMI, in the recent era of early reperfusion. Patients with acute coronary syndromes (n=11,487) during the years 2000-2010 were included. Patients were divided into two groups: with HAVB (n=308, 2.7%) and without HAVB (n=11,179, 97.3%). The incidence of HAVB decreased from 4.2% in 2000 to 2.1% in 2010 (p for trend<0.01). Patients with HAVB were more likely to develop in-hospital complications. Independent predictors of developing HAVB were older age, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), smoking and Killip class≥2 on admission. 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were significantly higher in the HAVB as compared to the non-HAVB group (24% vs. 4.9%, p<0.01, 33.5% vs. 10%, p<0.01, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that, HAVB was associated with increased 30-day (OR - 3.97; 95% CI - 1.96-8.04) and 1-year mortality risk (HR - 2.02; 95% CI - 1.3-3.1). Similar estimates were obtained for STEMI and non-STEMI (NSTEMI). In conclusion, although the incidence of HAVB decreased over the last decade, the associated morbidity and mortality are still high in these patients despite early reperfusion therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2018.03.003DOI Listing
March 2019

Machine learning for prediction of 30-day mortality after ST elevation myocardial infraction: An Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey data mining study.

Int J Cardiol 2017 Nov;246:7-13

The Heart Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Background: Risk scores for prediction of mortality 30-days following a ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have been developed using a conventional statistical approach.

Objective: To evaluate an array of machine learning (ML) algorithms for prediction of mortality at 30-days in STEMI patients and to compare these to the conventional validated risk scores.

Methods: This was a retrospective, supervised learning, data mining study. Out of a cohort of 13,422 patients from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS) registry, 2782 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria and 54 variables were considered. Prediction models for overall mortality 30days after STEMI were developed using 6 ML algorithms. Models were compared to each other and to the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) scores.

Results: Depending on the algorithm, using all available variables, prediction models' performance measured in an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) ranged from 0.64 to 0.91. The best models performed similarly to the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score (0.87 SD 0.06) and outperformed the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score (0.82 SD 0.06, p<0.05). Performance of most algorithms plateaued when introduced with 15 variables. Among the top predictors were creatinine, Killip class on admission, blood pressure, glucose level, and age.

Conclusions: We present a data mining approach for prediction of mortality post-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The algorithms selected showed competence in prediction across an increasing number of variables. ML may be used for outcome prediction in complex cardiology settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.05.067DOI Listing
November 2017

Sex Differences in the Management and 5-Year Outcome of Young Patients (<55 Years) with Acute Coronary Syndromes.

Am J Med 2017 11 13;130(11):1324.e15-1324.e22. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

The Heart Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: Young women are usually protected against coronary artery disease due to hormonal and risk-factor profile. Previous studies have suggested poorer outcome in women hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome as compared with men. However, when adjusted for age and other risk factors, this difference does not remain significant. We compared the risk profile and outcome between young (≤55 years) women and men admitted with acute coronary syndrome.

Methods: We analyzed clinical characteristics, management strategies, and outcomes of men and women ≤55 years of age enrolled in the biennial Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys between 2000 and 2013.

Results: Among 11,536 patients enrolled, 3949 (34%) were ≤55 years old (407 women, 3542 men). Women were slightly older (48.9 ± 5.7 vs 48.3 ± 5.5, P = .007) and suffered more from diabetes (34% vs 24%) and hypertension (47% vs 37%, P <.001 for both). Rates of prior myocardial infarction were high in both sexes (18% vs 21%). Women presented less often with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (50% vs 57%, P = .007) and with typical chest pain (73% vs 80%, P = .004), and had higher rates of Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score ≥140 (19% vs 12%, P = .007). After adjustment for GRACE score, diabetes, and enrollment year, women had a lower likelihood to undergo coronary angiography during hospitalization (odds ratio 0.6, P = .007). Female sex was independently associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-14.0), 30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (HR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.31-3.36), and 5-year mortality (HR 1.96; 95% CI, 1.3-2.8).

Conclusions: Young women admitted with acute coronary syndrome are a unique high-risk group that presents a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Women receive less invasive therapy during hospitalization and have worse in-hospital and long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2017.05.028DOI Listing
November 2017

Dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with diabetes and acute coronary syndromes managed without revascularization.

Am Heart J 2017 Jun 27;188:156-166. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, USA; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) derived enhanced benefit with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with prasugrel vs. clopidogrel. The risk profile and treatment response to DAPT for medically managed ACS patients with DM remains uncertain.

Methods: The TRILOGY ACS trial compared aspirin + prasugrel vs. aspirin + clopidogrel for up to 30months in non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) ACS patients managed medically without revascularization. We compared treatment-related outcomes among 3539 patients with DM vs. 5767 patients without DM. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke.

Results: Patients with vs. without DM were younger, more commonly female, heavier, and more often had revascularization prior to the index ACS event. The frequency of the primary endpoint through 30months was higher among patients with vs. without DM (24.8% vs. 16.3%), with a higher risk for those patients with DM treated with insulin vs. those treated without insulin (35.3% vs. 19.9%). There was no significant difference in the frequency of the primary endpoint by treatment with prasugrel vs. clopiodgrel in those with or without DM (P=0.82) and with or without insulin treatment among those with DM (P=0.304).

Conclusions: Among NSTE ACS patients managed medically without revascularization, patients with DM had a higher risk of ischemic events that was amplified among those treated with insulin. There was no differential treatment effect with a more potent DAPT regimen of aspirin + prasugrel vs. aspirin + clopidogrel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2017.03.015DOI Listing
June 2017

Impact of mobile intensive care unit use on total ischemic time and clinical outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients - real-world data from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2018 Sep 20;7(6):497-503. Epub 2017 Jan 20.

1 Heart Institute, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Israel.

Background: Ischemic time has prognostic importance in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients. Mobile intensive care unit use can reduce components of total ischemic time by appropriate triage of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients.

Methods: Data from the Acute Coronary Survey in Israel registry 2000-2010 were analyzed to evaluate factors associated with mobile intensive care unit use and its impact on total ischemic time and patient outcomes.

Results: The study comprised 5474 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients enrolled in the Acute Coronary Survey in Israel registry, of whom 46% ( n=2538) arrived via mobile intensive care units. There was a significant increase in rates of mobile intensive care unit utilization from 36% in 2000 to over 50% in 2010 ( p<0.001). Independent predictors of mobile intensive care unit use were Killip>1 (odds ratio=1.32, p<0.001), the presence of cardiac arrest (odds ratio=1.44, p=0.02), and a systolic blood pressure <100 mm Hg (odds ratio=2.01, p<0.001) at presentation. Patients arriving via mobile intensive care units benefitted from increased rates of primary reperfusion therapy (odds ratio=1.58, p<0.001). Among ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary reperfusion, those arriving by mobile intensive care unit benefitted from shorter median total ischemic time compared with non-mobile intensive care unit patients (175 (interquartile range 120-262) vs 195 (interquartile range 130-333) min, respectively ( p<0.001)). Upon a multivariate analysis, mobile intensive care unit use was the most important predictor in achieving door-to-balloon time <90 min (odds ratio=2.56, p<0.001) and door-to-needle time <30 min (odds ratio=2.96, p<0.001). One-year mortality rates were 10.7% in both groups (log-rank p-value=0.98), however inverse propensity weight model, adjusted for significant differences between both groups, revealed a significant reduction in one-year mortality in favor of the mobile intensive care unit group (odds ratio=0.79, 95% confidence interval (0.66-0.94), p=0.01).

Conclusions: Among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the utilization of mobile intensive care units is associated with increased rates of primary reperfusion, a reduction in the time interval to reperfusion, and a reduction in one-year adjusted mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872616687097DOI Listing
September 2018

Real-World Use of Novel P2Y12 Inhibitors in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Treatment Paradox.

Cardiology 2017;136(1):21-28. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

The Leviev Heart Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objective: To assess the real-world use, clinical outcomes, and adherence to novel P2Y12 inhibitors.

Methods: We evaluated 1,093 consecutive acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing a percutaneous intervention. Patients were derived from a prospective, multicenter, nationwide registry and were followed for 30 days; 381 patients (35%) received clopidogrel, 468 (43%) received prasugrel, and 244 (22%) received ticagrelor. Patients treated with clopidogrel were older and more likely to suffer from chronic renal failure and stroke and/or present with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (p < 0.01 for all). Independent predictors of undertreatment with novel P2Y12 inhibitors included: older age (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.1-0.27, p < 0.0001), a prior stroke (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.2-0.68, p = 0.008), and NSTEMI (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.26-0.54, p < 0.0001).

Results: Novel P2Y12 inhibitors were associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular events, major bleeding, and/or death (7.6 vs.11%, HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.43-1, p = 0.05). However, after a multivariate analysis this trend was not statistically significant. Patients discharged with ticagrelor versus thienopyridines demonstrated a higher rate of crossover to other P2Y12 inhibitors (11 vs. 5%, p = 0.03).

Conclusions: In a real-world cohort, there was an underutilization of novel P2Y12 inhibitors which was more pronounced in higher-risk subsets that might benefit from novel P2Y12 inhibitors at least as much as other patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000447396DOI Listing
August 2018

Effect of prior clopidogrel use on outcomes in medically managed acute coronary syndrome patients.

Heart 2016 08 30;102(15):1221-9. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Jean Minjoz, Besançon, France.

Objective: We investigated whether prior clopidogrel influenced long-term ischaemic and bleeding risks and modified the randomised treatment effect of clopidogrel versus prasugrel among medically managed patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) treated with dual antiplatelet therapy.

Methods: Medically managed patients with ACS in the Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes (TRILOGY ACS) trial were randomised to clopidogrel versus prasugrel (plus aspirin), stratified by prior clopidogrel use. From the analysis population (n=8927), we compared two groups: 'clopidogrel in-hospital (n=6513)' (clopidogrel started ≤72 h of presentation for index ACS event) and 'prior-clopidogrel (n=2414)' (on clopidogrel ≥5 days before index hospitalisation). Treatment-related differences in ischaemic (all-cause death, cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and the composite of CV death/MI/stroke) and bleeding outcomes (severe/life-threatening or moderate bleeding events based on Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) criteria) through 30 months were analysed between patients in the two groups.

Results: Compared with 'clopidogrel in-hospital,' 'prior clopidogrel' patients were younger (median 64 years vs 66 years, p<0.001), more likely to have prior CV events/revascularisation, and had a higher frequency of CV death, MI or stroke through 30 months (20.8% vs 18.2%, p=0.002), with no difference in bleeding events (2.3% vs 3.4%, p=0.50). Randomised treatment effect (prasugrel vs clopidogrel) was similar for ischaemic and bleeding outcomes in both groups (all pinteraction>0.05).

Conclusions: Patients receiving clopidogrel before admission for ACS and subsequently treated only medically are at higher risk for CV events versus those not previously receiving clopidogrel. More potent antiplatelet inhibition with prasugrel versus clopidogrel did not significantly reduce this risk.

Trial Registration Number: NCT00699998.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308840DOI Listing
August 2016

Association between statin treatment and LDL-cholesterol levels on the rate of ST-elevation myocardial infarction among patients with acute coronary syndromes: ACS Israeli Survey (ACSIS) 2002-2010.

Int J Cardiol 2016 May 18;210:133-8. Epub 2016 Feb 18.

Cardiology Department, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Background: STEMI is thought to occur as a result of a vulnerable coronary plaque rupture. Statins possess hypolipidemic and pleotropic effects that stabilize coronary plaque. We sought to determine the association between LDL-C levels, statin use prior to the index event on the type of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) presentation: STEMI vs. non-STEMI/unstable angina.

Methods: Data was drawn from the ACS Israeli Survey (ACSIS), a biennial prospective survey of ACS patients hospitalized in all CCU/Cardiology departments during 2002-2010.

Results: Among 6790 patients, 2760 (41%) reported statin use prior to the index ACS event. The proportion of STEMI was significantly lower among statin treated vs. statin naive patients (36% vs. 57%, p<0.0001). At each LDL-C level, the proportion of STEMI was significantly lower only among statin treated patients (p<0.0001). LDL-C<70 mg/dL was associated with a lower proportion of STEMI only among statin treated but not among statin naive patients (33% vs. 57%, p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that statin use was independently associated with a lower probability of presenting with STEMI (ORadj=0.73, p=0.007), but not LDL-C<70 mg/dL (ORadj=1.13, p=0.32). Patients on high-intensity statin therapy (HIST) were less likely to present with STEMI as compared with low-intensity statin therapy (LIST) or statin naive patients (27%, 38%, 56%, respectively, p for trend <0.0001; HIST ORadj=0.28, p=0.01; LIST ORadj=0.48, p=0.026).

Conclusions: Among patients admitted with ACS, statin use but not LDL-C level, was associated with a lower probability of presenting with STEMI. Patients on HIST had the lowest likelihood of presenting with STEMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.02.088DOI Listing
May 2016

Temporal Trends and Outcomes Associated with Major Bleeding in Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Decade-Long Perspective from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys 2000-2010.

Cardiology 2015 8;132(3):163-71. Epub 2015 Aug 8.

The Heart Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Objectives: The implementation of an early invasive approach and the increased use of potent anti-thrombotic drugs have resulted in higher rates of major bleeding events (MBE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). There are limited data on the temporal trends for the rates of MBE over the last decade and associated outcomes.

Methods: Rates, characteristics, risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with MBE were assessed among 11,538 patients enrolled in the biennial Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys (ACSIS) 2000-2010.

Results: A total of 143 patients (1.2%) experienced MBE during the index hospitalization for ACS. There was a significant increase in the risk of MBE in the late (2006-2010) versus the early (2000-2004) surveys (0.9 and 1.6% respectively, adjusted OR 1.86, p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with a significant increase in the risk of MBE included undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (OR 2.21, p < 0.005), experiencing renal failure (OR 4.19, p < 0.001) and systolic blood pressure level at admission (OR 1.12, per 10- mm Hg decrement, p = 0.011). Patients who experienced MBE had a >3.5-fold increased risk for 1-year mortality (adjusted HR = 3.52, p < 0.001). Interestingly, the mortality risk associated with MBE was evident only among those who experienced non-access-site bleeding (HR = 1.9; p = 0.001).

Conclusions: In the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the rate of MBE. However, we found that only major bleeding that was not related to the vascular access site affected subsequent mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000430838DOI Listing
June 2017

Outcome of contemporary acute coronary syndrome complicated by ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

Europace 2016 Feb 2;18(2):219-26. Epub 2015 Apr 2.

Cardiology Department, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 39 Jabotinsky St. 49100, Petach Tikva, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Aim: To evaluate the incidence and prognostic implications of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTAs) complicating acute myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods And Results: We evaluated 7669 MI patients [ST elevation (n = 3573) and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (n = 4096)] from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey for the incidence of VTA. Ventricular tachyarrhythmia occurred in 3.8% of patients [2.1% early (≤ 48 h) and 1.7% late (>48 h) VTA]. In-hospital mortality rates were higher for patients with VTA when compared with patients with no VTA (P < 0.001). Consistent with these findings, multivariable analysis demonstrated that early and late VTAs were associated with increased risk of in-hospital death [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.77-6.78, P < 0.001, and HR = 8.23; 95% CI 4.84-13.98, P < 0.001, respectively]. In contrast, post-discharge outcomes demonstrated that only late VTA was independently associated with a significant increased risk of 30-day mortality (HR = 5.17; 95% CI 1.54-17.27, P = 0.007) with a trend towards an increased 1-year mortality risk (HR = 1.69; 95% CI 0.79-3.62, P = 0.17). The long-term risk associated with in-hospital VTA was driven by sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (HR = 3.28; 95% CI 1.92-5.60, P < 0.001) but not ventricular fibrillation (HR = 1.27; 95% CI 0.65-2.49, P = 0.47).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in patients with ACS, both early and late VTAs are associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. However, only late VTA, mostly sustained VT, is associated with long-term adverse outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euv027DOI Listing
February 2016

Recent temporal trends in the presentation, management, and outcome of women hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes.

Am J Med 2015 Apr 18;128(4):380-8. Epub 2014 Nov 18.

Heart Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: Few data exist on the recent trends in the outcome of women hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome. We examined temporal trends in the hospital management and outcomes of women hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome in a real-world setting.

Methods: We evaluated time-dependent changes in the clinical characteristics, management strategies, and outcomes of women enrolled in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys (ACSIS) between 2000 and 2010. Periods were categorized as early (2000-2004) and late (2006-2010).

Results: Among 11,536 patients enrolled in ACSIS, 2710 (24%) were women. Frequency of women presenting with acute coronary syndrome had declined from 25% in 2000 to 22% in 2010 (P for trend = .002). Women presented less frequently with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and more frequently with associated comorbidities (P < .001 for both). There was no significant reduction in the time delay from symptom onset to emergency department between early and late periods (median: 128 vs 125 minutes; P = .86). This was further reflected in no increase in the frequency of women meeting the goal of door-to-balloon time of ≤90 minutes. The utilization of evidence-based cardiovascular therapies had increased significantly over the past decade (P < .001 for all). After multivariate adjustment, admission in the late surveys was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day major adverse cardiac events and 1-year mortality (hazard ratio 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.9, and 0.73; 0.59-0.89, respectively).

Conclusions: Despite increased frequency of comorbidities and lack of change in time to admission among women hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome, temporal change in management strategies over the last decade may have contributed to improved outcomes in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.10.041DOI Listing
April 2015

Predictors and outcomes associated with radial versus femoral access for intervention in patients with acute coronary syndrome in a real-world setting: results from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS) 2010.

J Invasive Cardiol 2014 Aug;26(8):398-402

Heart Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel 52621.

Background: Use of transradial intervention (TRI) is becoming more popular, and recent studies suggest an advantage for TRI in high-risk patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of our study was to describe current utilization and outcomes of transradial intervention (TRI) in real-world patients presenting with ACS.

Methods: Data were derived from the ACS Israeli Survey (ACSIS 2010), a nationwide prospective survey of patients presenting with ACS over a 2-month period. Follow-up was continued for up to 1 year.

Results: Of 1815 ACS patients undergoing coronary angiography, 613 (34%) underwent TRI, which was more likely to be employed among patients with lower-risk characteristics. Patients undergoing TRI had significantly lower 30-day mortality and in-hospital bleeding. On multivariate analysis, the risk of in-hospital major bleeding was reduced by 60% in patients undergoing TRI (P=.04). However, no significant differences in other components of major adverse cardiac events or mortality were demonstrated at 30 days. All-cause mortality at 1 year was significantly lower among patients who underwent TRI. However, after multivariate adjustment, this effect was no longer significant.

Conclusions: In our study of real-world patients, better TRI outcomes are related largely to lower baseline risk of patients allocated to this approach, suggesting that TRI may be underutilized in high-risk ACS patients.
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August 2014

Characteristics and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome and normal or non-significant coronary artery disease: results from Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS) 2004-2010.

J Invasive Cardiol 2014 Aug;26(8):389-93

MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving St, NW, Suite 4B, Washington, DC 20010 USA.

Background: An important subset of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are found to have either normal coronaries (NCs) or non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD; lumen diameter narrowing <50%).

Objectives: To explore the characteristics and management strategies in this population in a real-world setting.

Methods: The Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS) database was utilized to compare the characteristics and therapeutic approach for patients who underwent angiography for ACS and had either NC (n = 84; 2%), NOCAD (n = 79; 2%), or obstructive coronary artery disease (OCAD; n = 3523; 96%).

Results: Baseline characteristics were comparable, save for a younger age and a higher proportion of females in the NC group (P<.001 for both). Prior to admission, chronic anticoagulant therapy was more frequently used in the NC vs. the OCAD group (4.8% vs. 1.6%, respectively; P=.02). Recommended ACS evidence-based medications, both in-hospital and at discharge, were less frequently prescribed to patients with NC or NOCAD.

Conclusions: In a real-world practice of ACS, underutilization of evidence-based medications in patients with NC or NOCAD was observed. Nonetheless, its prognostic significance is still unknown and must be explored in larger patient cohorts.
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August 2014

Patterns of long-term thienopyridine therapy and outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with coronary stenting: Observations from the TIMI-38 Coronary Stent Registry.

Clin Cardiol 2014 May 14;37(5):293-9. Epub 2014 Feb 14.

TIMI Study Group, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is not known. Factors influencing DAPT duration are not well described.

Hypothesis: We hypothesized that continued DAPT 12 months beyond ACS would be associated with patient factors such as stent type and that it may be associated with lower rates of ischemic events.

Methods: The TIMI 38 Coronary Stent Registry (CSR) followed patients who completed the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial, received a stent, and were alive and event free. Continuation of DAPT was determined by the treating physician.

Results: The CSR enrolled 2110 patients (1679>12 months from index ACS) and followed for a median of 2.1 additional years. DAPT was continued in 554 (26%) and was more likely to be continued in patients with drug-eluting stents (DES; 54%) and in North America. The rate of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke was 2.35% per year, and 13 patients (0.6%) experienced Academic Research Consortium definite or probable ST. Recurrent ischemic events were similar between patients who continued thienopyridine therapy and those who stopped at registry entry (P = 0.74 for cardiovascular death/MI/stroke; P = 0.72 for definite or probable ST). After propensity score adjustment, there was no significant difference in cardiovascular death/MI/stroke (P = 0.55) or bleeding (P = 0.51) with prolonged DAPT.

Conclusions: Patients stabilized for a year after ACS and stenting have low rates of ST relative to overall cardiovascular events. The decision to continue DAPT maybe associated with stent type (DES vs bare-metal stent) and region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.22247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6649600PMC
May 2014

Aspiration thrombectomy in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey 2010).

Am J Cardiol 2014 Mar 12;113(5):809-14. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Department of Cardiology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel; Neufeld Cardiac Research Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

We assessed the impact of aspiration thrombectomy (AT) in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) on major adverse cardiac events at 30 days and 1-year mortality in 517 consecutive patients who were included in the prospective, nationwide, multicenter, observational Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey in 2010. Two hundred seventeen patients (42%) underwent AT (AT-PPCI) and 300 patients conventional (C) PPCI. Both groups had similar infarct-related artery distribution and ostial or proximal culprit lesion. Patients in AT-PPCI versus C-PPCI had lower systolic blood pressure and worse Killip class on admission, more frequent Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow 0 or 1 before PPCI (80% vs 56%), less frequent restoration of flow after indwelling a guidewire in the infarct-related artery (32% vs 52%), and more use of IIb/IIIa glycoprotein inhibitors (69% vs 49%), respectively (p ≤0.05 for all comparisons). Thirty-day major adverse cardiac events was similar in the AT-PPCI and C-PPCI groups, 10.6% versus 9.7%, p = 0.73; adjusted odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 2.10, p = 0.95. One-year mortality was lower in the AT-PPCI versus C-PPCI group, 3.7% versus 6.7%, p = 0.13; adjusted hazard ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.96, p = 0.042. In conclusion, this study of consecutive patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing PPCI demonstrates that AT was an independent predictor of reduced 1-year mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.11.032DOI Listing
March 2014

Type-II myocardial infarction--patient characteristics, management and outcomes.

PLoS One 2014 2;9(1):e84285. Epub 2014 Jan 2.

Internal Medicine "B", Beilinson Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Background: Type-II MI is defined as myocardial infarction (MI) secondary to ischemia due to either increased oxygen demand or decreased supply. This categorization has been used for the last five years, yet, little is known about patient characteristics and clinical outcomes. In the current work we assessed the epidemiology, causes, management and outcomes of type II MI patients.

Methods: A comparative analysis was performed between patients with type-I and type-II MI who participated in two prospective national Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys (ACSIS) performed in 2008 and 2010.

Results: The surveys included 2818 patients with acute MI of whom 127 (4.5%) had type-II MI. The main causes of type-II MI were anemia (31%), sepsis (24%), and arrhythmia (17%). Patients with type-II MI tended to be older (75.6±12 vs. 63.8±13, p<0.0001), female majority (43.3% vs. 22.3%, p<0.0001), had more frequently impaired functional level (45.7% vs. 17%, p<0.0001) and a higher GRACE risk score (150±32 vs. 110±35, p<0.0001). Patients with type-II MI were significantly less often referred for coronary interventions (36% vs. 89%, p<0.0001) and less frequently prescribed guideline-directed medical therapy. Mortality rates were substantially higher among patients with type-II MI both at thirty-day (13.6% vs. 4.9%, p<0.0001) and at one-year (23.9% vs. 8.6%, p<0.0001) follow-ups.

Conclusions: Patients with type-II compared to type-I MI have distinct demographics, increased prevalence of multiple comorbidities, a high-risk cardiovascular profile and an overall worse outcome. The complex medical condition of this cohort imposes a great therapeutic challenge and specific guidelines with recommended medical treatment and invasive strategies are warranted.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0084285PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3879301PMC
November 2014

Cardiac symptoms in women and men.

JAMA Intern Med 2013 Nov;173(20):1929

Department of Cardiology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.9788DOI Listing
November 2013

Elderly patients with acute coronary syndromes managed without revascularization: insights into the safety of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy with reduced-dose prasugrel versus standard-dose clopidogrel.

Circulation 2013 Aug 12;128(8):823-33. Epub 2013 Jul 12.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA.

Background: Dual antiplatelet therapy in older versus younger patients with acute coronary syndromes is understudied. Low-dose prasugrel (5 mg/d) is recommended for younger, lower-body-weight patients and elderly patients with acute coronary syndromes to mitigate the bleeding risk of standard-dose prasugrel (10 mg/d).

Methods And Results: A total of 9326 medically managed patients with acute coronary syndromes from the Targeted Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes (TRILOGY ACS) trial (<75 years of age, n=7243; ≥75 years of age, n=2083) were randomized to prasugrel (10 mg/d; 5 mg/d for those ≥75 or <75 years of age and <60 kg in weight) or clopidogrel (75 mg/d) plus aspirin for ≤30 months. A total of 515 participants ≥75 years of age (25% of total elderly population) had serial platelet reactivity unit measurements in a platelet-function substudy. Cumulative risks of the primary end point (cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke) and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding increased progressively with age and were ≥2-fold higher in older participants. Among those ≥75 years of age, TIMI major bleeding (4.1% versus 3.4%; hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-2.08) and the primary end point rates were similar with reduced-dose prasugrel and clopidogrel. Despite a correlation between lower 30-day on-treatment platelet reactivity unit values and lower weight only in the prasugrel group, there was a nonsignificant treatment-by-weight interaction for platelet reactivity unit values among participants ≥75 years of age in the platelet-function substudy (P=0.06). No differences in weight were seen in all participants ≥75 years of age with versus without TIMI major/minor bleeding in both treatment groups.

Conclusions: Older age is associated with substantially increased long-term cardiovascular risk and bleeding among patients with medically managed acute coronary syndromes, with no differences in ischemic or bleeding outcomes with reduced-dose prasugrel compared with clopidogrel in elderly patients. No significant interactions among weight, pharmacodynamic response, and bleeding risk were observed between reduced-dose prasugrel and clopidogrel in elderly patients.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/home. Unique identifier: NCT0069999.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002303DOI Listing
August 2013

Predictors of high-risk angiographic findings in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2014 Apr 13;83(5):677-83. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

The Leviev Heart Center, Sheba Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Current risk assessment of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) may fail to identify some patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to identify predictors of the angiographic extent and severity of CAD in patients with NSTE-ACS undergoing early angiography and to evaluate its impact on prognosis.

Methods: We evaluated 923 patients with NSTE-ACS who underwent coronary angiography. High-risk coronary anatomy (HRCA) was defined as left main disease > 50%, proximal LAD lesion > 70%, or 2- to 3-vessel disease involving the LAD. Clinical characteristics, in-hospital, and 30-day outcome and 1-year mortality were compared between the high-risk (N = 370) and the low-risk groups (N = 553).

Results: Proportion of patients with elevated cardiac biomarkers was similar in both groups. The presence of peripheral vascular disease (OR = 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.62-5.80, P < 0.001) and a GRACE score of >140 (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.29-2.75, P < 0.001) were the strongest predictors of HRCA. Patients with HRCA were prone to more complications during hospitalization and at 30 days (11.9% vs. 6%, P < 0.01) and increased 1-year mortality (6.7% vs. 0.9%, P < 0.001). HRCA was the strongest predictor for 30-day MACCE (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.42-3.79, P < 0.001). HRCA (OR = 8.36, 95% CI = 1.01-69.4, P = 0.049; OR = 3.64, 95% CI = 1.2-11.07, P = 0.02) and GRACE score of >140 (OR = 6.86, 95% CI = 1.68-27.9, P = 0.007; OR = 4.84, 95% CI = 1.74-13.5, P = 0.002) were significant predictors of 30-day and 1-year mortality, respectively.

Conclusions: HRCA is predicted by clinical parameters and was not associated with elevated cardiac biomarkers. These patients fared worse when compared with those with low-risk anatomy. We suggest that HRCA predictors should be included in the risk stratification of patients with NSTE-ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.25081DOI Listing
April 2014

Sitagliptin pretreatment in diabetes patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome: results from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS).

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2013 Mar 28;12:53. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

Department of Internal Medicine A Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel.

Background: Chronic treatment with currently available oral hypoglyemic medications may result in a differential effect on the clinical presentation of diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Methods: We evaluated presentation characteristics and the risk for in-hospital complications and 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) among 445 patients with diabetes mellitus enrolled in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS) 2010. Patients were categorized into 3 groups according to glucose lowering medications at time of admission for ACS: 1) DPP 4 inhibitors (as monotherapy or in combination; DPP4i), 2) Metformin (monotherapy or in combination, excluding DPP4i) and 3) other oral hypoglycemics.

Results: Patients in the DPP4i group displayed similar baseline clinical characteristics to the other 2 groups, with the exception of a younger age and a lower frequency of prior coronary heart disease and chronic renal failure. Medical therapy with DPP4i was associated with a significantly lower in-hospital complication rate (post MI angina, re-infarction, pulmonary edema, infections, acute renal failure and better KILLIP class) (9.7%), lower rates of 30-day MACE (12.9%) and a shorter hospital stay (5.4 ± 3.8 days) as compared with patients treated with metformin (24.4%, 31.6% and 5.6 ± 5.0 days respectively) or other oral hypoglycemic drugs (45.5%, 48.5% and 7.5 ± 6.5 days respectively). Consistently, multivariate logistic regression modeling revealed that treatment with DPP4i was associated with a lower risk for in-hospital complications (OR = 0.129, p = 0.002) and 30-day MACE (OR = 0.157, p = 0.002) compared with other oral hypoglycaemic therapy.

Conclusions: Our data suggests that chronic treatment with DPP4i may have cardioprotective effects in diabetes patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2840-12-53DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3637090PMC
March 2013

Prasugrel versus clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes without revascularization.

N Engl J Med 2012 Oct 25;367(14):1297-309. Epub 2012 Aug 25.

Duke Clinical Research Institute and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA.

Background: The effect of intensified platelet inhibition for patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation who do not undergo revascularization has not been delineated.

Methods: In this double-blind, randomized trial, in a primary analysis involving 7243 patients under the age of 75 years receiving aspirin, we evaluated up to 30 months of treatment with prasugrel (10 mg daily) versus clopidogrel (75 mg daily). In a secondary analysis involving 2083 patients 75 years of age or older, we evaluated 5 mg of prasugrel versus 75 mg of clopidogrel.

Results: At a median follow-up of 17 months, the primary end point of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke among patients under the age of 75 years occurred in 13.9% of the prasugrel group and 16.0% of the clopidogrel group (hazard ratio in the prasugrel group, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.05; P=0.21). Similar results were observed in the overall population. The prespecified analysis of multiple recurrent ischemic events (all components of the primary end point) suggested a lower risk for prasugrel among patients under the age of 75 years (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.00; P=0.04). Rates of severe and intracranial bleeding were similar in the two groups in all age groups. There was no significant between-group difference in the frequency of nonhemorrhagic serious adverse events, except for a higher frequency of heart failure in the clopidogrel group.

Conclusions: Among patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation, prasugrel did not significantly reduce the frequency of the primary end point, as compared with clopidogrel, and similar risks of bleeding were observed. (Funded by Eli Lilly and Daiichi Sankyo; TRILOGY ACS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00699998.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1205512DOI Listing
October 2012

Contemporary use and outcome of percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with acute coronary syndromes: insights from the 2010 ACSIS and ACSIS-PCI surveys.

EuroIntervention 2012 Aug;8(4):465-9

The Heart Institute, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel.

Aims: In patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the mainstay of treatment based on current guidelines. In this paper we describe contemporary management and outcomes of patients with ACS treated by PCI in the national ACS Israeli survey (ACSIS) performed in March and April 2010.

Methods And Results: The ACSIS 2010 registry was conducted in all 25 hospitals in Israel and included "all comers" admitted with ACS. In-hospital and 30-day outcome was assessed. The registry included 2,193 patients with ACS. Coronary angiography was performed in 86.1% and PCI in 75.1% of cases. The mean age was 62.5 years, the transradial approach was used in 32% of patients and overall use of drug-eluting stents was 34%. Procedural complications were extremely low at less than 1%. The thirty-day mortality rate was 2.1% and the repeated myocardial infarction (MI) rate was 2.5%. The major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE) rate was 5.6%. Multivariable analysis identified age, chronic renal failure, and hyperglycaemia on admission as independent predictors of 30-day mortality for all subsets of ACS, and Killip class >I on admission and prior MI for patients with ST-elevation ACS only.

Conclusions: When evidence-based medicine is applied in the treatment of patients with ACS, clinical outcome is favourable. Several clinical predictors identify high-risk patients who require special attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJV8I4A73DOI Listing
August 2012

Use of intravenous morphine for acute decompensated heart failure in patients with and without acute coronary syndromes.

Acute Card Care 2011 Jun;13(2):76-80

Department of Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital and the Lea Weissman Cardiology Research Institute, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: Current guidelines regarding the use of intravenous morphine (IM) in the management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are discordant; whereas the American guidelines reserve IM for terminal patients, the European guidelines recommend its use in the early stage of treatment. Our aim was to determine the impact of IM on outcomes of ADHF patients.

Methods: Stepwise logistic regression and propensity score analysis of ADHF patients with and without use of IM was performed in a national heart failure survey.

Results: Of the 4102 enrolled patients, we identified 2336 ADHF patients, of whom 218 (9.3%) received IM. IM patients were more likely to have acute coronary syndromes, acute rather than exacerbation of chronic heart failure, and diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. They had higher heart rate, were less likely to receive diuretics and more likely to receive aspirin and statins. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were 11.5% versus 5.0% for patients who did or did not receive IM, and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for in-hospital death was: 2.0 (1.1 – 3.5, P = 0.02). Using propensity analysis, we identified 218 matched pairs of patients who did or did not receive IM. In multivariable analysis accounting for the propensity score (c-statistic 0.82), IM was not associated with increased in-hospital death (OR: 1.2 (0.6 – 2.4), P = 0.55).

Conclusion: IM was used sparingly in our ADHF cohort, and was independently associated with increased in-hospital death in multivariable analysis, but not in propensity score analysis. Thus, IM may be used in ADHF, but with caution. Further randomized trials are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17482941.2011.575165DOI Listing
June 2011

Outcomes of acute heart failure associated with acute coronary syndrome versus other causes.

Acute Card Care 2011 Jun 28;13(2):87-92. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Lea Wiessman Clinical Cardiology Research Center, Department of Cardiology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: By and large, prior registries and randomized trials have not distinguished between acute heart failure (AHF) associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) versus other causes.

Aims: To examine whether the treatments and outcomes of ACS-associated AHF are different from non-ACS-associated AHF.

Methods: We examined in a prospective, nationwide hospital-based survey the adjusted outcomes of AHF patients with and without ACS as its principal cause.

Results: Of the 4102 patients in our national heart failure survey, 2336 (56.9%) had AHF, of whom 923 (39.5%) had ACS-associated AHF. These patients were more likely to receive intravenous inotropes and vasodilators and to undergo coronary angiography and revascularization, but less likely to receive intravenous diuretics. The unadjusted in-hospital, 30-day, one-year, and four-year mortality rates for AHF patients with or without ACS were 6.5% versus 5.0% (P = 0.13), 10.3% versus 7.5% (P = 0.02), 26.6% versus 31.0% (P = 0.02), and 55.3% versus 63.3% (P = 0.0001), respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the adjusted mortality risk for patients with ACS at the respective time points were 1.46 (0.99-2.10), 1.67 (1.22-2.30), 1.02 (0.86-1.20), and 0.93 (0.82-1.04).

Conclusions: Patients with ACS-associated AHF seem to have a unique clinical course and perhaps should be distinguished from other AHF patients in future trials and registries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17482941.2011.567284DOI Listing
June 2011

Comparison of outcome of recurrent versus first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (from national Israel surveys 1998 to 2006).

Am J Cardiol 2011 Jun 12;107(12):1730-7. Epub 2011 Apr 12.

Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel.

Patients with recurrent acute myocardial infarction (AMI), who represent ≤35% of hospitalized patients with AMI, are at an increased risk of complications and death. Our study purpose was to compare the treatment and outcome of patients hospitalized with recurrent acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) from 1998 to 2006 with those of patients with a first STEMI. We performed 5 biennial nationwide 2-month surveys during 1998 to 2006, collecting data prospectively from all patients hospitalized for AMI or acute coronary syndrome in all 25 coronary care units in Israel. The present cohort included 4,543 patients with STEMI, 3,679 (76%) with first and 864 (24%) with recurrent STEMI. The patients with recurrent STEMI were older (66 ± 13 vs 62 ± 13 years), had greater rates of diabetes, hypertension, and previous angina, had a worse Killip class on admission, and experienced more in-hospital complications. The all-cause hospital crude mortality rate was 8.1% in patients with recurrent STEMI versus 5.5% in those with a first STEMI (adjusted odds ratio 1.71 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 2.44), and the 1-year mortality rate was 18.9% versus 10.9%, respectively (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.41 to 2.43). From 1998 to 2006, an insignificant trend toward a 1-year mortality reduction among patients with recurrent STEMI was seen and those with a first STEMI had a significant mortality decrease. In conclusion, patients admitted for recurrent STEMI have worse in-hospital and 1-year outcomes that did not improve during the study period. An improved therapeutic approach is needed for these high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.02.332DOI Listing
June 2011

Management and 1 year outcome of oldest-old hospitalized heart failure patients: a subacute geriatric hospital survey.

Isr Med Assoc J 2010 Aug;12(8):483-8

Department of Geriatrics, Shoham Medical Center, Pardes Hana, Israel.

Background: Guidelines are frequently under-implement in older patients with heart failure. Octogenerians are often excluded from clinical trials.

Objectives: To characterize the clinical profile of the oldest-old (age > or =80 years) heart failure patients hospitalized in a subacute geriatric hospital and to evaluate their management and 1 year outcome.

Methods: Patient characteristics and in-hospital course were retrospectively collected. Diagnosis of heart failure was based mainly on clinical evaluation in addition to chest x-ray results and echocardiographic findings when available.

Results: The study population comprised 96 consecutive unselected heart failure patients hospitalized from January to June 2003. The patients were predominantly women (67%), aged 85 +/- 5 years, fully dependent or frail with a high rate of comorbidities. Adherence to guidelines and useof recommended heart failure medications were poor. Their 1 year mortality was 57%. According to logistic regression analysis the predictor of lower 1 year mortality was higher body mass index (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.96), and the predictor of higher 1 year mortality was high urea levels (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06).

Conclusions: Our study confirms that the managementof oldest-old heart failure patients hospitalized in a subactute geriatric hospital was suboptimal and their mortality was exceptionally high.
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August 2010

Relation of bundle branch block to long-term (four-year) mortality in hospitalized patients with systolic heart failure.

Am J Cardiol 2011 Feb 22;107(4):540-4. Epub 2010 Dec 22.

Cardiology Division, University of Rochester Medical Center, New York, USA.

There is controversy regarding type of bundle branch block (BBB) that is associated with increased mortality risk in patients with heart failure (HF). The present study was designed to explore the association between BBB pattern and long-term mortality in hospitalized patients with systolic HF. Risk of 4-year all-cause mortality was assessed in 1,888 hospitalized patients with systolic HF (left ventricular ejection function <50%) without a pacemaker in a prospective national survey. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to compare mortality risk in patients with right BBB (RBBB; 10%), left BBB (LBBB; 14%), and no BBB (76%) on admission electrocardiogram. At 4 years of follow up, mortality rates were highest in patients with RBBB (69%), intermediate in those with LBBB (63%), and lowest in those without BBB (50%, p <0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant 36% increased mortality risk in patients with RBBB versus no BBB (p = 0.002) but no significant difference in mortality risk for patients with LBBB versus no BBB (hazard ratio 1.04, p = 0.66). RBBB versus LBBB was associated with a 29% (p = 0.035) increased risk for 4-year mortality in the total population and with a 58% (p = 0.015) increased risk in patients with ejection fraction <30%. In conclusion, RBBB but not LBBB on admission electrocardiogram is associated with a significant increased long-term mortality risk in hospitalized patients with systolic HF. Deleterious effects of RBBB compared to LBBB appear to be more pronounced in patients with more advanced left ventricular dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.10.007DOI Listing
February 2011

Predictors of long-term (4-year) mortality in elderly and young patients with acute heart failure.

Eur J Heart Fail 2010 Aug 21;12(8):833-40. Epub 2010 May 21.

Heart Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Aims: The present study was designed to identify and compare predictors of short- and long-term mortality in elderly and young patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (HF).

Methods And Results: The risk of in-hospital, 1- and 4-year mortality was assessed among 2336 acute HF patients in a prospective national survey. Interaction-term analysis was utilized to identify and compare independent risk factors between elderly (>75 years [n = 1182]) and younger (< or =75 years [n = 1154]) study patients. Elderly patients exhibited a 1.8-fold (P = 0.004), 1.4-fold (P < 0.001), and 1.7-fold (P < 0.001) increase in the adjusted risk of in-hospital, 1-year, and 4-year mortality, respectively, as compared with younger patients. Independent risk factors for 4-year mortality among elderly patients included NYHA functional Class III-IV before admission (HR = 1.46, P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure <115 mmHg (HR = 1.45, P = 0.002), renal dysfunction ([eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)] HR = 1.35, P = 0.002), diabetes mellitus (HR = 1.28, P = 0.006), and anaemia (HR = 1.25, P = 0.012). In the young group, but not in the elderly group, left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% and hyponatraemia (sodium <136 mmol/L) were significant predictors of 4-year mortality. (LVEF <50%, HR = 1.47 for the young and 1.04 for the elderly, P for interaction = 0.025; hyponatraemia HR = 1.59 for the young and 1.17 for the elderly, P for interaction = 0.035).

Conclusion: Elderly patients exhibit different risk factors for long-term mortality as compared with young patients with acute HF. In contrast to younger patients, mortality risk in the older population is not decreased among those with preserved LVEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfq079DOI Listing
August 2010