Publications by authors named "Shivani Sharma"

181 Publications

The use of social robots with children and young people on the autism spectrum: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2022 22;17(6):e0269800. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom.

Background: Robot-mediated interventions show promise in supporting the development of children on the autism spectrum.

Objectives: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we summarize key features of available evidence on robot-interventions for children and young people on the autism spectrum aged up to 18 years old, as well as consider their efficacy for specific domains of learning.

Data Sources: PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, ACM Digital Library, and IEEE Xplore. Grey literature was also searched using PsycExtra, OpenGrey, British Library EThOS, and the British Library Catalogue. Databases were searched from inception until April (6th) 2021.

Synthesis Methods: Searches undertaken across seven databases yielded 2145 articles. Forty studies met our review inclusion criteria of which 17 were randomized control trials. The methodological quality of studies was conducted with the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. A narrative synthesis summarised the findings. A meta-analysis was conducted with 12 RCTs.

Results: Most interventions used humanoid (67%) robotic platforms, were predominantly based in clinics (37%) followed home, schools and laboratory (17% respectively) environments and targeted at improving social and communication skills (77%). Focusing on the most common outcomes, a random effects meta-analysis of RCTs showed that robot-mediated interventions significantly improved social functioning (g = 0.35 [95%CI 0.09 to 0.61; k = 7). By contrast, robots did not improve emotional (g = 0.63 [95%CI -1.43 to 2.69]; k = 2) or motor outcomes (g = -0.10 [95%CI -1.08 to 0.89]; k = 3), but the numbers of trials were very small. Meta-regression revealed that age accounted for almost one-third of the variance in effect sizes, with greater benefits being found in younger children.

Conclusions: Overall, our findings support the use of robot-mediated interventions for autistic children and youth, and we propose several recommendations for future research to aid learning and enhance implementation in everyday settings.

Prospero Registration: Our methods were preregistered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42019148981).
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0269800PLOS
June 2022

Whole genome re-sequencing of indian wheat genotypes for identification of genomic variants for grain iron and zinc content.

Mol Biol Rep 2022 Jun 18. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), Sector-81, 140306, Mohali, Punjab, India.

Background: Whole-genome sequencing information which is of abundant significance for genetic evolution, and breeding of crops. Wheat (Triticum spp) is most widely grown and consumed crops globally. Micronutrients are very essential for healthy development of human being and their sufficient consumption in diet is essential for various metabolic functions. Biofortification of wheat grains with iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) has proved the most reliable and effective way to combat micronutrient associated deficiency. Genetic variability for grain micronutrient could provide insight to dissect the traits.

Methods And Results: In the current study, 1300 wheat lines were screened for grain Fe and Zn content, out of which only five important Indian wheat genotypes were selected on the basis of Fe and Zn contents. These lines were multiplied during at the National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI) and re-sequenced to identify genomic variants in candidate genes for Fe and Zn between the genotypes. Whole genome sequencing generated ̴ 12 Gb clean data. Comparative genome analysis identified 254 genomic variants in the candidate genes associated with deleterious effect on protein function.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated the fundamental in understanding the genomic variations for Fe and Zn enrichment to generate healthier wheat grains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-022-07593-wDOI Listing
June 2022

A systematic review on traditional, ayurvedic, and herbal approaches to treat solar erythema.

Int J Dermatol 2022 May 29. Epub 2022 May 29.

Patanjali Herbal Research Department, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar, India.

Solar erythema is a kind of radiation burn that strikes living tissue, such as skin, that arises from overexposure to UV radiation often from the sun. Ordinary symptoms of solar erythema include reddish skin, specifically warm to touch, overall tiredness, hurting, and mild whirl. Sunscreen contains SPF value, which measures how much ultraviolet radiation is needed to cause sunburn on sunscreen-applied skin, which is proportional to the quantity of solar energy needed to cause sunburn on unprotected skin. Between 30 and 50 SPF value is sufficient to protect from sunburn, especially for the people who are more sensitive to sunburn. Sunscreen also protects from sun damage including dark spots and discoloration and helps to keep skin smooth, spotless, and more even. Chemical-based sunscreen is widely used because it effectively protects the skin from sun damage, but it clogs pores and can be problematic for sensitive skin as it can cause itching or stinging of the skin and pus in the hair follicles. On the other hand, herbal sunscreen absorbs light preferentially over the range of 280-320 mm without causing any harm to the skin and eyes. Ayurveda rejuvenates dull skin by regaining the skin's natural glow and radiance. This review concludes the damaging and harmful effects of UV rays, along with various traditional, ayurvedic, and herbal approaches to treat solar erythema naturally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.16231DOI Listing
May 2022

Strategies and Bottlenecks in Hexaploid Wheat to Mobilize Soil Iron to Grains.

Front Plant Sci 2022 29;13:863849. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Biotechnology, National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute, Mohali, India.

Our knowledge of iron (Fe) uptake and mobilization in plants is mainly based on and rice. Although multiple players of Fe homeostasis have been elucidated, there is a significant gap in our understanding of crop species, such as wheat. It is, therefore, imperative not only to understand the different hurdles for Fe enrichment in tissues but also to address specifically the knowns/unknowns involved in the plausible mechanism of Fe sensing, signaling, transport, and subsequent storage in plants. In the present review, a unique perspective has been described in light of recent knowledge generated in wheat, an economically important crop. The strategies to boost efficient Fe uptake, transcriptional regulation, and long-distance mobilization in grains have been discussed, emphasizing recent biotechnological routes to load Fe in grains. This article also highlights the new elements of physiological and molecular genetics that underpin the mechanistic insight for the identified Fe-related genes and discusses the bottlenecks in unloading the Fe in grains. The information presented here will provide much-needed resources and directions to overcome challenges and design efficient strategies to enhance the Fe density in wheat grains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.863849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9100831PMC
April 2022

Hereditary neuropathies: Genetics and utility of nerve biopsy.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2022 May;65(Supplement):S318-S328

Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common neurological conditions of the nervous system. Hereditary neuropathies (HNs) form an important group with varying degrees of severity, causing a significant disease burden. Accurate diagnosis is essential for management, counseling, and preventing unnecessary extended workups for acquired etiologies and inappropriate treatment. Several hereditary neuropathies have characteristic or diagnostic histologic findings; however, in the era of molecular diagnostics, the role of nerve biopsy in the diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy has reduced significantly. Nevertheless, in sporadic cases, cases without a clear family history, clinical mimics, cases with rare mutations, and genetic variants of unknown significance, a nerve biopsy can confirm the diagnosis, provide an unexpected diagnosis, or direct a targeted molecular testing. HN may be non-syndromic, affecting predominantly the peripheral nervous system or syndromic where it is a part of more widespread neurological or multisystem involvement. This review summarizes the microscopic pathological features in a nerve biopsy in some of the more commonly encountered inherited peripheral neuropathies highlighting their utility in selected cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpm.ijpm_146_22DOI Listing
May 2022

Novel insights into the genetic profile of hereditary spastic paraplegia in India.

J Neurogenet 2022 Mar 2;36(1):21-31. Epub 2022 May 2.

Departments of Neurology and Human Genetics, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India.

The Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by length dependent degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. Genetic data related to HSPs are limited from India. We aimed to comprehensively analyse the phenotypic characteristics and genetic basis of a large cohort of HSP from India. Patients with HSP phenotype were evaluated for their clinical features, electrophysiological and radiological abnormalities. Genetic analyses were carried out by clinical exome sequencing ( = 52) and targeted sequencing ( = 5). The cohort comprised of 57 probands (M:F 40:17, age: 3.5-49 years). Based on the phenotype, the cohort could be categorized as 'pure' ( = 15, 26.3%) and 'complicated' ( = 42, 73.7%) HSP. Brain MRI showed thin corpus callosum ( = 10), periventricular hyperintensities ( = 20), cerebral atrophy ( = 3), cerebellar atrophy ( = 3) and diffuse atrophy ( = 4). Sixty-seven variants representing 40 genes were identified including 47 novel variants. Forty-eight patients (84.2%) had variants in genes previously implicated in HSP and other spastic paraplegia syndromes (SPG genes = 24, non-SPG genes = 24); among these 13 had variations in more than one gene and 12 patients (21.0%) had variations in genes implicated in potentially treatable/modifiable metabolic disorders ( = 8,  = 1,  = 2 and  = 1). In nine patients, no genetic variants implicated in spastic paraplegia phenotype were identified. Thus, the present study from India highlights the phenotypic complexities and spectrum of genetic variations in patients with HSP including those implicated in metabolically modifiable disorders. It sets a platform for carrying out functional studies to validate the causal role of the novel variants and variants of uncertain significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01677063.2022.2064463DOI Listing
March 2022

Oral Administration of Isovitexin, a Naturally Occurring Apigenin Derivative Showed Osteoanabolic Effect in Ovariectomized Mice: A Comparative Study with Teriparatide.

Calcif Tissue Int 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Target in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow, 226031, India.

Isovitexin (apigenin-6C-glucopyranose) is found in several food items and medicinal plants. Recently, we showed that isovitexin stimulated osteoblast differentiation through mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration that required adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs). Here, we studied whether oral isovitexin has a bone anabolic effect in vivo. At first, using a femur osteotomy model in adult mice, we compared the bone regenerative effect of isovitexin and apigenin. Whereas isovitexin-stimulated bone formation at the osteotomy site at 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg dose, apigenin had no effect. Subsequently, we tested the effect of isovitexin (5 mg/kg) in ovariectomized (OVX) osteopenic mice and observed that it restored bone mass and architecture of trabecular bones (femur metaphysis and fifth lumbar vertebra/L5) and cortical bones (femur diaphysis). Isovitexin completely restored bone strength at L5 (compressive strength) and femur (bending strength) in OVX mice. The bone anabolic effect of isovitexin was demonstrated by the increased surface referent bone formation parameters, increased expression of osteogenic genes (Runx2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and type 1 collagen) in bones, and increased serum procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide in OVX mice and these were on a par with teriparatide. Isovitexin inhibited bone and serum sclerostin as well as the serum type I collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide in OVX mice. Isovitexin has an oral bioavailability of 14.58%. Taken together, our data show that isovitexin had a significant oral bioavailability that translated to osteoanabolic effect equivalent to teriparatide and inhibited bone resorption, which implied a durable effect over teriparatide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-022-00979-9DOI Listing
April 2022

Prevalence and outcomes of chronic liver disease in patients receiving dialysis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Kidney J 2022 Apr 18;15(4):747-757. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Renal Medicine, Lister Hospital, East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust, Stevenage, UK.

Background: Patients receiving dialysis for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) commonly co-exhibit risk factors for hepatic impairment. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to quantify the coexistence of chronic liver disease (CLD) and characterize risk factors and outcomes.

Methods: We searched the following databases from inception to May 2021: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Kings Fund Library, MEDLINE and PubMed. The protocol was pre-registered on PROSPERO (study ID: CRD42020206486). Studies were assessed against three inclusion criteria: adults (>18 years) with ESKD receiving dialysis, primary outcome involving CLD prevalence and publications in English. Moderator analysis was performed for age, gender, study size and publication year. Sensitivity analysis was performed where applicable by removing outlier results and studies at high risk of bias.

Results: Searches yielded 7195 articles; of these 15 met the inclusion criteria. A total of 320 777 patients were included. The prevalence of cirrhosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was 5% and 55%, respectively. Individuals with CLD had 2-fold higher mortality than those without {odds ratio [OR] 2.19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-3.45]}. Hepatitis B [OR 13.47 (95% CI 1.37-132.55)] and hepatitis C [OR 7.05 (95% CI 4.00-12.45)], but not diabetes, conferred increased cirrhosis risk. All studies examining NAFLD were judged to be at high risk of bias. We found no data on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Deaths from CLD, cancer and infection were greater among cirrhotic patients.

Conclusions: CLD is prevalent in dialysis patients. Hepatitis B and C confer increased risk of CLD. The impact of NAFLD and NASH cirrhosis requires further study. CLD is associated with an increased risk of mortality in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfab230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8967682PMC
April 2022

Comparative efficacy of different varieties of toothbrushes in plaque control: A 12-week clinical trial.

Indian J Dent Res 2021 Jul-Sep;32(3):372-379

Department of Periodontics, ITS Dental College, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Aim: The aim of this 12 week, single-blind clinical trial was to compare the efficacy of Manual (Oral-B Pro Health Gum care), Powered (Oral-B Cross action Power Dual) and Charcoal (Colgate slim Soft Charcoal) toothbrushes in plaque control.

Materials And Methods: 60 systemically healthy students were selected at random among the students of a Dental College, living under similar environment and dietary conditions. Plaque and calculus were removed professionally and three varieties of toothbrush were distributed among them. Plaque index (PI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI) and gingival index (GI) were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 weeks. Assessment of colony forming units (CFU) was done at baseline and 12 week. The learning effect over a period of time was also assessed.

Results: Over the 12-week period, PI reduced significantly (P < 0.001) with % reduction in plaque from 47% to 59%, 41% to 53% and 45% to 55% for manual, powered and charcoal brush. A significant reduction in GI and SBI was also seen with all the brushes. An insignificant difference in PI, GI and SBI was seen between the brushes. CFU count before and after brushing reduced gradually and statistically significantly (P < 0.001) for all the brushes; however, by end of 12 week period, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). The learning effect increased from 35% to 60%, 24% to 56% and 31% to 58% for three brushes, respectively, but was more pronounced for powered brush.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that all the three brushes (manual, powered and charcoal) are clinically effective in removing plaque, with learning effect more pronounced for powered brush and if proper technique is followed, no brush is superior to the other.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_179_20DOI Listing
March 2022

Measuring patients' experience with renal services in the UK: development and validation of the Kidney PREM.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2022 Feb 9. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Centre for Health Informatics, Division of Informatics, Imaging and Data Science, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: Patient experience is a recognised aspect of quality of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but current patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) only focus on dialysis care. We developed and validated the Kidney PREM to assess patients' experience with renal services in secondary care for any CKD stage or treatment (transplant, haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis).

Methods: We developed the Kidney PREM in two phases, informed by a multidisciplinary expert group to ensure face validity. We organised three national data collections (2016 to 2018) to investigate item response profiles and to conduct exploratory and confirmatory analyses to assess internal consistency. We also explored content validity in cognitive interviews and evaluated test-retest reliability. Finally, we developed the Kidney PREM Short Form for more frequent measurement of patient experience to inform local service improvements.

Results: We analysed 32 959 responses across data collections, the 2018 collection covering all 71 UK renal centres. The Kidney PREM final version consisted of 38 items grouped in 13 themes, all pertaining to one underlying dimension reflecting the construct of 'patient experience' with high internal consistency (Cronbach's α, 0.94). The Kidney PREM Short Form consisted of 15 items across the same 13 themes.

Conclusions: The Kidney PREM supports collection of reliable information on patient experience that people with CKD consider relevant, regardless of CKD stage or treatment modality. Kidney PREM data has the potential to guide local and national initiatives to improve patients' experience with renal services in the UK and other countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfac030DOI Listing
February 2022

Diosmin, a citrus fruit-derived phlebotonic bioflavonoid protects rats from chronic kidney disease-induced loss of bone mass and strength without deteriorating the renal function.

Food Funct 2022 Feb 21;13(4):2184-2199. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in ASTHI, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lucknow, 226031, India.

Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline has recommended treatment decisions for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with osteoporosis and/or high risk of fracture. Bisphosphonates, the first-line anti-osteoporosis drugs have the concern of worsening kidney functions. Moreover, despite impaired bone formation in CKD patients, teriparatide, the formation-stimulating drug is not recommended. Thus, there is an urgent need for safe and effective treatment of osteoporosis in CKD patients. Here, in CKD rats, we tested the osteoprotective effect of diosmin, a citrus-derived bioflavonoid used as a phlebotonic in chronic venous insufficiency and has a renoprotective effect. CKD was developed by 5/6 nephrectomy and diosmin at the human equivalent dose (100 mg kg) did not advance renal failure but reduced blood pressure to the level of sham control. Fibroblast growth factor-23 and parathyroid hormone were increased in CKD and diosmin suppressed both. CKD reduced bone mass and deteriorated the microarchitecture of trabecular bones, and diosmin maintained both to control levels. Bone formation and strength were impaired in the CKD and diosmin maintained these levels to control levels. Nanoindentation of bone showed that diosmin significantly increased tissue hardness over the control. Diosmetin, the metabolic surrogate of diosmin had comparable pharmacokinetic profiles between the control and CKD groups. Furthermore, diosmetin (50 mg kg) protected against CKD-induced bone loss. These data suggest that diosmin and its metabolic surrogate, diosmetin protect against CKD-induced osteopenia. Since diosmin has no renal adverse effect and protected bone mass and strength in CKD rats, we propose assessing its anti-osteoporosis effect in CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo03867bDOI Listing
February 2022

Torsion of unscarred gravid horn of a bicornuate uterus with abnormal foetal lie.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2022 Jan 12:1-3. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2021.2004102DOI Listing
January 2022

Diverse Functions of Plant Zinc-Induced Facilitator-like Transporter for Their Emerging Roles in Crop Trait Enhancement.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Dec 30;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Biotechnology, National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute, Sector 81, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar 140306, India.

The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is a large and diverse group of secondary transporters found across all kingdoms of life. Zinc-induced facilitator-like (ZIFL) transporters are the MFS family members that function as exporters driven by the antiporter-dependent processes. The presence of multiple ZIFL transporters was shown in various plant species, as well as in bryophytes. However, only a few ZIFLs have been functionally characterized in plants, and their localization has been suggested to be either on tonoplast or at the plasma membrane. A subset of the plant ZIFLs were eventually characterized as transporters due to their specialized role in phytosiderophores efflux and auxin homeostasis, and they were also proven to impart tolerance to micronutrient deficiency. The emerging functions of ZIFL proteins highlight their role in addressing important traits in crop species. This review aims to provide insight into and discuss the importance of plant ZIFL in various tissue-specific functions. Furthermore, a spotlight is placed on their role in mobilizing essential micronutrients, including iron and zinc, from the rhizosphere to support plant survival. In conclusion, in this paper, we discuss the functional redundancy of ZIFL transporters to understand their roles in developing specific traits in crop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants11010102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8747725PMC
December 2021

Suspend or amend? Randomized controlled trial on neuropsychological rehabilitation for epilepsy: A COVID-19 impact.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2022 16;17:100516. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

COVID-19 caused devastating effects of human loss and suffering along with disruption in clinical research, forcing reconceptualization and modification of studies. This paper attempts to outline the steps followed and detail the modifications undertaken to deal with the impacts of the pandemic on the first ongoing randomized controlled trial on effectiveness of neuropsychological rehabilitation in adult patients with drug-resistant epilepsy in India. All modifications were based on evolving guidelines and circumstantial context and were planned, reviewed and approved by important stakeholders. Results obtained from the trial need to be interpreted and analysed within this context. These modifications have implications for wider outreach of neuropsychology services in India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebr.2021.100516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8685486PMC
December 2021

Enhanced catalysis through structurally modified hybrid 2-D boron nitride nanosheets comprising of complexed 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone motif.

Sci Rep 2021 12 24;11(1):24429. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Green Chemistry Network Centre, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, New Delhi, 110007, India.

Tuning the structural architecture of the pristine two dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets through rational surface engineering have proven advantageous in the fabrication of competent catalytic materials. Inspired by the performance of h-BN based nanomaterials in expediting key organic transformations, we channelized our research efforts towards engineering the inherent surface properties of the exclusively stacked h-BN nanosheets through the incorporation of a novel competent copper complex of a bidentate chelating ligand 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP). Delightfully, this hybrid nanomaterial worked exceptionally well in boosting the [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of azide and nitriles, providing a facile access to a diverse variety of highly bioactive tetrazole motifs. A deep insight into the morphology of the covalently crafted h-BN signified the structural integrity of the exfoliated [email protected] nanosheets that exhibited lamellar like structures possessing smooth edges and flat surface. This interesting morphology could also be envisioned to augment the catalysis by allowing the desired surface area for the reactants and thus tailoring their activity. The work paves the way towards rational design of h-BN based nanomaterials and adjusting their catalytic potential by the use of suitable complexes for promoting sustainable catalysis, especially in view of the fact that till date only a very few h-BN nanosheets based catalysts have been devised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-03992-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8709843PMC
December 2021

Wheat inositol pyrophosphate kinase TaVIH2-3B modulates cell-wall composition and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

BMC Biol 2021 12 11;19(1):261. Epub 2021 Dec 11.

National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (Department of Biotechnology), Sector 81, Knowledge City, S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali-140306, Punjab, India.

Background: Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are high-energy derivatives of inositol, involved in different signalling and regulatory responses of eukaryotic cells. Distinct PP-InsPs species are characterized by the presence of phosphate at a variable number of the 6-carbon inositol ring backbone, and two distinct classes of inositol phosphate kinases responsible for their synthesis have been identified in Arabidopsis, namely ITPKinase (inositol 1,3,4 trisphosphate 5/6 kinase) and PP-IP5Kinase (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinases). Plant PP-IP5Ks are capable of synthesizing InsP and were previously shown to control defense against pathogens and phosphate response signals. However, other potential roles of plant PP-IP5Ks, especially towards abiotic stress, remain poorly understood.

Results: Here, we characterized the physiological functions of two Triticum aestivum L. (hexaploid wheat) PPIP5K homologs, TaVIH1 and TaVIH2. We demonstrate that wheat VIH proteins can utilize InsP as the substrate to produce InsP, a process that requires the functional VIH-kinase domains. At the transcriptional level, both TaVIH1 and TaVIH2 are expressed in different wheat tissues, including developing grains, but show selective response to abiotic stresses during drought-mimic experiments. Ectopic overexpression of TaVIH2-3B in Arabidopsis confers tolerance to drought stress and rescues the sensitivity of Atvih2 mutants. RNAseq analysis of TaVIH2-3B-expressing transgenic lines of Arabidopsis shows genome-wide reprogramming with remarkable effects on genes involved in cell-wall biosynthesis, which is supported by the observation of enhanced accumulation of polysaccharides (arabinogalactan, cellulose, and arabinoxylan) in the transgenic plants.

Conclusions: Overall, this work identifies a novel function of VIH proteins, implicating them in modulation of the expression of cell-wall homeostasis genes, and tolerance to water-deficit stress. This work suggests that plant VIH enzymes may be linked to drought tolerance and opens up the possibility of future research into using plant VIH-derived products to generate drought-resistant plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-021-01198-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8665518PMC
December 2021

Supermeres are functional extracellular nanoparticles replete with disease biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 12 9;23(12):1240-1254. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Extracellular vesicles and exomere nanoparticles are under intense investigation as sources of clinically relevant cargo. Here we report the discovery of a distinct extracellular nanoparticle, termed supermere. Supermeres are morphologically distinct from exomeres and display a markedly greater uptake in vivo compared with small extracellular vesicles and exomeres. The protein and RNA composition of supermeres differs from small extracellular vesicles and exomeres. Supermeres are highly enriched with cargo involved in multiple cancers (glycolytic enzymes, TGFBI, miR-1246, MET, GPC1 and AGO2), Alzheimer's disease (APP) and cardiovascular disease (ACE2, ACE and PCSK9). The majority of extracellular RNA is associated with supermeres rather than small extracellular vesicles and exomeres. Cancer-derived supermeres increase lactate secretion, transfer cetuximab resistance and decrease hepatic lipids and glycogen in vivo. This study identifies a distinct functional nanoparticle replete with potential circulating biomarkers and therapeutic targets for a host of human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00805-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8656144PMC
December 2021

Understanding the role of SWEET genes in fruit development and abiotic stress in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.).

Mol Biol Rep 2022 Feb 2;49(2):1329-1339. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), Sector 80, SAS Nagar, Mohali, Punjab, 140306, India.

Background: The Sugar Will Eventually Be Exported Transporters (SWEET), consisting of the MtN3 and salvia domain, are sugar transporters having an active role in diverse activities in plants such as pollen nutrition, phloem loading, nectar secretion, reproductive tissue development, and plant-pathogen interaction. The SWEET genes have been characterized only in a few fruit crop species.

Methods And Results: In this study, a total of 15 SWEET genes were identified in the pomegranate (Punica granatum) genome. The gene structure, transmembrane (TM) helices, domain architecture, and phylogenetic relationships of these genes were evaluated using computational approaches. Genes were further classified as Semi-SWEETs or SWEETs based on the TM domains. Similarly, pomegranate, Arabidopsis, rice, and soybean SWEETs were studied together to classify into major groups. In addition, analysis of RNAseq transcriptome data was performed to study SWEEET gene expression dynamics in different tissue. The expression suggests that SWEETs are mostly expressed in pomegranate peel. In addition, PgSWEET13 was found to be differentially expressed under high salinity stress in pomegranate. Further, quantitative PCR analysis confirmed the expression of four candidate genes in leaf and stem tissues.

Conclusion: The information provided here will help to understand the role of SWEET genes in fruit development and under abiotic stress conditions in pomegranate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06961-2DOI Listing
February 2022

miR-1227 Targets SEC23A to Regulate the Shedding of Large Extracellular Vesicles.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Nov 22;13(22). Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Surgery, Division of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.

Cancer cells shed a heterogenous mixture of extracellular vesicles (EVs), differing in both size and composition, which likely influence physiological processes in different manners. However, how cells differentially control the shedding of these EV populations is poorly understood. Here, we show that miR-1227, which is enriched in prostate cancer EVs, compared to the cell of origin, but not in EVs derived from prostate benign epithelial cells, induces the shedding of large EVs (such as large oncosomes), while inhibiting the shedding of small EVs (such as exosomes). RNA sequencing from cells stably expressing miR-1227, a modified RISCTRAP assay that stabilizes and purifies mRNA-miR-1227 complexes for RNA sequencing, and in silico target prediction tools were used to identify miR-1227 targets that may mediate this alteration in EV shedding. The COPII vesicle protein SEC23A emerged and was validated by qPCR, WBlot, and luciferase assays as a direct target of miR-1227. The inhibition of SEC23A was sufficient to induce the shedding of large EVs. These results identify a novel mechanism of EV shedding, by which the inhibition of SEC23A by miR-1227 induces a shift in EV shedding, favoring the shedding of large EV over small EV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13225850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8616086PMC
November 2021

Oncocytic renal neoplasms with diffuse keratin 7 immunohistochemistry harbor frequent alterations in the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.

Mod Pathol 2022 03 20;35(3):361-375. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Department of Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Low-grade oncocytic tumor (LOT) has been recently proposed as a unique renal tumor. However, we have encountered tumors with more oncocytoma-like morphology that show diffuse keratin 7 reactivity, which we sought to characterize molecularly. Eighteen tumors with a diffuse keratin 7 positive and KIT negative pattern were identified from 184 with predominantly oncocytoma-like histology. These tumors were subjected to detailed immunohistochemical evaluation and 14 were evaluated using the Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform for 324 cancer-associated genes. Patients' ages ranged from 39 to 80 (median = 59.5 years) with a male to female ratio of 1.25:1. Morphology was predominantly oncocytoma-like with discrete nests, compared to the solid and edematous patterns described in LOT. Other than positive keratin 7 and negative KIT, the tumor cells were positive for PAX8, E-cadherin, AE1/AE3, Ber-EP4, AMACR, CD10, and MOC31, and were negative for other studied markers. FH and INI1 were normal. Eleven of 14 harbored genomic abnormalities, likely sporadic, primarily involving the MTOR pathway (73%). Overall, the alterations included MTOR activating mutation (n = 1), TSC1 inactivating mutation (n = 1), TSC2 mutation (p.X534 splice site, n = 1), STK11 (a negative regulator of the MTOR pathway) mutation (n = 1), both STK11 and TSC1 mutations (n = 1), biallelic loss of PTEN and TSC1 deletion (n = 1), and MET amplification and TSC1 inactivating mutation (n = 1). Amplification of FGFR3 was identified in one additional tumor. Other alterations included FOXP1 loss (n = 1), NF2 E427 homozygous loss (n = 1), and PI3KCA activating mutation (n = 1). At a median follow-up of 68 months (2-147 months) for 15 patients, all were alive without disease. Oncocytic renal tumors with diffuse keratin 7 labeling show frequent alterations in the TSC/MTOR pathway, despite more oncocytoma-like morphology than initially described in LOT, likely expanding the morphologic spectrum of the latter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00969-6DOI Listing
March 2022

Three-in-One C H -Selectivity-Guided Adsorptive Separation across an Isoreticular Family of Cationic Square-Lattice MOFs.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Jan 16;61(4):e202114132. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Pune, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune, 411008, India.

Energy-efficient selective physisorption driven C H separation from industrial C2-C1 impurities such as C H , CO and CH is of great importance in the purification of downstream commodity chemicals. We address this challenge employing a series of isoreticular cationic metal-organic frameworks, namely iMOF-nC (n=5, 6, 7). All three square lattice topology MOFs registered higher C H uptakes versus the competing C2-C1 gases (C H , CO and CH ). Dynamic column breakthrough experiments on the best-performing iMOF-6C revealed the first three-in-one C H adsorption selectivity guided separation of C H from 1:1 C H /CO , C H /C H and C H /CH mixtures. Density functional theory calculations critically examined the C H selective interactions in iMOF-6C. Thanks to the abundance of square lattice topology MOFs, this study introduces a crystal engineering blueprint for designing C H -selective layered metal-organic physisorbents, previously unreported in cationic frameworks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202114132DOI Listing
January 2022

Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Ionic Microporous Polymer Composite as an Efficient Scavenger of Organic Micropollutants.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Nov 20;13(43):51474-51484. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008, India.

A cationic microporous composite polymer ([email protected]) bearing free exchangeable chloride anions alongside easy magnetic separation was crafted through post-polymerization structure modulation. The precursor polymer 120-Cl was synthesized via an "external cross-linking" strategy in a straightforward one-pot Friedel-Crafts reaction. Subsequently, a cationic network accommodating magnetic FeO nanoparticles, viz., [email protected] was fabricated through chemical modifications. [email protected] displayed excellent adsorption proficiency both in terms of rapid kinetics and maximum uptake capacity when screened for a wide range of organic micropollutants of various categories. Amongst the tested pollutants, including anionic dyes, aromatic models, plastic components, and pharmaceuticals, [email protected] illustrated exceptional performance in removing all of these model pollutants with adsorption equilibrium reaching within only 5 min. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model determined the theoretical maximum uptake capacity () of [email protected] to be 357 mg g for methyl orange dye, 555 mg g for plasticizer bisphenol A, and 285 mg g for antibiotic ibuprofen. Additionally, [email protected] showed unaltered performance upon harsh chemical treatment as well as in complex real-world samples. The potency of [email protected] was further supported by its outstanding regeneration performance up to 10 cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c14819DOI Listing
November 2021

Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety in children and young people on the autism spectrum: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Psychol 2021 Oct 1;9(1):151. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, AL10 9AB, UK.

Background: Anxiety is common in youth on the autism spectrum and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been adapted to address associated symptoms. The aim of the current systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of CBT for reducing anxiety in autistic youth.

Method: Searches of PubMed and Scopus databases were undertaken from January 1990 until December 2020. Studies were included if they consisted of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using CBT to reduce anxiety in autistic youth. Separate random effects meta-analyses assessed anxiety ratings according to informant (clinician; parent; child), both at end-of-trial and at follow-up.

Results: A total of 19 RCTs met our inclusion criteria (833 participants: CBT N = 487; controls N = 346). Random effects meta-analyses revealed a large effect size for clinician rated symptoms (g = 0.88, 95% CI 0.55, 1.12, k = 11), while those for both parent (g = 0.40, 95% CI 0.24, 0.56; k = 18) and child-reported anxiety (g = 0.25, 95% CI 0.06, 0.43; k = 13) were smaller, but significant. These benefits were not however maintained at follow-up. Moderator analyses showed that CBT was more efficacious for younger children (for clinician and parent ratings) and when delivered as individual therapy (for clinician ratings). Using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 tool, we found concerns about reporting bias across most trials.

Conclusions: The efficacy of CBT for anxiety in autistic youth was supported in the immediate intervention period. However, substantial inconsistency emerged in the magnitude of benefit depending upon who was rating symptoms (clinician, parent or child). Follow-up analyses failed to reveal sustained benefits, though few studies have included this data. It will be important for future trials to address robustness of treatment gains overtime and to further explore inconsistency in efficacy by informant. We also recommend pre-registration of methods by trialists to address concerns with reporting bias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-021-00658-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8487131PMC
October 2021

Diagnosis of primary mitochondrial disorders -Emphasis on myopathological aspects.

Mitochondrion 2021 11 27;61:69-84. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore 560 029, India.

Mitochondrial disorders are one of the most common neurometabolic disorders affecting all age groups. The phenotype-genotype heterogeneity in these disorders can be attributed to the dual genetic control on mitochondrial functions, posing a challenge for diagnosis. Though the advancement in the high-throughput sequencing and other omics platforms resulted in a "genetics-first" approach, the muscle biopsy remains the benchmark in most of the mitochondrial disorders. This review focuses on the myopathological aspects of primary mitochondrial disorders. The utility of muscle biopsy is not limited to analyse the structural abnormalities; rather it also proves to be a potential tool to understand the deranged sub-cellular functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2021.09.007DOI Listing
November 2021

Structural Perspectives and Advancement of SGLT2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2022 ;18(6):e170921196601

Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University College, Patti, Distt. Tarn Taran, India.

Diabetes mellitus is an ailment that affects a large number of individuals worldwide and its pervasiveness has been predicted to increase later on. Every year, billions of dollars are spent globally on diabetes-related health care practices. Contemporary hyperglycemic therapies to rationalize Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) mostly involve pathways that are insulin-dependent and lack effectiveness as the pancreas' β-cell function declines more significantly. Homeostasis via kidneys emerges as a new and future strategy to minimize T2DM complications. This article covers the reabsorption of glucose mechanism in the kidneys, the functional mechanism of various Sodium- Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, their structure and driving profile, and a few SGLT2 inhibitors now accessible in the market as well as those in different periods of advancement. The advantages of SGLT2 inhibitors are dose-dependent glycemic regulation changes with a significant reduction both in the concentration of HbA1c and body weight clinically and statistically. A considerable number of SGLT2 inhibitors have been approved by the FDA, while a few others, still in preliminaries, have shown interesting effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573399817666210917122745DOI Listing
May 2022

The impact of socio-cultural values on autistic women: An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Autism 2022 05 13;26(4):951-962. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

University of Hertfordshire, UK.

Lay Abstract: Autistic women with average or above intellectual abilities are often overlooked clinically or identified at older ages compared to autistic males. Their experiences can provide insight into the socio-cultural factors that impact on how they develop and are seen by others. This study asked autistic women to describe the culture around them and explore how this has influenced their lived experiences. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight autistic women without a co-occurring diagnosis of intellectual disabilities. These were used for interpretative phenomenological analysis. Overall, we found three closely connected themes on the pervasive influence of cultural values on autistic women, how autistic women define themselves and the importance of connecting with society. These findings suggest that dominant cultural beliefs, values and norms effect how autistic women are recognised by others and develop their sense of self. Broadening how people think about autistic women in society and clinically may benefit how we identify and support autistic women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13623613211037896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9014764PMC
May 2022

p53 and p16 As Predictive and Prognostic Biomarkers for Nodal metastasis and Survival in A Contemporary Cohort of Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021 12 10;19(6):510-520. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Pathology, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH. Electronic address:

Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is implicated in a proportion of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (PC). A subset of PC involves dysregulation of the p53 pathway. HPV in situ hybridization (ISH) and p16 positivity are surrogate markers for HPV infection, and p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) denotes abnormality in the p53 pathway. There remains an ambiguity with regard to the contribution of both the pathways in the prognosis of PC. We sought to analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics of a cohort of Indian PC patients with respect to p16 and p53 expression.

Patients And Methods: A cohort of 123 PC patients was studied for p16and p53IHC and HPVISH. The results of these biomarkers were correlated with various clinicopathologic parameters.

Results: p16 and HPV ISH were positive in 47% and 53% of the tumors, respectively. The proportion of warty, basaloid, or mixed warty-basaloid tumor subtypes showed significant p16positivity (P < .0001) compared to other subtypes. Twenty-eight patients were dual negative (p53- /p16-), 32 were dual positive (p53+/p16+), 38 were p53+/p16-, and 25 were p53-/p16 +. In patients where p16 was negative, a p53-positive phenotype had a higher propensity for lymph node metastases (OR, 5.42; 95% CI, 1.75-16.80; P = .003). Similarly, p53 positivity dictates nodal involvement in the p16-positive subset of tumors (OR, 5.00; 95% CI, 1.23-20.17; P = .024). On multivariate analyses, pathologic subtypes (warty, warty-basaloid, and basaloid) (P < .0001), p16expression (P < .0001), and absence of nodal metastasis (P < .0001) were significant predictors of improved overall (OS) and cancer specific survival (CSS). In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the OS was significantly longer in patients with p16 + tumors (P < .0001), as was the CSS (P < .0001). Patients with dual positive tumors had a significantly higher OS (P < .001) and CSS (P = .012), in the entire cohort. In the node positive patients, dual positivity was associated with significantly higher OS (P < .0001); however, the median CSS for p53+/p16+tumors were not significantly different compared to p53- /p16- tumors (P = .064), although there was a trend towards improved CSS.

Conclusions: There is a strong concordance between p16IHC and HPV ISH results. p16 status is an independent predictor of survival (OS and CSS) in our cohort of PCs. p53 is a predictor of nodal metastasis irrespective of p16 status. Dual positive tumors have a significantly better outcome in comparison to dual negative tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2021.07.001DOI Listing
December 2021

Protein synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a potential target for therapeutic interventions.

Mol Aspects Med 2021 Oct 31;81:101002. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Structural Biology & Translation Regulation Laboratory, Regional Centre for Biotechnology, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, 121 001, India. Electronic address:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes one of humankind's deadliest diseases, tuberculosis. Mtb protein synthesis machinery possesses several unique species-specific features, including its ribosome that carries two mycobacterial specific ribosomal proteins, bL37 and bS22, and ribosomal RNA segments. Since the protein synthesis is a vital cellular process that occurs on the ribosome, a detailed knowledge of the structure and function of mycobacterial ribosomes is essential to understand the cell's proteome by translation regulation. Like in many bacterial species such as Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces coelicolor, two distinct populations of ribosomes have been identified in Mtb. Under low-zinc conditions, Mtb ribosomal proteins S14, S18, L28, and L33 are replaced with their non-zinc binding paralogues. Depending upon the nature of physiological stress, species-specific modulation of translation by stress factors and toxins that interact with the ribosome have been reported. In addition, about one-fourth of messenger RNAs in mycobacteria have been reported to be leaderless, i.e., without 5' UTR regions. However, the mechanism by which they are recruited to the Mtb ribosome is not understood. In this review, we highlight the mycobacteria-specific features of the translation apparatus and propose exploiting these features to improve the efficacy and specificity of existing antibiotics used to treat tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2021.101002DOI Listing
October 2021

Neutral Nitrogen Donor Ligand-based MOFs for Sensing Applications.

Chem Asian J 2021 Sep 13;16(18):2569-2587. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune, 411008, India.

Neutral nitrogen donor (N-donor) ligand-based MOFs, with their enticing features inclusive of facile synthesis, labile metal-ligand bond, framework flexibility, atomic level tunability renders them appealing in molecular recognition-based studies. Intriguingly, the flexibility in such systems (owing to weaker metal-nitrogen bonds) promote maximization of host-analyte interactions, which is critical for the manifestation of a signaling response. Such host-analyte interactions can be tapped by discerning any change in the physical properties associated with the system, such as optical, fluorometric, chemiresistive, magnetic, dielectric constant, mass. This minireview presents a brief discussion on the various types of signal transduction pathways unveiled hitherto using neutral N-donor ligand-based MOFs and the fundamental insight into the signal's origin. Moreover, an elaborate compilation of the recent examples in this field has been presented. Also, the untapped prospects have been highlighted, which may serve as a beacon to drive future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100638DOI Listing
September 2021

Genetic Dissection of Seedling Root System Architectural Traits in a Diverse Panel of Hexaploid Wheat through Multi-Locus Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Improving Drought Tolerance.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 2;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

Cultivars with efficient root systems play a major role in enhancing resource use efficiency, particularly water absorption, and thus in drought tolerance. In this study, a diverse wheat association panel of 136 wheat accessions including mini core subset was genotyped using Axiom 35k Breeders' Array to identify genomic regions associated with seedling stage root architecture and shoot traits using multi-locus genome-wide association studies (ML-GWAS). The association panel revealed a wide variation of 1.5- to 50-fold and were grouped into six clusters based on 15 traits. Six different ML-GWAS models revealed 456 significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) for various traits with phenotypic variance in the range of 0.12-38.60%. Of these, 87 QTNs were repeatedly detected by two or more models and were considered reliable genomic regions for the respective traits. Among these QTNs, eleven were associated with average diameter and nine each for second order lateral root number (SOLRN), root volume (RV) and root length density (RLD). A total of eleven genomic regions were pleiotropic and each controlled two or three traits. Some important candidate genes such as Formin homology 1, Ubiquitin-like domain superfamily and ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase were identified from the associated genomic regions. The genomic regions/genes identified in this study could potentially be targeted for improving root traits and drought tolerance in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22137188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268147PMC
July 2021
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