Publications by authors named "Shirley McAnda"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Targeting of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by all-trans retinoic acid as host-directed therapy for human tuberculosis.

Cell Immunol 2021 Jun 8;364:104359. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Conventional anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapies comprise lengthy antibiotic treatment regimens, exacerbated by multi-drug resistant and extensively drug resistant mycobacterial strains. We assessed the ability of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), as repurposed compound serving as host-directed therapy (HDT), to counteract the suppressive effects of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) obtained from active TB cases (untreated or during week one of treatment) on T-cell responsiveness. We show for the first time that MDSCs suppress non-specific T-cell activation and production of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-13 and GM-CSF via contact-dependent mechanisms. ATRA treatment decreases MDSC frequency, but fails to mature MDSCs to non-suppressive, terminally differentiated myeloid cells and does not restore T-cell function or cytokine production in the presence of MDSCs. The impact of ATRA treatment on improved immunity, using the concentration tested here, is likely to be minimal, but further identification and development of MDSC-targeting TB host-directed therapies are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2021.104359DOI Listing
June 2021

Host urine immunological biomarkers as potential candidates for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Oct 12;99:473-481. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P.O. Box 241, Cape Town 8000, South Africa. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the potential of host urinary biomarkers as diagnostic candidates for tuberculosis (TB).

Methods: Adults self-presenting with symptoms requiring further investigation for TB were enrolled in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants were later classified as having TB or other respiratory diseases (ORD) using results from TB confirmatory tests. The concentrations of 29 analytes were evaluated in urine samples from participants using the Luminex platform, and their diagnostic potential was assessed using standard statistical approaches.

Results: Of the 151 study participants, 34 (22.5%) were diagnosed with TB and 26 (17.2%) were HIV-positive. Seven biomarkers showed potential as TB diagnostic candidates, with accuracy improving (in HIV-positives) when stratified according to HIV status (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve; AUC ≥0.80). In HIV-positive participants, a four-marker biosignature (sIL6R, MMP-9, IL-2Ra, IFN-γ) diagnosed TB with AUC of 0.96, sensitivity of 85.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 42.1-99.6%), and specificity of 94.7% (95% CI 74.0-99.9%). In HIV-negatives, the most promising was a two-marker biosignature (sIL6R and sIL-2Ra), which diagnosed TB with AUC of 0.76, sensitivity of 53.9% (95% CI 33.4-73.4%), and specificity of 79.6% (95% CI 70.3-87.1%).

Conclusions: Urinary host inflammatory biomarkers possess TB diagnostic potential but may be influenced by HIV infection. The results of this study require validation in larger studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.019DOI Listing
October 2020

Prospective evaluation of host biomarkers other than interferon gamma in QuantiFERON Plus supernatants as candidates for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in symptomatic individuals.

J Infect 2019 09 15;79(3):228-235. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

DST-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Po Box 241, Cape Town 8000, South Africa. Electronic address:

Background: There is an urgent need for new tools for the diagnosis of TB. We evaluated the usefulness recently described host biomarkers in supernatants from the newest generation of the QuantiFERON test (QuantiFERON Plus) as tools for the diagnosis of active TB.

Methods: We recruited individuals presenting at primary health care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa with symptoms requiring investigation for TB disease, prior to the establishment of a clinical diagnosis. Participants were later classified as TB or other respiratory diseases (ORD) based on the results of clinical and laboratory tests. Using a multiplex platform, we evaluated the concentrations of 37 host biomarkers in QuantiFERON Plus supernatants from study participants as tools for the diagnosis of TB.

Results: Out of 120 study participants, 35(29.2%) were diagnosed with active TB, 69(57.5%) with ORD whereas 16(13.3%) were excluded. 14(11.6%) of the study participants were HIV infected. Although individual host markers showed potential as diagnostic candidates, the main finding of the study was the identification of a six-marker biosignature in unstimulated supernatants (Apo-ACIII, CXCL1, CXCL9, CCL8, CCL-1, CD56) which diagnosed TB with sensitivity and specificity of 73.9%(95% CI; 51.6-87.8) and 87.6%(95% CI; 77.2-94.5), respectively, after leave-one-out cross validation. Combinations between TB-antigen specific biomarkers also showed potential (sensitivity of 77.3% and specificity of 69.2%, respectively), with multiple biomarkers being significantly different between TB patients, Quantiferon Plus Positive and Quantiferon Plus negative individuals with ORD, regardless of HIV status.

Conclusions: Biomarkers detected in QuantiFERON Plus supernatants may contribute to adjunctive diagnosis of TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2019.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6692655PMC
September 2019