Publications by authors named "Shizhong Dai"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The transcriptional landscape of Shh medulloblastoma.

Nat Commun 2021 03 19;12(1):1749. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma encompasses a clinically and molecularly diverse group of cancers of the developing central nervous system. Here, we use unbiased sequencing of the transcriptome across a large cohort of 250 tumors to reveal differences among molecular subtypes of the disease, and demonstrate the previously unappreciated importance of non-coding RNA transcripts. We identify alterations within the cAMP dependent pathway (GNAS, PRKAR1A) which converge on GLI2 activity and show that 18% of tumors have a genetic event that directly targets the abundance and/or stability of MYCN. Furthermore, we discover an extensive network of fusions in focally amplified regions encompassing GLI2, and several loss-of-function fusions in tumor suppressor genes PTCH1, SUFU and NCOR1. Molecular convergence on a subset of genes by nucleotide variants, copy number aberrations, and gene fusions highlight the key roles of specific pathways in the pathogenesis of Sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma and open up opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21883-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979819PMC
March 2021

GTP-State-Selective Cyclic Peptide Ligands of K-Ras(G12D) Block Its Interaction with Raf.

ACS Cent Sci 2020 Oct 23;6(10):1753-1761. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

We report the identification of three cyclic peptide ligands of K-Ras(G12D) using an integrated translation-mRNA display selection platform. These cyclic peptides show preferential binding to the GTP-bound state of K-Ras(G12D) over the GDP-bound state and block Ras-Raf interaction. A co-crystal structure of peptide KD2 with K-Ras(G12D)·GppNHp reveals that this peptide binds in the Switch II groove region with concomitant opening of the Switch II loop and a 40° rotation of the α2 helix, and that a threonine residue (Thr10) on KD2 has direct access to the mutant aspartate (Asp12) on K-Ras. Replacing this threonine with non-natural amino acids afforded peptides with improved potency at inhibiting the interaction between Raf1-RBD and K-Ras(G12D) but not wildtype K-Ras. The union of G12D over wildtype selectivity and GTP state/GDP state selectivity is particularly desirable, considering that oncogenic K-Ras(G12D) exists predominantly in the GTP state in cancer cells, and wildtype K-Ras signaling is important for the maintenance of healthy cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscentsci.0c00514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596874PMC
October 2020

A SARS-CoV-2-Human Protein-Protein Interaction Map Reveals Drug Targets and Potential Drug-Repurposing.

bioRxiv 2020 Mar 22. Epub 2020 Mar 22.

QBI COVID-19 Research Group (QCRG), San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

An outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 respiratory disease, has infected over 290,000 people since the end of 2019, killed over 12,000, and caused worldwide social and economic disruption. There are currently no antiviral drugs with proven efficacy nor are there vaccines for its prevention. Unfortunately, the scientific community has little knowledge of the molecular details of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To illuminate this, we cloned, tagged and expressed 26 of the 29 viral proteins in human cells and identified the human proteins physically associated with each using affinity- purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS), which identified 332 high confidence SARS-CoV-2-human protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Among these, we identify 66 druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by 69 existing FDA-approved drugs, drugs in clinical trials and/or preclinical compounds, that we are currently evaluating for efficacy in live SARS-CoV-2 infection assays. The identification of host dependency factors mediating virus infection may provide key insights into effective molecular targets for developing broadly acting antiviral therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 and other deadly coronavirus strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.22.002386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239059PMC
March 2020

A SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map reveals targets for drug repurposing.

Nature 2020 07 30;583(7816):459-468. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

QBI COVID-19 Research Group (QCRG), San Francisco, CA, USA.

A newly described coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected over 2.3 million people, led to the death of more than 160,000 individuals and caused worldwide social and economic disruption. There are no antiviral drugs with proven clinical efficacy for the treatment of COVID-19, nor are there any vaccines that prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2, and efforts to develop drugs and vaccines are hampered by the limited knowledge of the molecular details of how SARS-CoV-2 infects cells. Here we cloned, tagged and expressed 26 of the 29 SARS-CoV-2 proteins in human cells and identified the human proteins that physically associated with each of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins using affinity-purification mass spectrometry, identifying 332 high-confidence protein-protein interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins. Among these, we identify 66 druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by 69 compounds (of which, 29 drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, 12 are in clinical trials and 28 are preclinical compounds). We screened a subset of these in multiple viral assays and found two sets of pharmacological agents that displayed antiviral activity: inhibitors of mRNA translation and predicted regulators of the sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors. Further studies of these host-factor-targeting agents, including their combination with drugs that directly target viral enzymes, could lead to a therapeutic regimen to treat COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2286-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431030PMC
July 2020

Extending chemical perturbations of the ubiquitin fitness landscape in a classroom setting reveals new constraints on sequence tolerance.

Biol Open 2018 Jul 23;7(7). Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Biophysics Graduate Group, University of California, San Francisco 94158, USA.

Although the primary protein sequence of ubiquitin (Ub) is extremely stable over evolutionary time, it is highly tolerant to mutation during selection experiments performed in the laboratory. We have proposed that this discrepancy results from the difference between fitness under laboratory culture conditions and the selective pressures in changing environments over evolutionary timescales. Building on our previous work (Mavor et al., 2016), we used deep mutational scanning to determine how twelve new chemicals (3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole, 5-fluorocytosine, Amphotericin B, CaCl, Cerulenin, Cobalt Acetate, Menadione, Nickel Chloride, p-Fluorophenylalanine, Rapamycin, Tamoxifen, and Tunicamycin) reveal novel mutational sensitivities of ubiquitin residues. Collectively, our experiments have identified eight new sensitizing conditions for Lys63 and uncovered a sensitizing condition for every position in Ub except Ser57 and Gln62. By determining the ubiquitin fitness landscape under different chemical constraints, our work helps to resolve the inconsistencies between deep mutational scanning experiments and sequence conservation over evolutionary timescales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.036103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6078352PMC
July 2018

Genetically encoded releasable photo-cross-linking strategies for studying protein-protein interactions in living cells.

Nat Protoc 2017 Oct 21;12(10):2147-2168. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Synthetic and Functional Biomolecules Center, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Although protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have crucial roles in virtually all cellular processes, the identification of more transient interactions in their biological context remains challenging. Conventional photo-cross-linking strategies can be used to identify transient interactions, but these approaches often suffer from high background due to the cross-linked bait proteins. To solve the problem, we have developed membrane-permeable releasable photo-cross-linkers that allow for prey-bait separation after protein complex isolation and can be installed in proteins of interest (POIs) as unnatural amino acids. Here we describe the procedures for using two releasable photo-cross-linkers, DiZSeK and DiZHSeC, in both living Escherichia coli and mammalian cells. A cleavage after protein photo-cross-linking (CAPP ) strategy based on the photo-cross-linker DiZSeK is described, in which the prey protein pool is released from a POI after affinity purification. Prey proteins are analyzed using mass spectrometry or 2D gel electrophoresis for global comparison of interactomes from different experimental conditions. An in situ cleavage and mass spectrometry (MS)-label transfer after protein photo-cross-linking (IMAPP) strategy based on the photo-cross-linker DiZHSeC is also described. This strategy can be used for the identification of cross-linking sites to allow detailed characterization of PPI interfaces. The procedures for photo-cross-linker incorporation, photo-cross-linking of interaction partners and affinity purification of cross-linked complexes are similar for the two photo-cross-linkers. The final section of the protocol describes prey-bait separation (for CAPP) and MS-label transfer and identification (for IMAPP). After plasmid construction, the CAPP and IMAPP strategies can be completed within 6 and 7 d, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2017.090DOI Listing
October 2017

Comparative proteomics reveal distinct chaperone-client interactions in supporting bacterial acid resistance.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 09 12;113(39):10872-7. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Synthetic and Functional Biomolecules Center, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Beijing 100871, China

HdeA and HdeB constitute the essential chaperone system that functions in the unique periplasmic space of Gram-negative enteric bacteria to confer acid resistance. How this two-chaperone machinery cooperates to protect a broad range of client proteins from acid denaturation while avoiding nonspecific binding during bacterial passage through the highly acidic human stomach remains unclear. We have developed a comparative proteomic strategy that combines the genetically encoded releasable protein photocross-linker with 2D difference gel electrophoresis, which allows an unbiased side-by-side comparison of the entire client pools from these two acid-activated chaperones in Escherichia coli Our results reveal distinct client specificities between HdeA and HdeB in vivo that are determined mainly by their different responses to pH stimulus. The intracellular acidity serves as an environmental cue to determine the folding status of both chaperones and their clients, enabling specific chaperone-client binding and release under defined pH conditions. This cooperative and synergistic mode of action provides an efficient, economical, flexible, and finely tuned protein quality control strategy for coping with acid stress.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5047170PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1606360113DOI Listing
September 2016

Genetically encoded protein photocrosslinker with a transferable mass spectrometry-identifiable label.

Nat Commun 2016 07 27;7:12299. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

Synthetic and Functional Biomolecules Center, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Coupling photocrosslinking reagents with mass spectrometry has become a powerful tool for studying protein-protein interactions in living systems, but it still suffers from high rates of false-positive identifications as well as the lack of information on interaction interface due to the challenges in deciphering crosslinking peptides. Here we develop a genetically encoded photo-affinity unnatural amino acid that introduces a mass spectrometry-identifiable label (MS-label) to the captured prey proteins after photocrosslinking and prey-bait separation. This strategy, termed IMAPP (In-situ cleavage and MS-label transfer After Protein Photocrosslinking), enables direct identification of photo-captured substrate peptides that are difficult to uncover by conventional genetically encoded photocrosslinkers. Taking advantage of the MS-label, the IMAPP strategy significantly enhances the confidence for identifying protein-protein interactions and enables simultaneous mapping of the binding interface under living conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4974458PMC
July 2016