Publications by authors named "Shiwu Dong"

109 Publications

Corrigendum to 'Phosphorylation inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B tyrosine-152 induces bone regeneration coupled with angiogenesis for bone tissue engineering' [Bioactive Mater. Vol. 6, Issue 7, Pages 2039-2057].

Bioact Mater 2021 Oct 10;6(10):3192-3193. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

National & Regional United Engineering Lab of Tissue Engineering, Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.12.025.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.02.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7966963PMC
October 2021

Chondrogenesis mediates progression of ankylosing spondylitis through heterotopic ossification.

Bone Res 2021 Mar 17;9(1):19. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is chronic inflammatory arthritis with a progressive fusion of axial joints. Anti-inflammatory treatments such as anti-TNF-α antibody therapy suppress inflammation but do not effectively halt the progression of spine fusion in AS patients. Here we report that the autoimmune inflammation of AS generates a microenvironment that promotes chondrogenesis in spine ligaments as the process of spine fusion. Chondrocyte differentiation was observed in the ligaments of patients with early-stage AS, and cartilage formation was followed by calcification. Moreover, a large number of giant osteoclasts were found in the inflammatory environment of ligaments and on bony surfaces of calcified cartilage. Resorption activity by these giant osteoclasts generated marrow with high levels of active TGF-β, which induced new bone formation in the ligaments. Notably, no Osterix osteoprogenitors were found in osteoclast resorption areas, indicating uncoupled bone resorption and formation. Even at the late and maturation stages, the uncoupled osteoclast resorption in bony interspinous ligament activates TGF-β to induce the progression of ossification in AS patients. Osteoclast resorption of calcified cartilage-initiated ossification in the progression of AS is a similar pathologic process of acquired heterotopic ossification (HO). Our finding of cartilage formation in the ligaments of AS patients revealed that the pathogenesis of spinal fusion is a process of HO and explained why anti-inflammatory treatments do not slow ankylosing once there is new bone formation in spinal soft tissues. Thus, inhibition of HO formation, such as osteoclast activity, cartilage formation, or TGF-β activity could be a potential therapy for AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00140-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969928PMC
March 2021

Laminin alpha 4 promotes bone regeneration by facilitating cell adhesion and vascularization.

Acta Biomater 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

National & Regional United Engineering Lab of Tissue Engineering, Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Selective cell retention (SCR) has been widely used as a bone tissue engineering technique for the real-time fabrication of bone grafts. The greater the number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) retained in the scaffold, the better the osteoinductive and angiogenic properties of the scaffold's microenvironment. Improved bioscaffold properties in turn lead to improved bone graft survival, bone regeneration, and angiogenesis. Laminin plays a key role in cell-matrix adhesion, cell proliferation, and differentiation. We designed a collagen-binding domain (CBD) containing the core functional amino acid sequences of laminin α4 (CBD-LN peptide) to supplement the functional surface of a collagen-based decalcified bone matrix (DBM) scaffold. This scaffold promoted MSCs and EPCs early cell adhesion through up-regulating the expression of integrin α5β1 and integrin αvβ3 respectively, thus accelerated the following cell spreading, proliferation, and differentiation. Interestingly, it promoted the retention of MSCs (CD90/CD105 cells) and EPCs (CD31 cells) in the scaffold following the use of clinical SCR technology. Furthermore, the DBM/CBD-LN scaffold induced the formation of type H vessels through the activation of the HIF-1α signaling pathway. The DBM/CBD-LN scaffold displayed rapid bone formation and angiogenesis in vivo, suggesting that it might be used as a new biomaterial in bone tissue engineering. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Selective cell retention technology (SCR) has been utilized in clinical settings to manufacture bioactive bone grafts. Specifically, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a widely-used SCR clinical biomaterial but it displays poor adhesion performance and angiogenic activity. In this work, we designed a collagen-binding domain (CBD) containing the core functional amino acid sequences of laminin α4 to supplement the functional surface of a collagen-based DBM scaffold. This bioscaffold promoted SCR-mediated MSCs and EPCs early cell adhesion, thus accelerated the following cell spreading, proliferation, and differentiation. Our results indicate this bioscaffold greatly induced osteogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo. In general, this bioscaffold has a good prospect for SCR application and may provide highly bioactive bone implant in clinical environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.03.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Therapeutic efficacy and cardioprotection of nucleolin-targeted doxorubicin-loaded ultrasound nanobubbles in treating triple-negative breast cancer.

Nanotechnology 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Ultrasound, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, CHINA.

Targeted lipid nanobubbles as theranostic ultrasound molecular probes with both targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging and synergistic treatment capabilities are expected to overcome severe challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of refractory triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In this study, AS1411 aptamer-functionalised nucleolin-targeted doxorubicin-loaded lipid nanobubbles (AS1411-DOX-NBs) were constructed, and their physicochemical properties as well as anti-tumour and cardioprotective efficacies were systematically tested and evaluated. The results showed that AS1411-DOX-NBs can carry and maintain the physicochemical and pharmacodynamic properties of doxorubicin (DOX) and show stronger tumour cell-killing ability in vitro by increasing the active uptake of drugs. AS1411-DOX-NBs also significantly inhibited the growth of TNBC xenografts while maintaining the weight and health of the mice. Echocardiography and pathological examination further confirmed that AS1411-DOX-NBs effectively caused tumour tissue apoptosis and necrosis while reducing DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. The AS1411-DOX-NBs constructed in this study enable both targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging and synergistic therapeutic efficacy and can be used as safe and efficient theranostic ultrasound molecular probes for the diagnosis and treatment of TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abed03DOI Listing
March 2021

Osteoclast-derived small extracellular vesicles induce osteogenic differentiation via inhibiting ARHGAP1.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Mar 4;23:1191-1203. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

Activated osteoclasts release large amounts of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) during bone remodeling. However, little is known about whether osteoclast-derived sEVs affect surrounding cells. In this study, osteoclasts were generated by stimulating bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear actor κB ligand (RANKL). We performed microarray analysis of sEV-microRNAs (miRNAs)s secreted from osteoclast at different stages and identified four miRNAs that were highly expressed in mature osteoclast-derived sEVs. One of these miRNAs, miR-324, significantly induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by targeting , a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation. We next fabricated an sEV-modified scaffold by coating decalcified bone matrix (DBM) with osteoclast-derived sEVs, and the pro-osteogenic regeneration activities of the sEV-modified scaffold were validated in a mouse calvarial defect model. Notably, miR-324-enriched sEV-modified scaffold showed the highest capacity on bone regeneration, whereas inhibition of miR-324 in sEVs abrogated these effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-324-contained sEVs released from mature osteoclast play an essential role in the regulation of osteogenic differentiation and potentially bridge the coupling between osteoclasts and MSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.01.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900016PMC
March 2021

Small extracellular vesicles deliver osteolytic effectors and mediate cancer-induced osteolysis in bone metastatic niche.

J Extracell Vesicles 2021 Feb 18;10(4):e12068. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Orthopedics Southwest Hospital Third Military Medical University Chongqing 400038 China.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play critical roles in regulating bone metastatic microenvironment through mediating intercellular crosstalks. However, little is known about the contribution of EVs derived from cancer cells to the vicious cycle of bone metastasis. Here, we report a direct regulatory mode between tumour cells and osteoclasts in metastatic niche of prostate cancer via vesicular miRNAs transfer. Combined analysis of miRNAs profiles both in tumour-derived small EVs (sEVs) and osteoclasts identified miR-152-3p as a potential osteolytic molecule. sEVs were enriched in miR-152-3p, which targets osteoclastogenic regulator MAFB. Blocking miR-152-3p in sEVs upregulated the expression of MAFB and impaired osteoclastogenesis in vitro. In vivo experiments of xenograft mouse model found that blocking of miR-152-3p in sEVs significantly slowed down the loss of trabecular architecture, while systemic inhibition of miR-152-3p using antagomir-152-3p reduced the osteolytic lesions of cortical bone while preserving basic trabecular architecture. Our findings suggest that miR-152-3p carried by prostate cancer-derived sEVs deliver osteolytic signals from tumour cells to osteoclasts, facilitating osteolytic progression in bone metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jev2.12068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892803PMC
February 2021

Phosphorylation inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B tyrosine-152 induces bone regeneration coupled with angiogenesis for bone tissue engineering.

Bioact Mater 2021 Jul 7;6(7):2039-2057. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

National & Regional United Engineering Lab of Tissue Engineering, Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

A close relationship has been reported to exist between cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and integrin-mediated cell mobility, and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) may be involved in maintaining this homeostasis. The stable residence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) in their niches is closely related to the regulation of PTP1B. However, the exact role of the departure of MSCs and ECs from their niches during bone regeneration is largely unknown. Here, we show that the phosphorylation state of PTP1B tyrosine-152 (Y152) plays a central role in initiating the departure of these cells from their niches and their subsequent recruitment to bone defects. Based on our previous design of a PTP1B Y152 region-mimicking peptide (152RM) that significantly inhibits the phosphorylation of PTP1B Y152, further investigations revealed that 152RM enhanced cell migration partly via integrin αvβ3 and promoted MSCs osteogenic differentiation partly by inhibiting ATF3. Moreover, 152RM induced type H vessels formation by activating Notch signaling. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) scaffolds were fabricated with mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), and 152RM was then loaded onto them by electrostatic adsorption. The DBM-MSN/152RM scaffolds were demonstrated to induce bone formation and type H vessels expansion . In conclusion, our data reveal that 152RM contributes to bone formation by coupling osteogenesis with angiogenesis, which may offer a potential therapeutic strategy for bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.12.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809253PMC
July 2021

Osteoclast-derived apoptotic bodies couple bone resorption and formation in bone remodeling.

Bone Res 2021 Jan 11;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China.

Bone remodeling is precisely coordinated by bone resorption and formation. Apoptotic osteoclasts generate large amounts of apoptotic bodies (ABs) marking the end of the bone resorption phase, whereas the functions of osteoclast-derived ABs remain largely unknown. Here, we identified the molecular profile of ABs derived from osteoclasts at distinct differentiation stages and investigated their corresponding functions. ABs were isolated from apoptotic bone marrow macrophages, preosteoclasts, and mature osteoclasts induced by staurosporine. Proteomic signature analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry suggested marked protein cargo differences among the different ABs. Further bioinformatic analysis showed that the proteomic signatures of the ABs were highly similar to those of their parental cells. Functionally, pOC-ABs induced endothelial progenitor cell differentiation and increased CD31Emcn endothelial cell formation in a murine bone defect model via their PDGF-BB cargo. mOC-ABs induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and facilitated osteogenesis via RANKL reverse signaling. In summary, we mapped the detailed proteomic landscapes of ABs derived from osteoclasts and showed that their potential biological roles are important in coupling bone formation with resorption during bone remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41413-020-00121-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801485PMC
January 2021

A selected small molecule prevents inflammatory osteolysis through restraining osteoclastogenesis by modulating PTEN activity.

Clin Transl Med 2020 Dec;10(8):e240

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, PR China.

Background: Inflammatory osteolysis is a severe infectious bone disorder that occurs during orthopaedic surgery and is caused by disruptions in the dynamic balance of bone matrix homeostasis, which makes this condition a burden on surgical procedures. Developing novel therapeutic drugs about inhibiting excessive osteoclastogenesis acts as an efficient approach to preventing inflammatory bone destruction.

Methods: To study this, we explored the potential effects and mechanisms of compound 17 on inflammatory osteolysis in vitro. Meanwhile, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced calvarial osteolysis mouse model was used to evaluate the protective effect of compound 17 on inflammatory bone destruction in vivo.

Results: In our study, we found that compound 17 could inhibit osteoclast (OC) differentiation and bone resorption during RANKL and LPS stimulation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while compounds 5 and 13 did not have the same effects. Mechanistically, compound 17 promoted phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) activity by reducing PTEN ubiquitination, thereby restraining the RANKL-induced NF-κB pathway, resulting in the inhibition of the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes and the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Additionally, we also investigated whether compound 17 could negatively modulate macrophage polarization and repolarization due to its anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, compound 17 also plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. In vivo experiments showed that compound 17 could effectively protect mice from LPS-induced inflammatory bone destruction by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and inflammation.

Conclusions: Taken together, these results show that compound 17 might play protective role in inflammatory bone destruction through inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and inflammation. These findings imply a possible role of compound 17 in inflammatory osteolysis-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708775PMC
December 2020

[Effect of demineralized bone matrix modified by laminin α4 chain functional peptide on H-type angiogenesis and osteogenesis to promote bone defect repair].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Dec;34(12):1594-1601

Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, P.R.China.

Objective: Based on the cell-extracellular matrix adhesion theory in selective cell retention (SCR) technology, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) modified by simplified polypeptide surface was designed to promote both bone regeneration and angiogenesis.

Methods: Functional peptide of α4 chains of laminin protein (LNα4), cyclic RGDfK (cRGD), and collagen-binding domain (CBD) peptides were selected. CBD-LNα4-cRGD peptide was synthesized in solid phase and modified on DBM to construct DBM/CBD-LNα4-cRGD scaffold (DBM/LN). Firstly, scanning electron microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope were used to examine the characteristics and stability of the modified scaffold. Then, the adhesion, proliferation, and tube formation properties of CBD-LNα4-cRGD peptide on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were detected, respectively. Western blot method was used to verify the molecular mechanism affecting EPCs. Finally, 24 10-week-old male C57 mice were used to establish a 2-mm-length defect of femoral bone model. DBM/LN and DBM scaffolds after SCR treatment were used to repair bone defects in DBM/LN group ( =12) and DBM group ( =12), respectively. At 8 weeks after operation, the angiogenesis and bone regeneration ability of DBM/LN scaffolds were evaluated by X-ray film, Micro-CT, angiography, histology, and immunofluorescence staining [CD31, endomucin (Emcn), Ki67].

Results: Material related tests showed that the surface of DBM/LN scaffold was rougher than DBM scaffold, but the pore diameter did not change significantly ( =0.218, =0.835). After SCR treatment, DBM/LN scaffold was still stable and effective. Compared with DBM scaffold, DBM/LN scaffold could adhere to more EPCs after the surface modification of CBD-LNα4-cRGD ( <0.05), and the proliferation rate and tube formation ability increased. Western blot analysis showed that the relative expressions of VEGF, phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK), and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) proteins were higher in DBM/LN than in DBM ( <0.05). In the femoral bone defect model of mice, it was found that mice implanted with DBM/LN scaffold had stronger angiogenesis and bone regeneration capacity ( <0.05), and the number of CD31 Emcn cells increased significantly ( <0.05).

Conclusion: DBM/LN scaffold can promote the adhesion of EPCs. Importantly, it can significantly promote the generation of H-type vessels and realize the effective coupling between angiogenesis and bone regeneration in bone defect repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202006081DOI Listing
December 2020

The dramatic role of IFN family in aberrant inflammatory osteolysis.

Curr Gene Ther 2020 Nov 26. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing 400038. China.

Skeletal system has been considered as a highly dynamic system, in which bone-forming osteoblasts and boneresorbing osteoclasts go through continuous remodeling cycle to maintain homeostasis of bone matrix. It has been well acknowledged that interferons (IFNs), acting as a subgroup of cytokines, not only make crucial effects on regulating immunology, but also could modulate the dynamic balance of bone matrix. In the light of different isoforms, IFNs have been divided into three major categories in terms of amino acid sequences, recognition of specific receptors and biological activities. Currently, type I IFNs consist of a multi-gene family with several subtypes, of which IFN-α exerts proosteoblastogenic effects to activate osteoblast differentiation and inhibits osteoclast fusion to maintain bone matrix integrity. Meanwhile, IFN-β suppresses osteoblast-mediated bone remodeling as well as exhibits inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation to attenuate bone resorption. While type II IFN constitutes the only type, IFN-γ, which exerts regulatory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation by biphasic ways. Interestingly, type III IFNs are regarded as new members of IFN family composed of four members, including IFN-λ1 (IL-29), IFN-λ2 (IL-28A), IFN-λ3 (IL-28B) and IFN-λ4, which have been certified to participate in bone destruction. However, the direct regulatory mechanisms underlying how type III IFNs modulate metabolic balance of bone matrix remains poorly elucidated. In this review, we have summarized functions of IFN family during physiological and pathological conditions and described the mechanisms by which IFNs maintain bone matrix homeostasis via affecting the osteoclast-osteoblast crosstalk. In addition, the potential therapeutic effects of IFNs on inflammatory bone destruction diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA) and infectious bone diseases are also well displayed, which are based on the predominant role of IFNs in modulating the dynamic equilibrium of bone matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1566523220666201127114845DOI Listing
November 2020

KEAP1 Mutations Drive Tumorigenesis by Suppressing SOX9 Ubiquitination and Degradation.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Nov 27;7(21):2001018. Epub 2020 Sep 27.

Center of Biological Therapy Southwest Hospital Army Medical University Chongqing 400038 P.R. China.

The transcription factor SOX9 is frequently amplified in diverse advanced-stage human tumors. Its stability has been shown to be tightly controlled by ubiquitination-dependent proteasome degradation. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This work reports that SOX9 protein abundance is regulated by the Cullin 3-based ubiquitin ligase KEAP1 via proteasome-mediated degradation. Loss-of-function mutations in KEAP1 compromise polyubiquitination-mediated SOX9 degradation, leading to increased protein levels, which facilitate tumorigenesis. Moreover, the loss of critical ubiquitination residues in SOX9, by either a SOX9 (ΔK2) truncation or K249R mutation, leads to elevated protein stability. Furthermore, it is shown that the KEAP1/SOX9 interaction is modulated by CKI-mediated phosphorylation. Importantly, it is demonstrated that DNA damage drugs, topoisomerase inhibitors, can trigger CKI activation to restore the KEAP1/SOX9 interaction and its consequent degradation. Collectively, herein the findings uncover a novel molecular mechanism through which SOX9 protein stability is negatively regulated by KEAP1 to control tumorigenesis. Thus, these results suggest that mitigating SOX9 resistance to KEAP1-mediated degradation can represent a novel therapeutic strategy for cancers with KEAP1 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202001018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610265PMC
November 2020

Microenvironment in subchondral bone: predominant regulator for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Ann Rheum Dis 2020 Nov 6. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease in the elderly. Although OA has been considered as primarily a disease of the articular cartilage, the participation of subchondral bone in the pathogenesis of OA has attracted increasing attention. This review summarises the microstructural and histopathological changes in subchondral bone during OA progression that are due, at the cellular level, to changes in the interactions among osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts (OCs), endothelial cells and sensory neurons. Therefore, we focus on how pathological cellular interactions in the subchondral bone microenvironment promote subchondral bone destruction at different stages of OA progression. In addition, the limited amount of research on the communication between OCs in subchondral bone and chondrocytes (CCs) in articular cartilage during OA progression is reviewed. We propose the concept of 'OC-CC crosstalk' and describe the various pathways by which the two cell types might interact. Based on the 'OC-CC crosstalk', we elaborate potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of OA, including restoring abnormal subchondral bone remodelling and blocking the bridge-subchondral type H vessels. Finally, the review summarises the current understanding of how the subchondral bone microenvironment is related to OA pain and describes potential interventions to reduce OA pain by targeting the subchondral bone microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958096PMC
November 2020

Construction of Nucleolin-Targeted Lipid Nanobubbles and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Molecular Imaging in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Pharm Res 2020 Jul 14;37(7):145. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Ultrasound, Southwest Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China.

Purpose: To construct aptamer AS1411-functionalized targeted lipid nanobubbles that could simultaneously target abnormally highly expressed nucleolin (NCL) on tumor tissue and neovasculature. Additionally, the study of their contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging capabilities in vitro and in vivo to explore new methods and approaches for the early and accurate diagnosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).

Methods: First, the targeted lipid-nucleic acid molecules were constructed by an amide reaction. Then, the targeted lipid nanobubbles (AS1411-NBs) and nontargeted lipid nanobubbles (NBs) were prepared by membrane hydration, mechanical vibration and centrifugal floatation. The physicochemical characteristics and contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging capabilities of AS1411-NBs and NBs were compared and analyzed in vitro and in vivo.

Results: There were no significant differences between the AS1411-NBs and NBs in their concentration, average particle size or ultrasound imaging capabilities in vitro (P > 0.05). However, AS1411-NBs could simultaneously target NCL in tumor tissue and neovasculature to effectively prolong the duration of contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging compared to NBs in vivo. The area under the time-intensity curve was significantly different between AS1411-NBs and NBs (P < 0.001), and the drug loading capacity of the AS1411-NBs was also significantly higher than that of the NBs (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Aptamer AS1411-functionalized targeted lipid nanobubbles could significantly prolong the duration of contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging to achieve dual-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging of tumor tissue and neovasculature. AS1411-NBs also have higher drug loading and targeted drug delivery capabilities compared with NBs, which can provide new methods and approaches for the early accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-020-02873-1DOI Listing
July 2020

Tumour dormancy in inflammatory microenvironment: A promising therapeutic strategy for cancer-related bone metastasis.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2020 Dec 16;77(24):5149-5169. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, 400038, China.

Cancer metastasis is a unique feature of malignant tumours. Even bone can become a common colonization site due to the tendency of solid tumours, including breast cancer (BCa) and prostate cancer (PCa), to metastasize to bone. Currently, a previous concept in tumour metabolism called tumour dormancy may be a promising target for antitumour treatment. When disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) metastasize to the bone microenvironment, they form a flexible regulatory network called the "bone-tumour-inflammation network". In this network, bone turnover as well as metabolism, tumour progression, angiogenesis and inflammatory responses are highly unified and coordinated, and a slight shift in this balance can result in the disruption of the microenvironment, uncontrolled inflammatory responses and excessive tumour growth. The purpose of this review is to highlight the regulatory effect of the "bone-tumour-inflammation network" in tumour dormancy. Osteoblast-secreted factors, bone turnover and macrophages are emphasized and occupy in the main part of the review. In addition, the prospective clinical application of tumour dormancy is also discussed, which shows the direction of future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-020-03572-1DOI Listing
December 2020

Engineered scaffolds based on mesenchymal stem cells/preosteoclasts extracellular matrix promote bone regeneration.

J Tissue Eng 2020 Jan-Dec;11:2041731420926918. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Recently, extracellular matrix-based tissue-engineered bone is a promising approach to repairing bone defects, and the seed cells are mostly mesenchymal stem cells. However, bone remodelling is a complex biological process, in which osteoclasts perform bone resorption and osteoblasts dominate bone formation. The interaction and coupling of these two kinds of cells is the key to bone repair. Therefore, the extracellular matrix secreted by the mesenchymal stem cells alone cannot mimic a complex bone regeneration microenvironment, and the addition of extracellular matrix by preosteoclasts may contribute as an effective strategy for bone regeneration. Here, we established the mesenchymal stem cell/preosteoclast extracellular matrix -based tissue-engineered bones and demonstrated that engineered-scaffolds based on mesenchymal stem cell/ preosteoclast extracellular matrix significantly enhanced osteogenesis in a 3 mm rat femur defect model compared with mesenchymal stem cell alone. The bioactive proteins released from the mesenchymal stem cell/ preosteoclast extracellular matrix based tissue-engineered bones also promoted the migration, adhesion, and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. As for the mechanisms, the iTRAQ-labeled mass spectrometry was performed, and 608 differentially expressed proteins were found, including the IGFBP5 and CXCL12. Through in vitro studies, we proved that CXCL12 and IGFBP5 proteins, mainly released from the preosteoclasts, contributed to mesenchymal stem cells migration and osteogenic differentiation, respectively. Overall, our research, for the first time, introduce pre-osteoclast into the tissue engineering of bone and optimize the strategy of constructing extracellular matrix-based tissue-engineered bone using different cells to simulate the natural bone regeneration environment, which provides new sight for bone tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2041731420926918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278336PMC
June 2020

Epothilone B prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory osteolysis through suppressing osteoclastogenesis via STAT3 signaling pathway.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 06 11;12(12):11698-11716. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing 400038, China.

Inflammatory osteolysis is a common osteolytic specificity that occurs during infectious orthopaedic surgery and is characterized by an imbalance in bone homeostasis due to excessive osteoclast bone resorption activity. Epothilone B (Epo B) induced α-tubulin polymerization and enhanced microtubule stability, which also played an essential role in anti-inflammatory effect on the regulation of many diseases. However, its effects on skeletal system have rarely been investigated. Our study demonstrated that Epo B inhibited osteoclastogenesis and prevented inflammatory osteolysis Further analysis showed that Epo B also markedly induced mature osteoclasts apoptosis during osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, Epo B directly suppressed osteoclastogenesis by the inhibitory regulation of the phosphorylation and activation of PI3K/Akt/STAT3 signaling directly, and the suppressive regulation of the CD9/gp130/STAT3 signaling pathway indirectly. The negative regulatory effect on STAT3 signaling further restrained the translocation of NF-κB p65 and NFATc1 from the cytosol to the nuclei during RANKL stimulation. Additionally, the expression of osteoclast specific genes was also significantly attenuated during osteoclast fusion and differentiation. Taken together, these findings illustrated that Epo B protected against LPS-induced bone destruction through inhibiting osteoclastogenesis via regulating the STAT3 dependent signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343516PMC
June 2020

Dendritic cells-derived interferon-λ1 ameliorated inflammatory bone destruction through inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

Cell Death Dis 2020 06 2;11(6):414. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), 400038, Chongqing, China.

Bone infection contributing to inflammatory osteolysis is common in orthopedic surgery. The dynamic balance between bone formation and bone resorption is destroyed due to excessive osteoclast fusion and differentiation, which results in severe bone matrix loss. Many therapeutic approaches that restrain osteoclast formation and function act as efficient ways to prevent inflammatory bone erosion. We have demonstrated for the first time that dendritic cells-derived interferon-λ1 (IFN-λ1) inhibited inflammatory bone destruction in vivo and explored its underlying mechanisms on osteoclast formation in vitro. We found that IFN-λ1 was highly expressed in infectious bone tissue compared with that of non-infectious bone tissue. Additionally, dendritic cells marker genes such as CD80, CD86, and CD1a were higher expressed in infectious bone tissue than that of non-infectious bone tissue. Dendritic cells that were pretreated with LPS showed high expression of IFN-λ1. Moreover, conditioned medium of LPS-pretreated dendritic cells significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation, as determined by TRAP staining assay. This suppressive effect was reversed by adding an IFN-λ1 monoclonal antibody. It was also investigated whether exogenous IFN-λ1 restrained osteoclastogenesis, bone resorption, F-actin ring formation, osteoclast-specific gene expression, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and translocation of p65 and NFATc1 by preventing the NF-κB signaling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome formation, as well as by inducing the JAK-STAT signaling pathways in vitro. In vivo study indicated that IFN-λ1 prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory bone destruction by inhibiting excessive osteoclast fusion and bone resorption activity. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that dendritic cells-derived IFN-λ1 could attenuate osteoclast formation and bone resorptive activity in vitro and in vivo. These novel findings pave the way for the use of exogenous IFN-λ1 as a potential therapeutic treatment for excessive osteoclast-related diseases, such as inflammatory osteolysis, by regulating osteoclastogenesis to maintain the dynamic balance between bone formation and bone resorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2612-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265503PMC
June 2020

Modification of PLGA Scaffold by MSC-Derived Extracellular Matrix Combats Macrophage Inflammation to Initiate Bone Regeneration via TGF-β-Induced Protein.

Adv Healthc Mater 2020 07 19;9(13):e2000353. Epub 2020 May 19.

National & Regional United Engineering Lab of Tissue Engineering, Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, the Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China.

The immunologic response toward chronic inflammation or bone regeneration via the accumulation of M1 or M2 macrophages after injury could determine the fate of biomaterial. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have a pivotal immunomodulatory property on directing macrophage behaviors. Herein, for the first time, 3D-printed poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds modified with hUCMSC-derived extracellular matrix (PLGA-ECM) are prepared by a facile tissue engineering technique with physical decellularization and 2.44 ± 0.29 mg cm proteins immobilized on the PLGA-ECM contain multiple soluble cytokines with a sustainable release profile. The PLGA-ECM not only attenuates the foreign body response, but also improves bone regeneration by increasing the accumulation of M2 macrophages in an improved heterotopic transplantation model of SCID mice. Furthermore, the PLGA-ECM scaffolds with the knockdown of transforming growth factor-β-induced protein (TGFβI/βig-H3) demonstrate that M2 macrophage accumulation improved by the PLGA-ECM could be attributed to increasing the migration of M2 macrophages and the repolarization of M1 macrophages to M2 phenotype, which are mediated by multiple integrin signaling pathways involving in integrin β7, integrin α9, and integrin β1 in a TGFβI-dependent manner. This study presents an effective surface modification strategy of polymeric scaffolds to initiate tissue regeneration and combat inflammatory response by increasing M2 macrophage accumulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202000353DOI Listing
July 2020

Osteoclast-derived exosomal let-7a-5p targets Smad2 to promote the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China; Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China; State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

The invasion of osteoclasts into the cartilage via blood vessels advances the process of endochondral ossification, and dysregulation of dynamic intercellular interactions results in skeletal dysplasias. Although the regulation of osteoclasts by growth plate chondrocytes has been reported in detail, the effect of osteoclasts on chondrocytes remains to be determined. In this study, ATDC5 cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated into chondrocytes and treated with conditioned medium obtained from bone marrow macrophages differentiated to osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts. Exosomes were inhibited in conditioned medium or were isolated directly from osteoclasts to further determine whether osteoclast-derived exosomes play an important role in chondrocyte hypertrophy. Additionally, exosomal miRNAs were detected, and let-7a-5p was selected as an miRNA with significantly increased expression in osteoclast-derived exosomes. Experiments were performed to verify the potential target Smad2 and investigate how let-7a-5p affected chondrocytes. The results suggest that both osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts promote chondrocyte hypertrophy and that the promotive effect of osteoclasts is more significant than that of osteoclast precursors. Osteoclast-derived exosomes promote the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes. Moreover, osteoclast-derived exosomal let-7a-5p inhibits Smad2 to decrease the transforming growth factor-β-induced inhibition of chondrocyte hypertrophy. Our research reveals the role of osteoclasts in the regulation of chondrocytes and provides insights into the highly coordinated intercellular process of endochondral ossification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00039.2020DOI Listing
May 2020

P2X7 receptor acts as an efficient drug target in regulating bone metabolism system.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 May 25;125:110010. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Army medical university, Chongqing, China; State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Army medical university, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Skeletal system is a highly dynamic system going through continuous resorption and reconstruction to maintain homeostasis, which is influenced by numerous factors. Once the balance is disrupted, various kinds of bone diseases may occur such as osteoporosis. It has been well known that ATP (adenosine triphosphate), an important signaling molecule, is important in maintaining the dynamic balance of bone matrix. ATP mainly functions through P2X receptors, a kind of ATP receptors expressed by various kinds of bone cells to regulate the whole network of skeleton system. Among P2X receptors, P2X7 plays a crucial role in bone since P2X7 is widely expressed by bone cells and the mutation of P2X7 receptor is associated with kinds of bone diseases. It's acknowledged that P2X7 acts as a potential therapeutic target for clinical treatment of bone-related diseases but further investigations are needed for the practical application. However, since P2X7 has a complicated effect in many aspects, the exact role of P2X7 in skeleton system is ambiguous. This review discusses the function of P2X7 in bone and other cells and their general effect on skeleton system, especially focusing on the possible clinical application for bone diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110010DOI Listing
May 2020

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors: Promising drug targets for treating bone-related diseases.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 04 10;24(8):4389-4401. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a natural bioactive lipid molecule and a common first or second messenger in the cardiovascular and immune systems. By binding with its receptors, S1P can serve as mediator of signalling during cell migration, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Although the predominant role of S1P in bone regeneration has been noted in many studies, this role is not as well-known as its roles in the cardiovascular and immune systems. In this review, we summarize previous research on the role of S1P receptors (S1PRs) in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, S1P is regarded as a bridge between bone resorption and formation, which brings hope to patients with bone-related diseases. Finally, we discuss S1P and its receptors as therapeutic targets for treating osteoporosis, inflammatory osteolysis and bone metastasis based on the biological effects of S1P in osteoclastic/osteoblastic cells, immune cells and tumour cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176849PMC
April 2020

Schnurri-3 regulates BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation and angiogenesis of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells through Runx2 and VEGF.

Cell Death Dis 2020 01 29;11(1):72. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Orthopaedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) are multiple potent progenitor cells (MPCs) that can differentiate into different lineages (osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic cells) and have a favorable capacity for angiogenesis. Schnurri-3 (Shn3) is a large zinc finger protein related to Drosophila Shn, which is a critical mediator of postnatal bone formation. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), one of the most potent osteogenic BMPs, can strongly upregulate various osteogenesis- and angiogenesis-related factors in MSCs. It remains unclear how Shn3 is involved in BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation coupled with angiogenesis in hAMSCs. In this investigation, we conducted a comprehensive study to identify the effect of Shn3 on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation and angiogenesis in hAMSCs and analyze the responsible signaling pathway. The results from in vitro and in vivo experimentation show that Shn3 notably inhibits BMP9-induced early and late osteogenic differentiation of hAMSCs, expression of osteogenesis-related factors, and subcutaneous ectopic bone formation from hAMSCs in nude mice. Shn3 also inhibited BMP9-induced angiogenic differentiation, expression of angiogenesis-related factors, and subcutaneous vascular invasion in mice. Mechanistically, we found that Shn3 prominently inhibited the expression of BMP9 and activation of the BMP/Smad and BMP/MAPK signaling pathways. In addition, we further found activity on runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and the target genes shared by BMP and Shn3 signaling pathways. Silencing Shn3 could dramatically enhance the expression of Runx2, which directly regulates the downstream target VEGF to couple osteogenic differentiation with angiogenesis. To summarize, our findings suggested that Shn3 significantly inhibited the BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation and angiogenesis in hAMSCs. The effect of Shn3 was primarily seen through inhibition of the BMP/Smad signaling pathway and depressed expression of Runx2, which directly regulates VEGF, which couples BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation with angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2279-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989499PMC
January 2020

Bone Marrow-Derived CD44 Cells Migrate to Tissue-Engineered Constructs via SDF-1/CXCR4-JNK Pathway and Aid Bone Repair.

Stem Cells Int 2019 24;2019:1513526. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

National and Regional United Engineering Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background And Aims: Host-derived cells play crucial roles in the regeneration process of tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) during the treatment of large segmental bone defects (LSBDs). However, their identity, source, and cell recruitment mechanisms remain elusive.

Methods: A complex model was created using mice by combining methods of GFP bone marrow transplantation (GFP-BMT), parabiosis (GFP-BMT and wild-type mice), and femoral LSBD, followed by implantation of TECs or DBM scaffolds. Postoperatively, the migration of host BM cells was detected by animal imaging and immunofluorescent staining. Bone repair was evaluated by micro-CT. Signaling pathway repressors including AMD3100 and SP600125 associated with the migration of BM CD44 cells were further investigated. , transwell migration and western-blotting assays were performed to verify the related signaling pathway. , the importance of the SDF-1/CXCR4-JNK pathway was validated by ELISA, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), immunofluorescent staining, and RT-PCR.

Results: First, we found that host cells recruited to facilitate TEC-mediated bone repair were derived from bone marrow and most of them express CD44, indicating the significance of CD44 in the migration of bone marrow cells towards donor MSCs. Then, the predominant roles of SDF-1/CXCR4 and downstream JNK in the migration of BM CD44 cells towards TECs were demonstrated.

Conclusion: Together, we demonstrated that during bone repair promoted by TECs, BM-derived CD44 cells were essential and their migration towards TECs could be regulated by the SDF-1/CXCR4-JNK signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/1513526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6681616PMC
July 2019

Mature osteoclast-derived apoptotic bodies promote osteogenic differentiation via RANKL-mediated reverse signaling.

J Biol Chem 2019 07 5;294(29):11240-11247. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China

In bone remodeling, after a lifespan of ∼2 weeks, osteoclasts undergo apoptosis in each bone turnover cycle, resulting in generation of a large number of apoptotic bodies (ABs). However, the biological roles of osteoclast-derived ABs (OC-ABs) in bone remodeling have not been investigated and remain unknown. In this study, we stimulated bone marrow macrophages with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) to obtain both preosteoclasts and mature osteoclasts (mOCs). We then used alendronate to induce apoptosis in preosteoclasts and mOCs and generate the respective ABs and used flow cytometry and immunoblotting to characterize the sizes and immunogenic characteristics of the extracted ABs. We show that mOC-ABs are engulfed by preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and promote the viability of these cells. Among all osteoclast-derived extracellular vesicles, mOC-ABs had the highest osteogenic potency. We further observed that mOC-ABs had the highest vesicular receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) levels among all types of osteoclast-derived extracellular vesicles. Of note, masking of vesicular RANK by soluble RANKL strongly abolished the osteogenic potency of osteoclast-derived ABs. Mechanistically, we found that mOC-ABs induce osteoblast differentiation by activatingPI3K/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal protein S6 kinase signaling. In conclusion, OC-ABs promote osteogenic differentiation by stimulating osteoblast differentiation via activation of RANKL reverse signaling. These findings provide important insights into the reversal phase between the bone resorption and formation stages during bone remodeling and identify an AB-dependent cellular signaling mechanism in osteoclast-osteoblast coupling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.007625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6643026PMC
July 2019

IL-11 is essential in promoting osteolysis in breast cancer bone metastasis via RANKL-independent activation of osteoclastogenesis.

Cell Death Dis 2019 04 30;10(5):353. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China.

A variety of osteolytic factors have been identified from breast cancer cells leading to osteolysis, but less is known about which factor plays an essential role in the initiation process prior to the overt vicious osteolytic cycle. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidences to clarify the role of interleukin-11 (IL-11) as an essential contributor to breast cancer bone metastasis mediated osteolysis. Animal studies showed that bone specific metastatic BoM-1833 cells induce earlier onset of osteolysis and faster tumor growth compared with MCF7 and parental MDA-MB-231 cells in BALB/c-nu/nu nude mice. IL-11 was further screened and identified as the indispensable factor secreted by BoM-1833 cells inducing osteoclastogenesis independently of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Mechanistic investigation revealed that the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway as a downstream effector of IL-11, STAT3 activation further induces the expression of c-Myc, a necessary factor required for osteoclastogenesis. By inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation, AG-490 was shown effective in reducing osteolysis and tumor growth in the metastatic niche. Overall, our results revealed the essential role and the underlying molecular mechanism of IL-11 in breast cancer bone metastasis mediated osteolysis. STAT3 targeting through AG-490 is a potential therapeutic strategy for mitigating osteolysis and tumor growth of bone metastatic breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-1594-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6491651PMC
April 2019

Interleukin-27 prevents LPS-induced inflammatory osteolysis by inhibiting osteoclast formation and function.

Am J Transl Res 2019 15;11(3):1154-1169. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Orthopedics, Guizhou Province People's Hospital Guiyang 550002, China.

Osteolysis is a serious complication of several chronic inflammatory diseases and is closely associated with a local chronic inflammatory reaction with a variety of causes. Inflammatory factors and osteoclastogenesis can enhance bone erosion. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is speculated to play an important role in the physiological immune response. However, there are few studies on its effects on osteoclastogenesis. In this study, IL-27 was shown to inhibit receptor activator nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. The gene expression levels of osteoclast (OC)-specific genes, such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and C-FOS, which are essential for OC differentiation and bone resorption, were significantly reduced. Further investigating the underlying mechanism, we found that IL-27 significantly reduced RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκB and phosphorylation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65. Furthermore, IL-27 was shown to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteolysis in vivo. Collectively, these results indicate that IL-27 may be a potential candidate for the treatment of osteolytic diseases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456512PMC
March 2019

Ceria nanoparticles enhance endochondral ossification-based critical-sized bone defect regeneration by promoting the hypertrophic differentiation of BMSCs DHX15 activation.

FASEB J 2019 05 18;33(5):6378-6389. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Central ischemic necrosis is one of the biggest obstacles in the clinical application of traditional tissue-engineered bone (TEB) in critical-sized bone defect regeneration. Because of its ability to promote vascular invasion, endochondral ossification-based TEB has been applied for bone defect regeneration. However, inadequate chondrocyte hypertrophy can hinder vascular invasion and matrix mineralization during endochondral ossification. In light of recent studies suggesting that ceria nanoparticles (CNPs) improve the blood vessel distribution within TEB, we modified TEB scaffold surfaces with CNPs and investigated the effect and mechanism of CNPs on endochondral ossification-based bone regeneration. The CNPs used in this study were synthesized by the microemulsion method and modified with alendronate-anchored polyethylene glycol 600. We showed that CNPs accelerated new bone formation and enhanced endochondral ossification-based bone regeneration in both a subcutaneous ectopic osteogenesis model and a mouse model of critical-sized bone defects. Mechanistically, CNPs significantly promoted endochondral ossification-based bone regeneration by ensuring sufficient hypertrophic differentiation the activation of the RNA helicase, DEAH (Asp-Glu-Ala-His) box helicase 15, and its downstream target, p38 MAPK. These results suggested that CNPs could be applied as a biomaterial to improve the efficacy of endochondral ossification-based bone regeneration in critical-sized bone defects.-Li, J., Kang, F., Gong, X., Bai, Y., Dai, J., Zhao, C., Dou, C., Cao, Z., Liang, M., Dong, R., Jiang, H., Yang, X., Dong, S. Ceria nanoparticles enhance endochondral ossification-based critical-sized bone defect regeneration by promoting the hypertrophic differentiation of BMSCs DHX15 activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201802187RDOI Listing
May 2019

Cerium ion promotes the osteoclastogenesis through the induction of reactive oxygen species.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2019 Mar 15;52:126-135. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging, Third Military Medical University, China. Electronic address:

Cerium and cerium containing materials have been drawing increasing attentions in industrial and biomedical applications in recent decades. The increased applications of cerium have also increased the risk of human body exposed to cerium ions. Due to its similar ionic radius to calcium(II), cerium(III) have found mainly deposited in the skeletal system. However, the effects of cerium(III) on the bone metabolism homeostasis remain poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of cerium(III) on the osteoclastogenesis which plays a pivotal role in bone metabolism homeostasis was investigated. Cerium(III) could enhance the expression and activity of NADPH oxidase1 (Nox1) leading to the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. The augmentation of ROS level activated the RANKL dependent osteoclasts differentiation pathways resulted in the promotion of osteoclastogenesis, while anions associated with cerium(III) cation have no effects on the differentiation of osteoclasts. The cerium(III) activated osteoclasts exhibited enhanced bone resorption capability. These results provided fundamental information for understanding the potential effects of cerium(III) on the metabolism homeostasis of skeletal system which is of great reference value for future biomedical applications of cerium salts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.12.006DOI Listing
March 2019