Publications by authors named "Shiwei Guo"

104 Publications

New staging classification for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms combining TNM stage and WHO grade classification [].

Cancer Lett 2021 Jul 14;518:207-213. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Affiliated Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030, China. Electronic address:

AJCC TNM stage and WHO grade (G) are two widely used staging systems to guide clinical management for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (panNENs), based on clinical staging and pathological grading information, respectively. We proposed to integrate TNM stage and G grade into one staging system (TNMG) and to evaluate its clinical application as a prognostic indicator for panNENs. Accordingly, 5254 patients diagnosed with panNENs were used to evaluate and to validate the applicability of TNMG to panNENs. The predictive accuracy of TNMG system was compared with that of each separate staging/grading system. We found that TNM stage and G grade were independent risk factors for survival in both the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) and multicenter series. The interaction effect between TNM stage and G grade was significant. Twelve subgroups combining the TNM stage and G grade were proposed in the TNMG stage, which were classified into five stages TNMG. According to the TNMG staging classification in the SEER series, the estimated median survival for stages I, II, III, IV, and V were 203, 174, 112, 61, and 8 months, respectively. The predictive accuracy of TNMG stage was higher than that of TNM stage and G grade used independently. The TNMG stage classification was more accurate in predicting panNEN patient's prognosis than either the TNM stage or G grade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.07.018DOI Listing
July 2021

Amphiphilic branched polymer-nitroxides conjugate as a nanoscale agent for potential magnetic resonance imaging of multiple objects in vivo.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jul 9;19(1):205. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 610041, Chengdu, China.

Background: In order to address the potential toxicity of metal-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs), a concept of non-metallic MRI CAs has emerged. Currently, paramagnetic nitroxides (such as (2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl, PROXYL), (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxide, TEMPO), etc.) are being extensively studied because their good stability and imaging mechanism are similar to metal-based contrast agents (such as Gd chelate-based clinical CAs). However, a lower relaxivity and rapid in vivo metabolism of nitroxides remain to be addressed. Previous studies have demonstrated that the construction of macromolecular nitroxides contrast agents (mORCAs) is a promising solution through macromolecularization of nitroxides (i.e., use of large molecules to carry nitroxides). Macromolecular effects not only increase the stability of nitroxides by limiting their exposure to reductive substances in the body, but also improve the overall H water relaxation by increasing the concentration of nitroxides and slowing the molecular rotation speed.

Results: Branched pDHPMA-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL with a high molecular weight (MW = 160 kDa) and a nitroxides content (0.059 mmol/g) can form a nanoscale (~ 28 nm) self-assembled aggregate in a water environment and hydrophobic PROXYL can be protected by a hydrophilic outer layer to obtain strong reduction resistance in vivo. Compared with a small molecular CA (3-Carboxy-PROXYL (3-CP)), Branched pDHPMA-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL displays three prominent features: (1) its longitudinal relaxivity (0.50 mM s) is about three times that of 3-CP (0.17 mM s); (2) the blood retention time of nitroxides is significantly increased from a few minutes of 3-CP to 6 h; (3) it provides long-term and significant enhancement in MR imaging of the tumor, liver, kidney and cardiovascular system (heart and aortaventralis), and this is the first report on nitroxides-based MRI CAs for imaging the cardiovascular system.

Conclusions: As a safe and efficient candidate metal-free magnetic resonance contrast agent, Branched pDHPMA-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL is expected to be used not only in imaging the tumor, liver and kidney, but also the cardiovascular system, which expands the application scope of these CAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00951-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8272293PMC
July 2021

Nitrate mediated resistance against Fusarium infection in cucumber plants acts via photorespiration.

Plant Cell Environ 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, National Engineering Research Centre for Organic-based Fertilizers, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Centre for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Fusarium wilt is one of the major biotic factors limiting cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) growth and yield. The outcomes of cucumber-Fusarium interactions can be influenced by the form of nitrogen nutrition (nitrate [NO ] or ammonium [NH ]); however, the physiological mechanisms of N-regulated cucumber disease resistance are still largely unclear. Here, we investigated the relationship between nitrogen forms and cucumber resistance to Fusarium infection. Our results showed that on Fusarium infection, NO feeding decreased the levels of the fungal toxin, fusaric acid, leaf membrane oxidative, organelle damage and disease-associated loss in photosynthesis. Metabolomic analysis and gas-exchange measurements linked NO mediated plant defence with enhanced leaf photorespiration rates. Cucumber plants sprayed with the photorespiration inhibitor isoniazid were more susceptible to Fusarium and there was a negative correlation between photorespiration rate and leaf membrane injury. However, there were positive correlations between photorespiration rate, NO assimilation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. This provides a potential electron sink or the peroxisomal H O catalysed by glycolate oxidase. We suggest that the NO nutrition enhanced cucumber resistance against Fusarium infection was associated with photorespiration. Our findings provide a novel insight into a mechanism involving the interaction of photorespiration with nitrogen forms to drive wider defence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.14140DOI Listing
June 2021

The Landscape of Microbial Composition and Associated Factors in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Using RNA-Seq Data.

Front Oncol 2021 31;11:651350. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of General Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Recent research studies on interrogation of the tumor microbiome (including bacteria, viruses, and fungi) have yielded important insights into the role of microbes in carcinogenesis, therapeutic responses, and resistance. Once thought to be a sterile organ, a number of studies have showed the presence of microbes within this organ in PDAC status. A microbiome-pancreas axis for PDAC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) carcinogenesis is proposed. However, the microbial composition of localized PDAC tissue is still unclear. The associations between microbiome and PDAC reported in previous studies were detected in an indirect way, which mostly used samples from stool, oral saliva, and intestinal samples. This study integrated 582 samples derived from PDAC tissues across four datasets and presented a landscape of tumor microbiome at the genus level in PDAC based on remining of RNA-Seq data. On average, there are hundreds of genera distributed in the PDAC tissue, and dozens of core microbiota were identified by PDAC tissue. The pan-microbiome of PDAC tissue was also estimated, which might surpass 2,500 genera. In addition, sampling sites (stroma . epithelium) and tissue source (human tissue . PDX) were found to have great effects on the microbial composition of PDAC tissue, but not the traditional risk factors (sex and age). It is the first study to systematically focus on exploring the microbial composition of PDAC tissue and is helpful to have a deep understanding of tumor microbiome. The identified specific taxa might be potential biomarkers for follow-up research studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.651350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202409PMC
May 2021

Recent advances in cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles for inflammation therapy.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1109-1119

Department of Pharmacy, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

During inflammation, inflammatory cells are rapidly recruited to sites of infection or injury, where they cross physiological barriers around the infected site and further infiltrate into the tissues. Other cells, such as erythrocytes, endothelial cells and stem cells, also play prominent roles in host defense and tissue repair. In recent years, nanotechnology has been exploited to deliver drugs to sites of inflammation. For example, nanoparticles camouflaged with a cell membrane are a novel drug-delivery platform that can interact with the immune system and that show great potential for treating inflammation. Encapsulating drugs inside plasma membranes derived from various cells involved in inflammatory processes can be effective against inflammation. This review describes the preparation, characterization, and properties of various types of cell membrane-camouflaged biomimetic nanoparticles. It also summarizes preclinical research into their efficacy against inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2021.1934188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205088PMC
December 2021

Comparison of 4- and 4 plus-courses S-1 administration as adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 26;21(1):612. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Navy Medical University (Second Military Medical University), 168 Changhai Road, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the potential benefit of more than 4 courses of S1 adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) after surgery.

Method: Data were retrospectively collected from consecutive patients who underwent S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy following curative pancreatectomy between January 2016 and December 2018. Four-courses and > 4 courses cohorts were compared for overall survival (OS) as a primary outcome, and relapse-free survival (RFS) and adverse event incidence as secondary outcomes.

Results: Four-courses and > 4 courses cohorts comprised 99 patients and 64 ones, respectively. TNM stage (stage II vs. I: HR, 2.125; 95% CI, 1.164-4.213; P = 0.015), duration of S-1 administration (4 vs. > 4 courses: HR, 3.113; 95% CI, 1.531-6.327; P = 0.002) and tumor grade (G3 vs. G1/2: HR, 3.887; 95% CI, 1.922-7.861; P < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors. Under the condition of patients' survival time beyond 8 months, the OS of patients in > 4 courses cohort was significantly prolonged compared with that of 4 courses cohort (4 vs. > 4 courses: HR, 2.284; 95% CI, 1.197-4.358; P = 0.012), especially for patients in TNM stageII (4 vs. > 4 courses: HR, 2.906; 95% CI, 1.275-6.623; P = 0.011).RFS and adverse events incidence did not signifcantly difer between both cohorts.

Conclusion: Prolonged duration of S-1 intake is beneficial to prognosis of patients with PDAC resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08380-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152347PMC
May 2021

Selectfluor facilitated bridging of indoles to bis(indolyl)methanes using methyl -butyl ether as a new methylene precursor.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 May;19(18):4076-4081

College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108, P. R. China and State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

A novel, green and efficient method is developed for the synthesis of methylene bridged bis(indolyl)methanes in good to excellent yields. The reaction employs methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as the methylene source and selectfluor as an oxidizing agent. The scope and versatility of the methods have been successfully demonstrated with 48 examples. The metal-free transformation process is suitable for scale-up production. A selectfluor-promoted oxidative reaction mechanism is proposed based on the results of the experimental studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob00120eDOI Listing
May 2021

Fabrication of Antiswelling Loose Nanofiltration Membranes via a "Selective-Etching-Induced Reinforcing" Strategy for Bioseparation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 19;13(16):19312-19323. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

With diverse selectivity, higher permeance, and good antifouling property, loose polyamide nanofiltration (NF) membranes can be potentially deployed in various bioseparation applications. However, the loose NF membrane with a low crosslinking degree generally suffers from the alkali-induced pore swelling during chemical cleaning, resulting in degradation of separation performance with time. In this work, we conceive a novel strategy to tailor the separating layer through alkaline post-etching following the interfacial polymerization process, where piperazine and tannic acid (TA) were used as water-phase monomers, and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) and ferric acetylacetonate were employed as organic monomers in -hexane. Thereinto, the polyester network formed by TA and TMC was selectively etched by alkaline treatment, thus obtaining a loose NF membrane, whose structure and performance could be facilely tailored by controlling the TA ratio and the etching pH. As a result, the well-designed loose NF membrane exhibited higher flux, better selectivity, and more stable separation performance in a long-term filtration of diluted cane molasses. Interestingly, the obtained loose NF membrane showed excellent antiswelling ability during alkaline cleaning because of network locking induced by Fe chelation, decrease in the carboxyl proportion (more hydroxyl generation due to the ester bond hydrolysis), and enhanced interface interaction between the separation layer and the sublayer attributed to catechol adhesion effect. Therefore, such a "selective-etching-induced reinforcing" strategy could endow the polyamide NF membrane with both loose and antiswelling separation layer in a reliable and scalable way, which provides a new perspective for preparing highly selective and stable NF membrane for resource recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02611DOI Listing
April 2021

Rare Bacteria Assembly in Soils Is Mainly Driven by Deterministic Processes.

Microb Ecol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Université de Rennes 1, CNRS, UMR 6553 EcoBio, Campus Beaulieu, Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042, Rennes Cedex, France.

Rare species are crucial components of the highly diverse soil microbial pool and over-proportionally contribute to the soil functions. However, much remains unknown about their assembling rules. The biogeographic patterns and species aggregations of the rare bacterial biosphere were assessed using 140 soil samples from a gradient of 2000 km across the main tea-producing areas in China. About 96% OTUs with ~40% sequences were classified as rare taxa. The rare bacterial communities were significantly affected by geographical regions and showed distance-decay effects, indicating that the rare bacteria are not cosmopolitan, they displayed a pattern of limited dispersal and were restricted to certain sites. Variation partitioning analysis (VPA) revealed that environmental variation and spatial factors explained 12.5% and 6.4%, respectively, of the variance in rare bacterial community. The Mantel and partial Mantel tests also showed that the environmental factors had stronger (~3 times) impacts than spatial factors. The null model showed that deterministic processes contributed more than stochastic processes in rare bacterial assembly (75% vs. 25%). There is likely an enrichment in ecological functions within the rare biosphere, considering this high contribution of deterministic processes in the assembly. In addition, the assembly of rare taxa was found to be mainly driven by soil pH. Overall, this study revealed that rare bacteria were not cosmopolitan, and their assembly was more driven by deterministic processes. These findings provided a new comprehensive understanding of rare bacterial biogeographic patterns and assembly rules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01741-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Nomogram for the Prediction of High-Grade Dysplasia and Invasive Carcinoma in Patients With Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas Based on Variables of Noninvasive Examination.

Front Oncol 2021 9;11:609187. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Navy Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms and represent the most common identifiable precursor lesions of pancreatic cancer. Clinical decision-making of the risk for malignant disease, including high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma, is challenging. Moreover, discordance on the indication for resection exists between the contemporary guidelines. Furthermore, most of the current nomogram models for predicting malignant disease depend on endoscopic ultrasonography to evaluate the precise size of mural nodules. Thus, this study aimed to propose a model to predict malignant disease using variables from a noninvasive examination. We evaluated patients who underwent resection of pathologically confirmed IPMNs between November 2010 and December 2018 and had preoperative clinical data available for review. Based on binary multivariable logistic regression analysis, we devised a nomogram model to predict malignant IPMNs. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the discrimination power of the model. Of the 333 patients who underwent resection of IPMNs, 198 (59.5%) had benign and 135 (40.5%) had malignant IPMNs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that cyst size, cyst location, cyst wall enhancement, multicystic lesion, diameter of main pancreatic duct, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9, and carcinoembryonic antigen were significantly associated with malignancy. The nomogram, constructed based on these variables, showed excellent discrimination power with an AUC of 0.859 (95% CI: 0.818-0.900, < 0.001). In conclusion, we have developed a nomogram consisting of a combination of cross-sectional imaging features and blood markers, variables that can readily be obtained by noninvasive examinations during the surveillance period, which can distinguish benign from malignant IPMNs. Nevertheless, external validation is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.609187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985057PMC
March 2021

Seed-borne, endospheric and rhizospheric core microbiota as predictors of plant functional traits across rice cultivars are dominated by deterministic processes.

New Phytol 2021 06 30;230(5):2047-2060. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

CNRS, UMR 6553 EcoBio, Université de Rennes 1, campus Beaulieu Avenue du Général Leclerc, Rennes Cedex, 35042, France.

A host-plant and its associated microbiota depend on one another. However, the assembly process and the functioning of host-associated microbiota are poorly understood. Herein, rice was used as model plant to investigate the assemblage of bacterial microbiota, including those in the seed, root endosphere and rhizosphere. We also assessed the degree to which endosphere and rhizosphere communities were influenced by vertical transmission through seed and identified the core microbes that potentially associated with plant phenotypic properties. Plant microhabitat, rather than subspecies type, was the major driver shaping plant-associated bacterial microbiota. Deterministic processes were primarily responsible for community assembly in all microhabitats. The influence of vertical transmission from seed to root-associated bacterial communities appeared to be quite weak (endosphere) or even absent (rhizosphere). A core microbial community composed of 15 generalist species persisted across different microhabitats and represented key connectors in networks. Host-plant functional traits were linked to the relative abundance of these generalist core microbes and could be predicted from them using machine learning algorithms. Overall, bacterial microbiota is assembled by host-plant interactions in a deterministic-based manner. This study enhances our understanding of the driving mechanisms and associations of microbiota in various plant microhabitats and provides new perspectives to improve plant performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17297DOI Listing
June 2021

Plasma membrane H-ATPase overexpression increases rice yield via simultaneous enhancement of nutrient uptake and photosynthesis.

Nat Commun 2021 02 2;12(1):735. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, College of Resources and Environment Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) are essential elements for plant growth and crop yield. Thus, improved N and C utilisation contributes to agricultural productivity and reduces the need for fertilisation. In the present study, we find that overexpression of a single rice gene, Oryza sativa plasma membrane (PM) H-ATPase 1 (OSA1), facilitates ammonium absorption and assimilation in roots and enhanced light-induced stomatal opening with higher photosynthesis rate in leaves. As a result, OSA1 overexpression in rice plants causes a 33% increase in grain yield and a 46% increase in N use efficiency overall. As PM H-ATPase is highly conserved in plants, these findings indicate that the manipulation of PM H-ATPase could cooperatively improve N and C utilisation, potentially providing a vital tool for food security and sustainable agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20964-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854686PMC
February 2021

The cross-kingdom roles of mineral nutrient transporters in plant-microbe relations.

Physiol Plant 2021 Apr 11;171(4):771-784. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Solid Organic Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Solid Organic Wastes, Educational Ministry Engineering Center of Resource-saving fertilizers, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

The regulation of plant physiology by plant mineral nutrient transporter (MNT) is well understood. Recently, the extensive characterization of beneficial and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions has defined the roles for MNTs in such relationships. In this review, we summarize the roles of diverse nutrient transporters in the symbiotic or pathogenic relationships between plants and microorganisms. In doing so, we highlight how MNTs of plants and microbes can act in a coordinated manner. In symbiotic relationships, MNTs play key roles in the establishment of the interaction between the host plant and rhizobium or mycorrhizae as well in the subsequent coordinated transport of nutrients. Additionally, MNTs may also regulate the colonization or degeneration of symbiotic microorganisms by reflecting the nutrient status of the plant and soil. This allows the host plant obtain nutrients from the soil in the most optimal manner. With pathogenic-interactions, MNTs influence pathogen proliferation, the efficacy of the host's biochemical defense and related signal transduction mechanisms. We classify the MNT effects in plant-pathogen interactions as either indirect by influencing the nutrient status and fitness of the pathogen, or direct by initiating host defense mechanisms. While such observations indicate the fundamental importance of MNTs in governing the interactions with a range of microorganisms, further work is needed to develop an integrative understanding of their functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13318DOI Listing
April 2021

Simultaneous Biofortification of Rice With Zinc, Iodine, Iron and Selenium Through Foliar Treatment of a Micronutrient Cocktail in Five Countries.

Front Plant Sci 2020 13;11:589835. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabancı University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Widespread malnutrition of zinc (Zn), iodine (I), iron (Fe) and selenium (Se), known as hidden hunger, represents a predominant cause of several health complications in human populations where rice ( L.) is the major staple food. Therefore, increasing concentrations of these micronutrients in rice grain represents a sustainable solution to hidden hunger. This study aimed at enhancing concentration of Zn, I, Fe and Se in rice grains by agronomic biofortification. We evaluated effects of foliar application of Zn, I, Fe and Se on grain yield and grain concentration of these micronutrients in rice grown at 21 field sites during 2015 to 2017 in Brazil, China, India, Pakistan and Thailand. Experimental treatments were: (i) local control (LC); (ii) foliar Zn; (iii) foliar I; and (iv) foliar micronutrient cocktail (i.e., Zn + I + Fe + Se). Foliar-applied Zn, I, Fe or Se did not affect rice grain yield. However, brown rice Zn increased with foliar Zn and micronutrient cocktail treatments at all except three field sites. On average, brown rice Zn increased from 21.4 mg kg to 28.1 mg kg with the application of Zn alone and to 26.8 mg kg with the micronutrient cocktail solution. Brown rice I showed particular enhancements and increased from 11 μg kg to 204 μg kg with the application of I alone and to 181 μg kg with the cocktail. Grain Se also responded very positively to foliar spray of micronutrients and increased from 95 to 380 μg kg. By contrast, grain Fe was increased by the same cocktail spray at only two sites. There was no relationship between soil extractable concentrations of these micronutrients with their grain concentrations. The results demonstrate that irrespective of the rice cultivars used and the diverse soil conditions existing in five major rice-producing countries, the foliar application of the micronutrient cocktail solution was highly effective in increasing grain Zn, I and Se. Adoption of this agronomic practice in the target countries would contribute significantly to the daily micronutrient intake and alleviation of micronutrient malnutrition in human populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.589835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691665PMC
November 2020

Anatomically induced changes in rice leaf mesophyll conductance explain the variation in photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency under contrasting nitrogen supply.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Nov 18;20(1):527. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Background: The ratio of CO mesophyll conductance (g) to Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) content has been suggested to positively affect photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). The anatomical basis of g has been quantified, but information on the relationship between cell-level anatomies and PNUE is less advanced. Here, hydroponic experiments were conducted in rice plants supplied with ammonium (NH) and nitrate (NO) under three N levels (low, 0.71 mM; intermediate, 2.86 mM; high, 7.14 mM) to investigate the gas exchange parameters, leaf anatomical structure and PNUE.

Results: The results showed a lower PNUE in plants supplied with high nitrogen and NH, which was positively correlated with the g/Rubisco ratio. A one-dimensional within-leaf model revealed that the resistance to CO diffusion in the liquid phase (r) dominated the overall mesophyll resistance (r), in which CO transfer resistance in the cell wall, cytoplasm and stroma were significantly affected by nitrogen supply. The chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular space (S) per Rubisco rather than the g/S ratio was positively correlated with PNUE and was thus considered a key component influencing PNUE.

Conclusion: In conclusion, our study emphasized that S was the most important anatomical trait in coordinating g and PNUE with contrasting N supply.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02731-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672947PMC
November 2020

RNF180 mediates STAT3 activity by regulating the expression of RhoC via the proteasomal pathway in gastric cancer cells.

Cell Death Dis 2020 10 20;11(10):881. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Gastric Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China.

Ring finger protein 180 (RNF180) is an important member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase family. As a tumor suppressor gene, RNF180 is significantly associated with the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer (GC) and can inhibit the proliferation, invasion, and migration of GC cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) are considered one of the most common oncogenes in human cancers with a key role in GC progression. In this study, we explored the molecular signaling pathways by which RNF180 could potentially regulate STAT3 through transcriptomics and proteomics experiments. Here, we found RNF180 overexpression could suppress STAT3 phosphorylation in GC cells. Ubiquitin label-free experiments showed that the ubiquitination level of Ras homolog gene family member C (RhoC) is significantly increased in GC cells transfected with an RNF180 expression vector (RNF180-GFP vector) compared with cells transfected with an empty vector (vehicle vector). We subsequently demonstrated that RNF180 could directly combine with RhoC and promote the ubiquitination and degradation of RhoC protein in GC cells. The phosphorylation level of STAT3 significantly decreased in GC cells after RhoC knockdown using small hairpin RNA (shRNA). Together, these results reveal RNF180 could inhibit GC progression by reducing the phosphorylation of STAT3 via the ubiquitination and degradation of RhoC protein in GC cells. Thus, the protein may be considered a novel therapeutic target for patients with GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03096-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575565PMC
October 2020

Pros and Cons: High Proportion of Stromal Component Indicates Better Prognosis in Patients With Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma-A Research Based on the Evaluation of Whole-Mount Histological Slides.

Front Oncol 2020 21;10:1472. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Navy Medical University (Second Military Medical University), Shanghai, China.

The study aimed to investigate the potential of tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) on digitalized whole-mount histopathology to predict prognosis in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The effectiveness were evaluated through internal validation. Data were retrospectively collected from consecutive patients who underwent primary pancreatic resection from December 2016 to August 2017 (developing cohort) and from September 2017 to April 2018 (validation cohort). Digitalized whole-mount slide images were used to evaluate TSR by both pathologists and a computerized model based on Conditional Generative Adversarial Model (cGAN), respectively. TSR>1 and ≤ 1 denoted low and high stromal component. Logistic regression analysis revealed intratumoral necrosis and R1 independently associated with low stromal component in the developing cohort. Cox regression analysis revealed tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage [II vs. I: hazard ratio (HR), 2.584; 95% CI, 1.386-4.819; = 0.003; III vs. I: HR, 4.384; 95% CI, 2.285-8.411; < 0.001], stromal component (low vs. high: HR, 1.876; 95% CI, 1.227-2.870; = 0.004), tumor grade (G3 vs. G1/2: HR, 2.124; 95% CI, 1.419-3.179; < 0.001), and perineural invasion (with vs. without: HR, 2.147; 95% CI, 1.187-3.883; = 0.011) were independent prognostic factors in the developing cohort. Stromal component categories could classify patients into subgroups within TNM stages I, II, and III based on over survival. All results were validated in the validation cohort. The weighted kappa value for categorical assessments between pathologists' evaluation and computer-aided evaluation was 0.804 (95% CI, 0.573-0.951). TSR represents a simple and reliable metric for combining the prognostic value of TNM stage in patients with PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471248PMC
August 2020

Effects of heat stress on antioxidant status and immune function and expression of related genes in lambs.

Int J Biometeorol 2020 Dec 24;64(12):2093-2104. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Animal Production, College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Huhhot, 010018, China.

The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of heat stress on antioxidant status, immune response, and related gene expression of lambs. Eighteen male lambs were randomly allocated into three treatment groups that were as follows: indoor temperature control group furnished with an air-conditioner (ITC), indoor temperature non-control group suffered intermittent and varying degrees of heat stress (ITNC), outdoor temperature non-control group in the external natural environment (OTNC). ITNC group presented a more severe and prolonged exposure to thermal stress than the other two groups. The trial lasted 28 days. Blood samples were collected on days 14 and 28 to analyze total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentrations and gene expressions of SOD1, SOD2, GPx, CAT, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), IL-1β, IL-2, and TNF-α. Results showed that on day 14 an elevated temperature reduced (p < 0.05) the level of GPx, T-SOD, T-AOC, and IgG, whereas significantly increased (p < 0.05) CAT, MDA, IgA, and TNF-α levels. Gene expressions of SOD1 and GPx were down-regulated (p < 0.05). On day 28, ITNC group significantly decreased (p < 0.05) CAT, GPx, T-SOD, T-AOC, IgG, and IL-2 levels and increased (p < 0.05) MDA, IL-1, and TNF-α levels, accompanying by the reducing or increasing (p < 0.05) of their relative gene expression apart from CAT and IL-1β gene (p > 0.10). In addition, in ITNC and OTNC groups, the level of CAT, T-SOD, T-AOC, IgG, IgM, and IL-2 and the expression of CAT, SOD2, and IL-2 reduced (p < 0.05), whereas IL-1 and TNF-α levels and IL-1β expression increased (p < 0.05) on day 28 compared with day 14. In ITC group, the level of IgA, IL-1, and TNF-α and the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α increased (p < 0.05), while the content of IgG and IgM reduced (p < 0.05) on day 28 compared with day 14. These results indicated that heat stress negatively affected the antioxidant status and immune response of lambs, and the negative effects of heat stress are not only related to the stress duration but also associated with the stress severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-020-02000-0DOI Listing
December 2020

Dynamics of the antibiotic resistome in agricultural soils amended with different sources of animal manures over three consecutive years.

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 6;401:123399. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

The application of animal manure is generally considered an important transmission pathway for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil. Nevertheless, the fate of ARGs in soil where manure from different sources has been repeatedly implemented is not fully understood. Thus, the succession of ARGs and bacterial communities following the repeated application of three types of animal manures (pig, chicken, and cow manure) to agricultural soil were investigated using Illumina sequencing analysis and high-throughput qPCR. Results showed that manure application remarkably increased the abundance of soil ARGs by increasing the enrichment of indigenous ARGs and introducing extrinsic ARGs. There were no prominent differences in the abundance or diversity of ARGs among the three different manured soils. The abundance and diversity of ARGs in manured soils increased over three consecutive years. Additionally, the abundance of mobile gene elements (MGEs) and bacteria were positively correlated with ARGs, while the changes in the ARG profiles were dramatically associated with the MGEs and bacterial communities. These findings imply that repeated manure application may facilitate to the accumulation and persistence of the soil resistome by regulation of the bacterial community and horizontal gene transfer, providing better insights into the temporal dynamics of soil ARGs in agro-ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123399DOI Listing
January 2021

Nutrition-mediated cell and tissue-level anatomy triggers the covariation of leaf photosynthesis and leaf mass per area.

J Exp Bot 2020 10;71(20):6524-6537

Microelement Research Center, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Plants in nutrient-poor habitats converge towards lower rates of leaf net CO2 assimilation (Aarea); however, they display variability in leaf mass investment per area (LMA). How a plant optimizes its leaf internal carbon investment may have knock-on effects on structural traits and, in turn, affect leaf carbon fixation. Quantitative models were applied to evaluate the structural causes of variations in LMA and their relevance to Aarea in rapeseed (Brassica napus) based on their responses to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and boron (B) deficiencies. Leaf carbon fixation decreased in response to nutrient deficiency, but the photosynthetic limitations varied greatly depending on the deficient nutrient. In comparison with Aarea, the LMA exhibited diverse responses, being increased under P or B deficiency, decreased under K deficiency, and unaffected under N deficiency. These variations were due to changes in cell- and tissue-level carbon investments between cell dry mass density (N or K deficiency) and cellular anatomy, including cell dimension and number (P deficiency), or both (B deficiency). However, there was a conserved pattern independent of nutrient-specific limitations-low nutrient availability reduced leaf carbon fixation but increased carbon investment in non-photosynthetic structures, resulting in larger but fewer mesophyll cells with a thicker cell wall but a lower chloroplast surface area appressed to the intercellular airspace, which reduced the mesophyll conductance and feedback-limited Aarea. Our results provide insight into the importance of mineral nutrients in balancing the leaf carbon economy by coordinating leaf carbon assimilation and internal distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa356DOI Listing
October 2020

Enhancing the Efficacy of Metal-Free MRI Contrast Agents via Conjugating Nitroxides onto PEGylated Cross-Linked Poly(Carboxylate Ester).

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Jul 3;7(14):2000467. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, Functional and molecular imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital Sichuan University Chengdu 610041 P. R. China.

Herein, two water-soluble PROXYL-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) macromolecular organic contrast agents (mORCAs) are designed and synthesized: linear and cross-linked PCE-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL. They are prepared by conjugating linear and cross-linked poly(carboxylate ester) (PCE) with poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG)-modified nitroxides (PROXYL), respectively. Both mORCAs form self-assembled aggregates in an aqueous phase and PROXYL is protected inside a hydrophobic core to achieve great resistance to reduction in the physiological environment, and they have low toxicity. Since cross-linked PCE-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL possess a branched architecture, its self-assembled aggregate is more stable and compact with a greater particle size. Cross-linked PCE-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL outperform the linear one in the following aspects: 1) its longitudinal relaxivity (  = 0.79 mm s) is higher than that of the linear one (  = 0.64 mm s) and both excel the best mORCA reported so far (  = 0.42 mm s); 2) its blood retention time (≈48 h) is longer than that of its linear counterpart (≈10 h); 3) cross-linked PCE-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL provided better MR imaging contrast resolution in normal organs (liver and kidney) and tumor of mice than the linear one. Overall, cross-linked PCE-mPEG-Ppa-PROXYL may have great potential to be a novel metal-free macromolecular contrast agent for MR imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202000467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7375229PMC
July 2020

Should the left gastric artery lymph node be considered as the predictive lymph node for extra-gastric lymph node metastases?

Ann Transl Med 2020 Jun;8(11):680

Department of Gastroenterology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China.

Background: To validate the prognostic impacts of the left gastric artery lymph node (No. 7 LN) metastasis and investigate whether the No. 7 LN metastasis should be considered as the predictive LN for extra-gastric LN metastases.

Methods: Between January 2003 and December 2011, a total of 1,586 patients who underwent R0 gastrectomy were retrospected. Patients with LN metastases were divided into three groups: (I) patients with only peri-gastric LN metastases (peri-gastric group); (II) patients with peri-gastric and only No. 7 LN metastases (No. 7 group); and (III) patients with other extra-gastric LN metastases (extra-gastric group). Propensity score matching (PSM) was adopted to accurately evaluate prognoses of all patients after surgery.

Results: Of 1,586 patients, 235 (14.82%) were pathologically identified to present with the No. 7 LN metastases. Patients with the No. 7 LN metastases presented the significantly lower survival rate both before and after adjustment by pTNM stage, compared to those without the No. 7 LN metastases. Patients in the No. 7 group were identified to present the significant lower survival rate than those in the peri-gastric group, and to present the similar median overall survival (OS) to those in the extra-gastric group. In addition, patients with extra-gastric LN except No. 7 LN metastases failed to show any superiority of survival outcomes, compared with those with extra-gastric LN metastases including the No. 7 LN metastasis.

Conclusions: The No. 7 LN metastases had the crucial survival implications. Nevertheless, the No. 7 LN failed to be considered as the predictive LN for the extra-gastric LN metastases in gastric cancer (GC).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-19-4786aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327347PMC
June 2020

Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Cycling Microbial Populations and Their Resistance to Global Change Depend on Soil C:N:P Stoichiometry.

mSystems 2020 Jun 30;5(3). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Solid Organic Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China

Maintaining stability of ecosystem functions in the face of global change calls for a better understanding regulatory factors of functionally specialized microbial groups and their population response to disturbance. In this study, we explored this issue by collecting soils from 54 managed ecosystems in China and conducting a microcosm experiment to link disturbance, elemental stoichiometry, and genetic resistance. Soil carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) stoichiometry imparted a greater effect on the abundance of microbial groups associated with main C, N, and P biogeochemical processes in comparison with mean annual temperature and precipitation. Nitrogen cycling genes, including bacterial , , , and , exhibited the highest genetic resistance to N deposition. The and genes exhibited the highest resistance to warming and drying-wetting cycles, respectively. Soil total C, N, and P contents and their ratios had a strong direct effect on the genetic resistance of microbial groups, which was dependent on mean annual temperature and precipitation. Specifically, soil C/P ratio was the main predictor of N cycling genetic resistance to N deposition. Soil total C and N contents and their ratios were the main predictors of P cycling genetic resistance to N deposition, warming, and drying-wetting. Overall, our work highlights the importance of soil stoichiometric balance for maintaining the ability of ecosystem functions to withstand global change. To be effective in predicting future stability of soil functions in the context of various external disturbances, it is necessary to follow the effects of global change on functionally specialized microbes related to C and nutrient cycling. Our study represents an exploratory effort to couple the stoichiometric drivers to microbial populations related with main C, N, and P cycling and their resistances to global change. The abundance of microbial groups involved in cellulose, starch, and xylan degradation, nitrification, N fixation, denitrification, organic P mineralization, and inorganic P dissolution showed a high stoichiometry dependency. Resistance of these microbial populations to global change could be predicted by soil C:N:P stoichiometry. Our work highlights that stoichiometric balance in soil C and nutrients is instrumental in maintaining the stability and adaptability of ecosystem functions under global change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00162-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329320PMC
June 2020

Radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy versus standard distal pancreatosplenectomy for pancreatic cancer, a dual-institutional analysis.

Chin Clin Oncol 2020 Aug 16;9(4):54. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS) has been adopted by some surgeons in the treatment of left-sided pancreatic cancer (PDAC). Low disease incidence and heterogenous disease biology make robust prospective comparison of RAMPS and standard distal pancreatosplenectomy (DPS) difficult.

Methods: Consecutive cases of chemo-naïve patients undergoing open RAMPS and DPS for PDAC between 2010-2017 at two international high-volume pancreatectomy centers were compared. Cox proportional hazard modeling was utilized for multivariate analysis.

Results: We identified 193 DPS and 253 RAMPS during the study period. DPS was associated with higher rates of median estimated blood loss (500 vs. 300 cc, P<0.001), median total harvested lymph nodes (18 vs. 12, P<0.001) and R0 resection (94.3% vs. 88.9%, P=0.013). There were no differences in rates of postoperative pancreatic fistula (16.5% vs. 17.8%, P=1) or postoperative hemorrhage (5.9% vs. 3.6%, P=0.385) (DPS vs. RAMPS). After controlling for significant clinical pathological parameters, RAMPS was associated with non-superior recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.07-1.27, P=0.101) and overall-survival (HR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.71-1.49, P=0.895) compared with DPS. Similar results were observed in node-positive patients.

Conclusions: RAMPS is safe and effective in the treatment of PDAC, but is not associated with an improvement in either RFS or overall-survival over DPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cco-20-6DOI Listing
August 2020

Plant Grafting Shapes Complexity and Co-occurrence of Rhizobacterial Assemblages.

Microb Ecol 2020 Oct 8;80(3):643-655. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Grafting is a basic technique which is widely used to increase yield and enhance biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in plant production. The diversity and interactions of rhizobacterial assemblages shaped by grafting are important for the growth of their hosts but remain poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that plant grafting shapes complexity and co-occurrence of rhizobacterial assemblage, four types of plants, including ungrafted bottle gourd (B), ungrafted watermelon (W), grafted watermelon with bottle gourd rootstock (W/B), and grafted bottle gourd with watermelon rootstock (B/W), were cultivated in two soil types in a greenhouse, and the rhizosphere bacterial communities were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. Both the soil type and grafting significantly influenced the bacterial community composition. Grafting increased bacterial within-sample diversity in both soils. Core enriched operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the W/B rhizosphere compared with the other three treatments (B, W, and B/W) were mainly affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, which are likely related to methanol oxidation, methylotrophy, fermentation, and ureolysis. Co-occurrence network analysis proved that grafting increased network complexity, including the number of nodes, edges, and modules. Moreover, grafting strengthened the structural robustness of the network in the rhizosphere, while ungrafted watermelon had the lowest network robustness. Homogeneous selection played a predominant role in bacterial community assembly, and the contribution of dispersal limitation was increased in grafted watermelon with bottle gourd rootstock. Grafting increased the diversity and transformed the network topology of the bacterial community, which indicated that grafting could improve species coexistence in the watermelon rhizosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-020-01532-7DOI Listing
October 2020

Zinc and Copper Enhance Cucumber Tolerance to Fusaric Acid by Mediating Its Distribution and Toxicity and Modifying the Antioxidant System.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 10;21(9). Epub 2020 May 10.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Fusaric acid (FA), the fungal toxin produced by , plays a predominant role in the virulence and symptom development of Fusarium wilt disease. As mineral nutrients can be protective agents against Fusarium wilt, hydroponic experiments employing zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) followed by FA treatment were conducted in a glasshouse. FA exhibited strong phytotoxicity on cucumber plants, which was reversed by the addition of Zn or Cu. Thus, Zn or Cu dramatically reduced the wilt index, alleviated the leaf or root cell membrane injury and mitigated against the FA inhibition of plant growth and photosynthesis. Cucumber plants grown with Zn exhibited decreased FA transportation to shoots and a 17% increase in toxicity mitigation and showed minimal hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation level with the increased of antioxidant enzymes activity in both roots and leaves. Cucumber grown with additional Cu absorbed less FA but showed more toxicity mitigation at 20% compared to with additional Zn and exhibited decreased hydrogen peroxide level and increased antioxidant enzymes activity. Thus, adding Zn or Cu can decrease the toxicity of the FA by affecting the absorption or transportation of the FA in plants and mitigate toxicity possibly through chelation. Zn and Cu modify the antioxidant system to scavenge hydrogen peroxide for suppressing FA induction of oxidative damage. Our experiments could provide a theoretical basis for the direct application of micro-fertilizer as protective agents in farming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247006PMC
May 2020

Extranodal soft tissue metastasis as an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer patients aged under 70 years after curative gastrectomy.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Mar;8(6):376

Department of Gastroenterology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital, City Key Laboratory of Tianjin Cancer Center and National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin 300060, China.

Background: Accumulating evidence confirms the potential prognostic value of extranodal soft tissue metastasis (ESTM) in patients with solid cancers. The aim of this study was to elucidate the potential relationship between ESTM and lymph node (LN) metastasis, demonstrate clinicopathological predictive prognostic factors for ESTM and LN metastasis, and identify the prognostic value of ESTM for gastric cancer (GC) patients aged under 70 years.

Methods: A total of 580 GC patients who underwent the curative resection between 2003 and 2011 were included to identify if ESTM is essential to improve the accuracy of prognostic evaluation of the GC patients postoperatively. Overall survival rates were tested by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to clarify the independent prognostic factors. Logistic regression analysis was adopted to clarify the risk factors for evaluating the presence of ESTM and LN metastasis. After cut-point survival analysis, the GC patients were divided into three subgroups based on the number of ESTM and then incorporated into the pTNM stage of gastric carcinoma to identify the possibility and necessity of incorporating ESTM into staging.

Results: ESTM was associated with advanced pT, pN and pTNM categories, large tumour size and the presence of signet-ring cell (SRC) variants. Survival analyses revealed that ESTM was associated with the OS and was an independent prognostic predictor in this GC patient cohort. Logistic regression analysis proved that ESTM and pT stage are significantly correlated with LN metastasis. Additionally, the ESTM was incorporated into the eighth edition of the pTNM classification and the prognostic evaluation of pTNME classification were calculated directly, and the results indicated that ESTM can reduce the stage migration.

Conclusions: ESTM is a significant independent predictor of survival in GC patients. To achieve R0 surgery, lymph nodes, soft tissues, fascia and adipose tissue should be resected en bloc at the same time as lymph node dissection. ESTM should be incorporated into pTNM staging according to the number retrieved from postoperative samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.02.09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186695PMC
March 2020

Noncontrast Radiomics Approach for Predicting Grades of Nonfunctional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2020 10 28;52(4):1124-1136. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Big Data Analysis Technique, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.

Background: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration is associated with the accurate determination of tumor grade. However, because it is an invasive procedure there is a need to explore alternative noninvasive procedures.

Purpose: To develop and validate a noncontrast radiomics model for the preoperative prediction of nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NF-pNET) grade (G).

Study Type: Retrospective, single-center study.

Subjects: Patients with pathologically confirmed PNETs (139) were included.

Field Strength/sequence: 3T/breath-hold single-shot fast-spin echo T -weighted sequence and unenhanced and dynamic contrast-enhanced T -weighted fat-suppressed sequences.

Assessment: Tumor features on contrast MR images were evaluated by three board-certified abdominal radiologists.

Statistical Tests: Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to develop the clinical model. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method and linear discriminative analysis (LDA) were used to select the features and to construct a radiomics model. The performance of the models was assessed using the training cohort (97 patients) and the validation cohort (42 patients), and decision curve analysis (DCA) was applied for clinical use.

Results: The clinical model included 14 imaging features, and the corresponding area under the curve (AUC) was 0.769 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.675-0.863) in the training cohort and 0.729 (95% CI, 0.568-0.890) in the validation cohort. The LDA included 14 selected radiomics features that showed good discrimination-in the training cohort (AUC, 0.851; 95% CI, 0.758-0.916) and the validation cohort (AUC, 0.736; 95% CI, 0.518-0.874). In the decision curves, if the threshold probability was 0.17-0.84, using the radiomics score to distinguish NF-pNET G1 and G2/3, offered more benefit than did the use of a treat-all-patients or treat-none scheme.

Data Conclusion: The developed radiomics model using noncontrast MRI could help differentiate G1 and G2/3 tumors, to make the clinical decision, and screen pNETs grade.

Level Of Evidence: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;52:1124-1136.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895298PMC
October 2020

High water uptake ability was associated with root aerenchyma formation in rice: Evidence from local ammonium supply under osmotic stress conditions.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 May 26;150:171-179. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Solid Organic Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Solid Organic Wastes, Educational Ministry Engineering Center of Resource-saving Fertilizers, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Root water uptake is strongly influenced by the morphology and anatomical structure of roots, which are regulated by nitrogen forms and environmental stimuli. To further illustrate the roles of different nitrogen forms on root water uptake under osmotic stress, a split-root system was supplied with different nitrogen forms and osmotic stress simulated by adding 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000). The local effects of nitrogen form and osmotic stress on root morphology, anatomical structure, root lignin content, and water uptake rate were investigated. Under osmotic stress conditions, ammonium markedly promoted the formation and elongation of the lateral root, whereas a significant decrease in numbers of lateral roots was observed under local nitrate supply. Under nitrate supply in split-root systems, osmotic stress significantly promoted root cell death and more aerenchyma formation, as well as accelerated the lignification of the root. However, osmotic stress had no negative effect on the root anatomical structure under ammonium supply. The root water uptake rate was significantly higher in split-root supplied with ammonium than nitrate under osmotic stress conditions. In conclusion, the high water uptake ability in local ammonium supply was associated with the more lateral roots development and the lower cell death, aerenchyma formation and lignification under osmotic stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.02.037DOI Listing
May 2020

Negative effects of the simulated nitrogen deposition on plant phenolic metabolism: A meta-analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 20;719:137442. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Solid Organic Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Solid Organic Wastes, Educational Ministry Engineering Center of Resource-saving fertilizers, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Phenolic compounds constitute probably the largest group of plant secondary metabolites and have key roles in plant metabolism. Simulated nitrogen (N) deposition is important to agriculture and has considerable impacts on plant phenolic metabolism but a systematic understanding of such effects is lacking. We here synthesized results from 123 articles and evaluated the responses of plant biomass, in vivo N status, soluble sugar concentrations, carbon (C)/N ratios and multiple phenolic compounds to the simulated N deposition. This meta-analysis showed that the simulated N deposition significantly increased plant biomass and N content but reduced the concentrations of phenolic compounds in a dose-depended manner. This was linked to the suppression of phenolic generating phenylalanine ammonia_lyase activity and key associated gene expression by the simulated N deposition. Total phenolic concentrations were negatively related to biomass but were positively correlated with C/N and soluble sugar contents. Overall, our results indicated adverse effects of simulated N deposition on phenolic metabolism which could compromise key aspects of crop quality and are apparently hidden by positive effects on plant biomass. Our findings have significant ecological and biological implications for plant phenolic metabolism facing global N deposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137442DOI Listing
June 2020
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