Publications by authors named "Shirin Hooshmand"

44 Publications

Dried Plum Consumption Improves Total Cholesterol and Antioxidant Capacity and Reduces Inflammation in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.

J Med Food 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.

Dried plums contain bioactive components that have demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to determine if dried plum consumption reduces the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in postmenopausal women, specifically examining lipid profiles, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. We conducted a 6-month, parallel-design controlled clinical trial, where 48 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to consume 0, 50, or 100 g of dried plum each day. After 6 months of intervention, total cholesterol (TC) in the 100 g/day treatment group ( = .002) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the 50 g/day treatment group ( = .005) improved significantly compared to baseline. Inflammatory biomarkers interleukin-6 ( = .044) and tumor necrosis factor- ( = .040) were significantly lower after 6 months within the 50 g/day dried plum group compared to baseline. Moreover, total antioxidant capacity increased significantly within the 50 g/day group ( = .046), and superoxide dismutase activity increased significantly within both 50 and 100 g/day groups ( = .044 and  = .027, respectively) after 6 months compared to baseline. In addition, plasma activities of alanine transaminase ( = .046), lactate dehydrogenase ( = .039), and creatine kinase ( = .030) were significantly lower after 6 months in the 50 g/day dried plum group. These findings suggest that daily consumption of 50-100 g dried plum improves CVD risk factors in postmenopausal women as exhibited by lower TC, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers with no clear dose dependence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2020.0142DOI Listing
May 2021

Chronic ethanol consumption does not reduce true bone density in male Wistar rats.

Alcohol 2021 Jun 1;93:17-23. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased bone fragility, which may be modified by lifestyle behaviors. In observational studies, chronic moderate ethanol consumption is associated with higher BMD, but results are inconsistent and underlying mechanisms are unknown. To understand the influence of chronic ethanol consumption on true bone density (Archimedes principal), bone mechanical properties (Young's Modulus of bend), and osteogenic gene expression, 12-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a control group or ethanol intervention (20% ethanol in drinking water on alternate days) group for 13 weeks and tibiae and femurs were collected. Blood was collected to assess alcohol content and antioxidant enzyme activities. We hypothesized that chronic ethanol consumption would increase true bone density and mechanical properties and increase osteoblastic gene expression and serum antioxidant enzyme activity. Ethanol consumption did not influence femoral or tibial true bone density but did result in lower tibial Young's modulus of bend (p = 0.0002). However, there was no influence of ethanol on other measures of mechanical properties. Femoral pro-osteoclastic gene expression of Dkk1 was lower (p = 0.0006) and pro-osteoblastic gene expression of Ctnnb1 was higher (p = 0.02) with ethanol consumption. We observed no differences in circulating antioxidant activities between groups, other than a tendency for greater (p = 0.08) glutathione peroxidase in the ethanol group. Results showed chronic ethanol consumption did not influence true bone density, only modestly reduced tibial mechanical properties (lower Young's modulus of bend), and moderately impacted expression of genes within the femur known to regulate both osteoblast and osteoclast activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2021.02.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Correction: A diet containing high- versus low-daidzein does not affect bone density and osteogenic gene expression in the obese Zucker rat model.

Food Funct 2019 12;10(12):8309

School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.

Correction for 'A diet containing high- versus low-daidzein does not affect bone density and osteogenic gene expression in the obese Zucker rat model' by Eric Rochester et al., Food Funct., 2019, 10, 6851-6857.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo90058fDOI Listing
December 2019

Effects of Dried Apple Consumption on Body Composition, Serum Lipid Profile, Glucose Regulation, and Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Children.

J Med Food 2020 Mar 4;23(3):242-249. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.

Consumption of fruits reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease; however, very few studies have investigated the effect of fruit consumption in overweight and obese children. We examined whether consuming dried apple as a snack is a practical solution for weight loss and improves body composition and metabolic markers. Thirty-eight overweight or obese children aged 10 to 16 years were randomly assigned to one of two groups consuming twice daily 120 kcal serving per day of either dried apple or a control snack (muffin) for 8 weeks. Body weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition were determined during an initial visit and after 8 weeks of intervention. Blood samples were collected to measure serum concentrations of blood lipids, glucose, insulin, proinsulin, total adiponectin, and C-reactive protein, as well as total antioxidant capacity and activity of glutathione peroxidase. Body weight increased in the muffin group ( = .01). BodPod and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry showed that fat-free mass increased ( < .05) only in the muffin group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration increased ( = .04) after the 8-week treatment within the apple group. Overall, minor differences were detected in growing children who consumed snacks of either dried apples or muffins with similar macronutrient profiles for 8 weeks. Future research should evaluate the effects of consuming fresh apples that include the peel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2019.0044DOI Listing
March 2020

A diet containing high- versus low-daidzein does not affect bone density and osteogenic gene expression in the obese Zucker rat model.

Food Funct 2019 Oct;10(10):6851-6857

School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.

Phytoestrogens are nonsteroidal plant compounds with similar chemical structures to mammalian estrogen capable of mimicking the effect of estrogen in selective tissues. A diet rich in phytoestrogens is associated with a variety of health benefits including decreased risks for heart disease, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. Obesity has long thought to be associated with improved bone density due to increased mechanical loading, but recent literature suggests obesity may actually decrease bone health. Daidzein, a soy-derived phytoestrogen, has been shown to improve parameters of bone health in lean animal models of osteoporosis but has not been tested in obese animals. Following a one-week acclimation to a standard AIN-93G diet, 19 five-week-old female obese Zucker rats (OZR) were randomly assigned to a modified AIN-93G diet containing either high daidzein (HD, 0.121 g kg-1 feed) or low daidzein (LD, 0.01 g kg-1 feed). After 8 weeks, tibias and femurs were removed to assess true density (Archimedes principal), mechanical strength (three-point bending test), and femoral osteogenic gene expression. Serum was collected to assess osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline. Our results indicated that there were no significant differences between the measures for tibial or femoral true density or mechanical strength for the rats in the HD and LD diet groups. Similarly, there were no significant differences in gene expressions related to osteogenic pathways, or serum biomarkers of bone formation and resorption. Overall, an increased dose of daidzein from soy protein supplementation does not elicit an improvement in markers of bone health in obese Zucker rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo01292cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7151643PMC
October 2019

Fruits, vegetables, and health: A comprehensive narrative, umbrella review of the science and recommendations for enhanced public policy to improve intake.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 3;60(13):2174-2211. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

D&V Systematic Evidence Review, Bronx, New York, USA.

Fruit and vegetables (F&V) have been a cornerstone of healthy dietary recommendations; the 2015-2020 U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that F&V constitute one-half of the plate at each meal. F&V include a diverse collection of plant foods that vary in their energy, nutrient, and dietary bioactive contents. F&V have potential health-promoting effects beyond providing basic nutrition needs in humans, including their role in reducing inflammation and their potential preventive effects on various chronic disease states leading to decreases in years lost due to premature mortality and years lived with disability/morbidity. Current global intakes of F&V are well below recommendations. Given the importance of F&V for health, public policies that promote dietary interventions to help increase F&V intake are warranted. This externally commissioned expert comprehensive narrative, umbrella review summarizes up-to-date clinical and observational evidence on current intakes of F&V, discusses the available evidence on the potential health benefits of F&V, and offers implementation strategies to help ensure that public health messaging is reflective of current science. This review demonstrates that F&V provide benefits beyond helping to achieve basic nutrient requirements in humans. The scientific evidence for providing public health recommendations to increase F&V consumption for prevention of disease is strong. Current evidence suggests that F&V have the strongest effects in relation to prevention of CVDs, noting a nonlinear threshold effect of 800 g per day (i.e., about 5 servings a day). A growing body of clinical evidence (mostly small RCTs) demonstrates effects of specific F&V on certain chronic disease states; however, more research on the role of individual F&V for specific disease prevention strategies is still needed in many areas. Data from the systematic reviews and mostly observational studies cited in this report also support intake of certain types of F&V, particularly cruciferous vegetables, dark-green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, and dark-colored berries, which have superior effects on biomarkers, surrogate endpoints, and outcomes of chronic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1632258DOI Listing
September 2020

Mixed Nut Consumption May Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults.

Nutrients 2019 Jun 29;11(7). Epub 2019 Jun 29.

School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA.

Emerging research indicates that nuts are a source of health-promoting compounds demonstrating cardioprotective benefits. However, most studies have assessed the effect of single nuts rather than a nut mixture. The objective of this study was, therefore, to examine the effect of mixed-nut consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in overweight and obese adults. In a randomized, parallel-arm, controlled trial, 48 participants consumed isocaloric (250 kcal) amounts of pretzels or mixed-nuts. Body weight (BW) ( = 0.024), BMI ( = 0.043), and insulin levels ( = 0.032) were significantly lower in the nut group compared to the pretzel group. Mixed-nut consumption also significantly reduced glucose ( = 0.04) and insulin ( = 0.032) levels after 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline, respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase of the nut group was significantly lower than the pretzel group ( = 0.002). No significant differences were detected between groups for triglycerides, LDL-C, and HDL-C. However, pretzel consumption increased triglycerides ( = 0.048) from 4 weeks to 8 weeks. Moreover, LDL-C increased ( = 0.038) while HDL-C transiently decreased ( = 0.044) from baseline to 4 weeks. No significant lipid changes were detected within the nut group. Our results suggest that supplementing the diet with mixed-nuts could improve CVD risk factors by improving BW and glucose regulation in comparison to a common carbohydrate-rich snack without promoting the negative effects on lipids detected with pretzels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11071488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6683273PMC
June 2019

Snack selection influences glucose metabolism, antioxidant capacity and cholesterol in healthy overweight adults: A randomized parallel arm trial.

Nutr Res 2019 05 7;65:89-98. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

San Diego State University, Department of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182. Electronic address:

Including carbohydrate/fructose-rich foods (predominantly fruit) in the diets of overweight individuals can improve chronic disease risk factors. We hypothesized dried plums (DP) would improve nutrient consumption, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid and adipokine profiles, and would decrease adiposity and inflammation. To test this, we studied the effects of 8-weeks of twice-daily snacking of macronutrient-matched 100kcal servings of DP or refined carbohydrate-rich snack (low-fat muffins: LFM) on daily energy and nutrient consumption, and chronic disease risk factors in overweight adults. Body weight/composition, waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin, c-peptide, lipids, TAC, adipokines and inflammation were measured at baseline and throughout the study. Postprandial glucose and insulin were assessed following assigned test foods at baseline and 8-weeks. Repeated measures ANOVAs were undertaken to examine group and time differences. Post-hoc independent and paired samples t-tests were conducted where necessary. DP increased (P<.05) overall intake of dietary fiber and potassium, and TAC, from baseline to 8-weeks. Baseline postprandial glycemia tended (P=.09) to be lower with DP versus LFM, while both groups had a decreased response after 8-weeks. Postprandial insulinemia was lower (P<.05) for DP at both time-points. No differences in body weight/composition, blood pressure, or fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, inflammation or adipokines were detected. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increased (P<.05) throughout the trial following LFM. Overall, DP lessened postprandial insulinemia, improved nutrient consumption and plasma TAC, and maintained plasma LDL-C compared to a macronutrient-matched refined carbohydrate snack, which could decrease chronic disease risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2019.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184323PMC
May 2019

Mixed Nuts May Promote Satiety While Maintaining Stable Blood Glucose and Insulin in Healthy, Obese, and Overweight Adults in a Two-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Med Food 2019 Apr 21;22(4):427-432. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.

Multiple studies have examined the impacts of various nuts on appetitive and metabolic effects; however, fewer studies have addressed the impacts of mixed nuts. The objective was to examine the acute effects of consumption of an isocaloric (253 kcal) snack of mixed nuts or pretzels on appetite hormones, glucose and insulin responses, and subjective appetite ratings in overweight and obese adults. In a two-arm randomized controlled trial, overweight and obese adults consumed either mixed nuts ( = 27) or pretzels ( = 27) with 16 men and 11 women per group. After an overnight fast, blood glucose, insulin, and appetite hormone were measured at baseline and 60 min post snack consumption. Appetite/satiety questionnaires were completed at baseline and 20, 40, 60, 90, 120 min after snack consumption. Both snacks increased satiety and reduced hunger over time. The pretzels group exhibited higher subjective satiety and lower hunger ( < .001) following consumption than the mixed nuts group. Pretzel consumption increased glucose and insulin ( < .001), while no elevation was detected in the mixed nuts at 60 min post snack consumption. Leptin and ghrelin concentrations were significantly lower for the mixed nuts group at 60 min compared with baseline ( < .05). Mixed nuts promote satiety in overweight and obese adults while maintaining stable blood glucose and insulin levels. These results suggest that mixed nuts snack may be beneficial for those who are overweight or obese. Future mixed nuts studies are warranted to examine long-term effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2018.0127DOI Listing
April 2019

Effects of Fresh Watermelon Consumption on the Acute Satiety Response and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults.

Nutrients 2019 Mar 12;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 12.

School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA.

Although some studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of watermelon supplementation on metabolic diseases, no study has explored the potential mechanism by which watermelon consumption improves body weight management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fresh watermelon consumption on satiety, postprandial glucose and insulin response, and adiposity and body weight change after 4 weeks of intervention in overweight and obese adults. In a crossover design, 33 overweight or obese subjects consumed watermelon (2 cups) or isocaloric low-fat cookies daily for 4 weeks. Relative to cookies, watermelon elicited more ( < 0.05) robust satiety responses (lower hunger, prospective food consumption and desire to eat and greater fullness). Watermelon consumption significantly decreased body weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and waist-to-hip ratio ( ≤ 0.05). Cookie consumption significantly increased blood pressure and body fat ( < 0.05). Oxidative stress was lower at four week of watermelon intervention compared to cookie intervention ( = 0.034). Total antioxidant capacity increased with watermelon consumption ( = 0.003) in blood. This study shows that reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure can be achieved through daily consumption of watermelon, which also improves some factors associated with overweight and obesity (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03380221).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11030595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470521PMC
March 2019

Watermelon and l-arginine consumption improve serum lipid profile and reduce inflammation and oxidative stress by altering gene expression in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

Nutr Res 2018 10 30;58:46-54. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182.

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is rich in l-citrulline, an l-arginine precursor that may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of watermelon powder and l-arginine on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon and l-arginine would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation by modulating hepatic gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 21 days (N = 32) were assigned to 3 groups and fed diets containing watermelon powder (0.5% wt/wt), l-arginine (0.3% as 0.36% l-arginine HCl wt/wt), or a control diet for 9 weeks. Watermelon and l-arginine supplementation improved lipid profiles by lowering serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .050). Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein were significantly lower (P < .050) in the watermelon and l-arginine groups. Rats in the watermelon and l-arginine groups showed reduced oxidative stress, increased total antioxidant capacity, and higher concentrations of superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase (P < .050). Concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were lower (P < .050) in the watermelon and l-arginine groups. Watermelon and l-arginine consumption upregulated hepatic gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and downregulated expression of fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor-κB p65 (P < .050). The results support the hypothesis that watermelon and arginine improve cardiovascular disease risk factors including lipid profile, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation by altering relevant gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2018.06.008DOI Listing
October 2018

Effects of Watermelon Powder and l-arginine Supplementation on Azoxymethane-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats.

Nutr Cancer 2018 Aug-Sep;70(6):938-945. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

a School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences , San Diego State University , San Diego , California , USA.

Diets high in fruits and vegetables may help prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). Watermelon consumption may reduce CRC risk due to its concentration of l-citrulline and its role in endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. Research suggests that increased NO levels have tumoricidal effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder supplementation on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, precancerous lesions, and expression of genes associated with colon carcinogenesis. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into three groups: control, 0.36% l-arginine, or 0.5% watermelon powder and injected with azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight). Both l-arginine and watermelon powder groups exhibited lower total numbers of ACF and high multiplicity ACF (P < 0.01). The watermelon powder group exhibited higher NO levels and lower 8-hydroxyguanosine DNA damage (P < 0.05). Watermelon powder and l-arginine downregulated 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase gene expression and upregulated O-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase gene expression (P < 0.05). Cyclooxgenase-2 gene expression was lower for rats fed with watermelon powder (P < 0.05). These results suggest that watermelon powder or l-arginine supplementation may reduce the risk of colon cancer by suppressing ACF formation through lowering oxidative DNA damage and inflammation, modulating DNA repair enzyme expression, and/or enhancing NO production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2018.1490782DOI Listing
June 2019

Acute Effects of Dried Apple Consumption on Metabolic and Cognitive Responses in Healthy Individuals.

J Med Food 2018 Nov 29;21(11):1158-1164. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

School of Exercise and Nutritional Science, San Diego State University , San Diego, California, USA .

The objective of this study was to assess the potential of dried apple to regulate acute blood glucose, insulin, satiety, and total plasma antioxidant levels, and to explore the effect of dried apple on cognitive responses. Twenty-one healthy, normal-weight subjects completed the study which used a randomized crossover design with repeated measures. After a fast of 10 h, a standardized serving size of either dried apple or muffins was consumed. Blood glucose, insulin, and antioxidant concentrations were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min postprandial, and satiety was assessed every 15 min for 2 h. Cognitive tests were administered before and 2 h after consumption of the test food. The dried apple had significantly higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities than the muffin (P ≤ .05). Consumption of the dried apples produced significantly lower glucose concentrations at 30- (P ≤ .01; 95% CI [2.93-16.64]), 45- (P ≤ .02; 95% CI [2.41-17.88]), 60- (P ≤ .02; 95% CI [2.10-14.56]), and 120-min (P ≤ .01; 95% CI [8.16-16.80]) time points, and significantly lower (P ≤ .03; 95% CI [0.60-8.70]) insulin concentrations at a 15-min time point than the muffins but offered little consistent differences in antioxidant status, satiety, and cognitive function. These findings suggested that the intake of dried apples could reduce postprandial blood glucose and potentially increase the effectiveness of insulin responses in healthy individuals but offered little consistent differences in antioxidant status, satiety, and cognitive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2017.0152DOI Listing
November 2018

Bone-Protective Effects of Dried Plum in Postmenopausal Women: Efficacy and Possible Mechanisms.

Nutrients 2017 May 14;9(5). Epub 2017 May 14.

Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, College of Human Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

Osteoporosis is an age-related chronic disease characterized by a loss of bone mass and quality, and is associated with an increased risk of fragility fractures. Postmenopausal women are at the greatest risk of developing osteoporosis due to the cessation in ovarian hormone production, which causes accelerated bone loss. As the demographic shifts to a more aged population, a growing number of postmenopausal women will be afflicted with osteoporosis. Certain lifestyle factors, including nutrition and exercise, are known to reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis and therefore play an important role in bone health. In terms of nutrition, accumulating evidence suggests that dried plum ( L.) is potentially an efficacious intervention for preventing and reversing bone mass and structural loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis, as well as in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Here, we provide evidence supporting the efficacy of dried plum in preventing and reversing bone loss associated with ovarian hormone deficiency in rodent models and in humans. We end with the results of a recent follow-up study demonstrating that postmenopausal women who previously consumed 100 g dried plum per day during our one-year clinical trial conducted five years earlier retained bone mineral density to a greater extent than those receiving a comparative control. Additionally, we highlight the possible mechanisms of action by which bioactive compounds in dried plum exert bone-protective effects. Overall, the findings of our studies and others strongly suggest that dried plum in its whole form is a promising and efficacious functional food therapy for preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women, with the potential for long-lasting bone-protective effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9050496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5452226PMC
May 2017

Dried Plum Ingestion Increases the Osteoblastogenic Capacity of Human Serum.

J Med Food 2017 Jul 26;20(7):653-658. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

1 School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University , San Diego, California, USA.

In cell culture studies, dried plum (Prunus domestica L.) polyphenols increased osteoblast alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralized nodule formation, and the expression of the bone marker genes runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osterix. The purpose of this study was to determine whether human serum collected 1 and 2 h after dried plum ingestion influenced osteoblast cell activity and gene expression. Five healthy women ingested 100 g of dried plum, and serum samples were collected at baseline (before dried plum ingestion) and 1 and 2 h postingestion of dried plum. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells were treated (2% of medium) with these serum samples for 3 or 9 days. Intracellular and extracellular ALP activities were significantly increased after 3 or 9 days of treatment with serum both postingestion time points, with no effect seen in baseline samples. Also, serum obtained 1 and 2 h postingestion significantly increased the mRNA expression of bone markers RUNX2 and connexin43 (CX43) after both 3 and 9 days of incubation periods. Finally, serum obtained 1 and 2 h postingestion increased the mRNA expression of β-catenin after 9 days of incubation. We conclude that osteoblast activity and function are increased by dried plum ingestion, which may, in part, explain its beneficial effects on bone health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2016.0158DOI Listing
July 2017

Effects of daily blueberry consumption on circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and antioxidant defense in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension: a randomized controlled trial.

Food Funct 2017 Jan;8(1):372-380

Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA and Center for Advancing Exercise and Nutrition Research on Aging (CAENRA), Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

Oxidative stress and inflammation are central to the development of a number of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and previous research suggests that blueberry consumption may attenuate these processes. The present study investigated the effects of blueberries on blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and antioxidant defense in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension. In a randomized, parallel-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 40 pre- and stage 1-hypertensive postmenopausal women aged 45 to 65 years were randomly assigned to receive 22 g freeze-dried highbush blueberry powder per day (Blueberry) or 22 g placebo powder per day (Control) for 8 weeks. A blood biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as well as blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and antioxidant defense were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. 8-OHdG levels were significantly (P = 0.008) lower in Blueberry compared to Control at 4 weeks with a significant time-by-treatment interaction (P = 0.04). Levels were not different between groups at 8 weeks. Other biomarkers measured were not affected by blueberry consumption. Daily consumption of blueberries for 4 weeks, but not 8 weeks, attenuated a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in pre- and stage 1-hypertensive postmenopausal women. Future clinical studies should directly evaluate the effects of blueberry consumption on oxidative stress, inflammation, and antioxidant defense at the cellular level and in the vasculature in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6fo01216gDOI Listing
January 2017

Evidence for anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of dried plum polyphenols in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells.

Food Funct 2015 May;6(5):1719-25

School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92101, USA.

This study presents the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of dried plum (Prunus domestica L.) polyphenols in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. We hypothesized that dried plum polyphenols have strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of the pro-inflammatory markers, nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in activated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. To test this hypothesis, macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with either 1 μg ml(-1) (for measurement of NO production) or 1 ng ml(-1) (for measurement of COX-2 expression) of LPS to induce inflammation and were treated with different doses of dried plum polyphenols (0.0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg ml(-1)). Dried plum polyphenols at a dose of 1000 μg ml(-1) was able to significantly (P < 0.05) reduce NO production by 43%. Additionally, LPS-induced expression of COX-2 was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by 100 and 1000 μg ml(-1) dried plum polyphenols. To investigate the antioxidant activity of dried plum polyphenols, macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with 100 μg ml(-1) of FeSO4 + 1 mM ml(-1) of H2O2 to induce lipid peroxidation. Dried plum polyphenols at a dose of 1000 μg ml(-1) showed a 32% reduction in malondialdehyde production. These findings indicate that dried plum polyphenols are potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative agents in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5fo00173kDOI Listing
May 2015

Influence of resistance training combined with daily consumption of an egg-based or bagel-based breakfast on risk factors for chronic diseases in healthy untrained individuals.

J Am Coll Nutr 2015 18;34(2):113-9. Epub 2015 Mar 18.

a School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences , San Diego State University , San Diego , California.

Objective: Egg consumption is often discouraged due to cholesterol content; however, recent studies have not demonstrated a clear adverse influence of eggs on blood lipids. Furthermore, exercise training promotes improved lipids and blood pressure. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of eating an isoenergetic (400 kcal) egg-based (including two eggs per day) versus bagel-based breakfasts, daily, combined with resistance training three times per week, prior to breakfast, on plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in untrained individuals.

Methods: Twenty-five healthy adult men and women (18-35 years of age) participated in the twelve week study following random assignment to study groups. Lipids and blood pressure were examined at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks.

Results: Plasma triglycerides (TG) decreased significantly in the egg- based breakfast (EBB) group from baseline to six weeks (p = 0.011) and from six to twelve weeks (p = 0.045). A significant (p = 0.033) decrease in insulin sensitivity was observed in the bagel-based breakfast (BBB) group from zero to six weeks. No significant effects on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol or low density lipoprotein cholesterol were detected.

Conclusion: Overall, daily breakfasts including two eggs for twelve weeks did not adversely affect lipids during a resistance training program and promoted improvements in plasma TG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2014.946622DOI Listing
January 2016

Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

Nutr Res 2015 Mar 3;35(3):251-8. Epub 2015 Jan 3.

School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego CA USA 92182.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P< .05). C-reactive protein levels were significantly lower in watermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (P< .05). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in DSS-treated rats when watermelon was consumed (P< .05). Fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression was significantly downregulated in the watermelon group without DSS (P< .05). These findings indicate that watermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2014.12.005DOI Listing
March 2015

Daily blueberry consumption improves blood pressure and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2015 Mar 8;115(3):369-77. Epub 2015 Jan 8.

Background: Postmenopausal women have a high prevalence of hypertension and often develop arterial stiffness thereby increasing cardiovascular disease risk. Although antihypertensive drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer natural therapies. In vivo studies and a limited number of clinical studies have demonstrated the antihypertensive and vascular-protective effects of blueberries.

Objective: To examine the effects of daily blueberry consumption for 8 weeks on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension.

Design: This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Participants/setting: Forty-eight postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension recruited from the greater Tallahassee, FL, area participated.

Intervention: Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 22 g freeze-dried blueberry powder or 22 g control powder.

Main Outcome Measures: Resting brachial systolic and diastolic blood pressures were evaluated and arterial stiffness was assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. C-reactive protein, nitric oxide, and superoxide dismutase were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks.

Statistical Analyses Performed: Statistical analysis was performed using a split plot model of repeated measures analysis of variance.

Results: After 8 weeks, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (131±17 mm Hg [P<0.05] and 75±9 mm Hg [P<0.01], respectively) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (1,401±122 cm/second; P<0.01) were significantly lower than baseline levels (138±14 mm Hg, 80±7 mm Hg, and 1,498±179 cm/second, respectively), with significant (P<0.05) group×time interactions in the blueberry powder group, whereas there were no changes in the group receiving the control powder. Nitric oxide levels were greater (15.35±11.16 μmol/L; P<0.01) in the blueberry powder group at 8 weeks compared with baseline values (9.11±7.95 μmol/L), whereas there were no changes in the control group.

Conclusions: Daily blueberry consumption may reduce blood pressure and arterial stiffness, which may be due, in part, to increased nitric oxide production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2014.11.001DOI Listing
March 2015

A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

J Med Food 2015 Mar 14;18(3):324-31. Epub 2014 Oct 14.

1 Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University , Tallahassee, Florida, USA .

Menopause leads to an increased risk for osteoporosis in women. Although drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, for example, calcium, vitamin D, and collagen hydrolysates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We have previously shown that a 3-month intervention using a calcium-collagen chelate (CC) dietary supplement was efficacious in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biomarkers of bone turnover in osteopenic postmenopausal women. This study reports the long-term efficacy of CC in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Thirty-nine women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 5 g of CC containing 500 mg of elemental calcium and 200 IU vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) or control (500 mg of calcium and 200 IU vitamin D) daily for 12 months. Total body, lumbar, and hip BMD were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months to assess levels of blood biomarkers of bone turnover. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed using repeated measures analysis of variance pairwise comparisons and multivariate analysis to assess time and group interactions. The loss of whole body BMD in women taking CC was substantially lower than that of the control group at 12 months in those who completed the study and the ITT analysis, respectively (CC: -1.33% and -0.33% vs. control: -3.75% and -2.17%; P=.026, P=.035). The CC group had significantly reduced levels of sclerostin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) (P<.05), and higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase/TRAP5b ratio (P<.05) than control at 6 months. These results support the use of CC in reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2014.0100DOI Listing
March 2015

Nanofibrous nerve conduits for repair of 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects.

Neural Regen Res 2013 Aug;8(24):2266-74

Faculty of Medical Sciences, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

It has been confirmed that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit can promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. However, its efficiency in repair of over 30-mm-long sciatic nerve defects needs to be assessed. In this study, we used a nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit to bridge a 30-mm-long gap in the rat sciatic nerve. At 4 months after nerve conduit implantation, regenerated nerves were cally observed and histologically assessed. In the nanofibrous graft, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed by restoration of nerve continuity and formation of myelinated nerve fiber. There were Schwann cells and glial cells in the regenerated nerves. Masson's trichrome staining showed that there were no pathological changes in the size and structure of gastrocnemius muscle cells on the operated side of rats. These findings suggest that nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit is suitable for repair of long-segment sciatic nerve defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.24.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4146035PMC
August 2013

Women with osteoarthritis have elevated synovial fluid levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-binding protein-3.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2015 ;36(3):284-94

a School of Exercise & Nutritional Sciences , San Diego State University , San Diego , California , USA.

The present study explores the possible connection between synovial fluid concentrations of insulin like growth factor (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein (IGFBP-3), leptin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in osteoarthritis (OA). Synovial fluid specimens were obtained from a total of thirty-four individuals with and without OA. Protein-normalized measurements of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and leptin concentrations in synovial fluid showed significantly (P < 0.05) elevated levels in women with knee OA but not in men. This study provides initial evidence that protein normalized IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and leptin levels increase in synovial fluid of women but not in men with OA versus those without OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2014.947431DOI Listing
July 2015

Effects of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, blood glucose, insulin, and lipid responses in mice.

J Med Food 2014 Sep 10;17(9):1017-21. Epub 2014 Jul 10.

School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University , San Diego, California, USA .

Agave nectar is a fructose-rich liquid sweetener derived from a plant, and is often promoted as a low glycemic alternative to refined sugar. However, little scientific research has been conducted in animals or humans to determine its metabolic and/or health effects. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, fasting plasma blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Eighteen (n=18) male ICR mice (33.8±1.6 g) were divided into two groups (n=6 for agave nectar and n=12 for sucrose) and provided free access to one of two diets of equal energy densities differing only in a portion of the carbohydrate provided. Diets contained 20% carbohydrate (by weight of total diet) from either raw agave nectar or sucrose. Epididymal fat pads were excised, and blood was collected after 34 days. Weight gain (4.3±2.2 vs. 8.4±3.4 g), fat pad weights (0.95±0.54 vs. 1.75±0.66 g), plasma glucose (77.8±12.2 vs. 111.0±27.9 mg/dL), and insulin (0.61±0.29 vs. 1.46±0.81 ng/mL) were significantly lower (P≤.05) for agave nectar-fed mice compared to sucrose-fed mice respectively. No statistically significant differences in total cholesterol or triglycerides were detected. These results suggest that in comparison to sucrose, agave nectar may have a positive influence on weight gain and glucose control. However, more research with a larger sample of animals and/or with human subjects is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2013.0162DOI Listing
September 2014

The effect of dried plum on serum levels of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial.

Br J Nutr 2014 Jul 29;112(1):55-60. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

Nutrition, Food & Exercise Sciences, Florida State University,Tallahassee,FL32306,USA.

Although several studies have confirmed the bone-protective properties of dried plum, its exact mechanisms of action remain unclear. Recent research has shown that osteocytes may control bone formation via the production of sclerostin and bone resorption via the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and its inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG). To investigate the mechanism of action of dried plum in reversing bone loss, we measured serum levels of RANKL, OPG and sclerostin in osteopenic postmenopausal women (n 160). Participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group of either 100 g dried plum/d or 75 g dried apple/d (comparative control) for 1 year. All participants received 500 mg Ca plus 400 IU (10 μg) vitamin D daily. Bone mineral densities (BMD) of the lumbar spine, forearm, hip and whole body were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 12 months to assess bone biomarkers. Dried plum significantly increased the BMD of the ulna and spine in comparison with the control group. In comparison with corresponding baseline values, dried plum increased the RANKL levels by only +1·99 v. +18·33% and increased the OPG levels by +4·87 v. - 2·15% in the control group. Serum sclerostin levels were reduced by - 1·12% in the dried plum group v. +3·78% in the control group. Although percentage changes did not reach statistical significance (P≤ 0·05), these preliminary data may indicate that the positive effects of dried plum on bone are in part due to the suppression of RANKL production, the promotion of OPG and the inhibition of sclerostin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514000671DOI Listing
July 2014

Dietary phosphorus exacerbates bone loss induced by cadmium in ovariectomized rats.

Menopause 2014 Dec;21(12):1292-7

From the 1Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL; 2The Center for Advancing Exercise and Nutrition Research on Aging, Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL; 3Department of Advanced Periodontology, Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA; 4School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; 5New England Musculoskeletal Institute, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT; and 6Department of Statistics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK.

Objective: Postmenopausal bone loss can be exacerbated by environmental contaminants, including the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). We hypothesized that incorporating phosphorus (P) into the diet would lead to the chelation of Cd into P, preventing its absorption and subsequent bone loss.

Methods: To test this hypothesis, we used ovariectomized rats as a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis to examine the deleterious effects of Cd on bone with and without added P. Fifty 3-month-old ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to five treatment groups (n = 10 per group) for 3 months as follows: (1) control; (2) 50 ppm Cd; (3) 50 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P; (4) 200 ppm Cd; and (5) 200 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P.

Results: Cd plus P caused a significant loss of whole body (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.001) and femoral (P = 0.0005 and P < 0.001) bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content, respectively, and a loss of fourth lumbar vertebra BMD and bone mineral content (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Nonetheless, 200 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P had the most deleterious effects on whole body and femoral BMD. For femoral neck microstructural properties, 50 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P caused an increase in trabecular separation, whereas 200 ppm Cd plus 1.2% P caused a decrease in bone volume-to-total volume ratio, a decrease in trabecular number, and an increase in trabecular separation and structural model index.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that Cd exposure, along with high intake of P, may be a public health hazard with respect to bone health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000000241DOI Listing
December 2014

Biocompatibility and microstructural analysis of osteopromotive property of allogenic demineralized dentin matrix.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2013 Nov-Dec;28(6):1655-62

Purpose: Bone grafting materials and methods have been used to compensate anatomical limitations and improve ridge and sinus structure for implant placement. The objective of this study was to evaluate the osteopromotive property of allogenic demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) as a bone grafting material using micro-computed tomography and blood biomarkers.

Materials And Methods: Two surgical bone defects were created on the skull of 30 female New Zealand White rabbits. Experimental defects in 24 rabbits were filled with allogenic DDM applying guided bone regeneration technique, while the control defects were covered by membrane without receiving the graft. In the remaining six rabbits, both defects were left empty and these rabbits served as control for blood biomarkers. The 24 experimental rabbits were sacrificed after 15, 30, 60, and 90 days (n = 6 at each time point). Blood samples were collected from all rabbits at the baseline, 48 hours postsurgery, and at each time point.

Results: Bone thickness was significantly higher in the experimental group at all time points. Micro-computed tomography results showed increased bone mass and superior bone quality in the experimental group. At all time points except for 48 hours postsurgery, the white blood cell count was numerically higher in control rabbits compared to experimental rabbits, suggesting a lack of inflammation or infection due to allogenic DDM. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activities were lower in both experimental and control groups at all time points in comparison to baseline values, which is indicative of either a lower rate of bone formation or bone turnover.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, allogenic demineralized dentin matrix significantly increased bone mass and improved bone quality without causing an inflammatory reaction or infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/jomi .2833DOI Listing
April 2014

The effects of pre- and post-exercise consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements on cardiovascular health and body fat in trained men after six weeks of resistance training: a stratified, randomized, double-blind study.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2013 May 16;10(1):39. Epub 2013 May 16.

Dept, of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, The Florida State University, 120 Convocation Way, 430 Sandels Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

Background: The cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic health benefits or risks associated with consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) in conjunction with periodized resistance training (RT) in resistance-trained men are unknown. This population is a major target audience for performance supplements, and therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of RT and commercially available pre- and post-exercise performance supplements on CV health and body fat in resistance-trained men.

Methods: Twenty-four resistance-trained men completed six weeks (three times/week) of periodized RT while either ingesting SHOT 15-min pre-exercise and SYN immediately post-exercise (multi-ingredient performance supplement group: MIPS) or an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo 15-min pre-exercise and immediately post-exercise (Placebo group). Before and after six weeks of RT and supplementation, resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), total body fat, android fat, gynoid fat, fat-free mass (FFM) and fasting blood measures of glucose, lipids, nitrate/nitrite (NOx), cortisol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using a one-way ANOVA for baseline differences and a 2 × 2 (group × time) repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: There was no group × time interaction for HR, BP, blood glucose, lipids, NOx, hs-CRP, cortisol concentrations or body fat. However, there was a time effect where significant decreases in body fat (mean ± SD; MIPS: -1.2 ± 1.2%; Placebo: -0.9 ± 1.1%), android fat (MIPS: -1.8 ± 2.1%; Placebo: -1.6 ± 2.0%), and gynoid fat (MIPS: -1.3 ± 1.6%; Placebo: -1.0 ± 1.4%) for both groups were observed. FFM increased in both groups, and a group × time interaction was observed with MIPS increasing significantly more than the Placebo group (4.2% vs. 1.9%).

Conclusions: Six weeks of MIPS ingestion and periodized RT does not alter CV health parameters or blood indices of health or body fat more than a Placebo treatment in healthy, resistance-trained men. However, MIPS significantly increased FFM more than Placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-10-39DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662597PMC
May 2013

Effects of watermelon supplementation on arterial stiffness and wave reflection amplitude in postmenopausal women.

Menopause 2013 May;20(5):573-7

Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 323306-1493, USA.

Objective: Postmenopausal women have increased arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity [baPWV]) and wave reflection. L-Citrulline supplementation reduces baPWV but not brachial blood pressure. Peripheral vasodilators decrease wave reflection amplitude or second systolic peak (SBP2) in radial artery and aorta, which are related to aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP). We examined the effects of L-citrulline-rich watermelon supplementation on baPWV, wave reflection characteristics, and aortic SBP in postmenopausal women.

Methods: In a randomized cross-over study, 12 postmenopausal women (mean [SE] age, 57 [1] y; mean [SE] body mass index, 38.1 [2.1] kg/m; mean [SE] SBP, 153 [4] mm Hg) were assigned to watermelon supplementation (L-citrulline/L-arginine 6 g/d) or placebo supplementation for 6 weeks. Before and after each intervention, baPWV, aortic SBP, aortic diastolic blood pressure, aortic SBP2, radial SBP2, and aortic and radial augmentation indices were measured using applanation tonometry.

Results: baPWV (-1.2 [0.3] m/s, P < 0.001), aortic SBP (-10 [3] mm Hg, P < 0.01), and aortic diastolic blood pressure (-7 [1] mm Hg, P < 0.001) decreased after watermelon supplementation compared with placebo. Although radial and aortic augmentation indices were unaffected, radial and aortic SBP2 decreased (-10 [3] mm Hg, P < 0.01) after watermelon supplementation compared with placebo. The reduction in aortic SBP was correlated with reductions in radial SBP2 (r = 0.99, P < 0.001) and aortic SBP2 (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). The decreases in baPWV correlated with reductions in radial SBP2 (r = 0.57, P < 0.01) and aortic SBP2 (r = 0.64, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Watermelon supplementation reduces arterial stiffness and aortic SBP by reducing pressure wave reflection amplitude in obese postmenopausal women with hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0b013e3182733794DOI Listing
May 2013

Effects of diet and/or low-intensity resistance exercise training on arterial stiffness, adiposity, and lean mass in obese postmenopausal women.

Am J Hypertens 2013 Mar 7;26(3):416-23. Epub 2013 Jan 7.

Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.

Background: Obesity and aging are associated with increased arterial stiffness as indicated by an increased pulse-wave velocity (PWV). We evaluated the independent and combined effects on PWV and body composition of a hypocaloric diet and low-intensity resistance exercise training (LIRET) with slow movement.

Methods: Forty-one postmenopausal women (mean age, 54±6 years; body mass index (BMI), 33.8±0.5kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to LIRET (n = 14), diet (n = 13), or diet + LIRET (n = 14) for 12 weeks. The women's PWV, mean arterial pressure (MAP), body composition by dual-en ergy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and plasma adipokine and insulin levels were measured before and after the interventions.

Results: Body weight (P = 0.0001), trunk-fat mass (FM, P = 0.0001), and the serum concentration of leptin (P = 0.02 and P = 0.004) decreased similarly with diet and diet + LIRET, but not with LIRET alone. Leg lean mass (LM) decreased (P = 0.02) with diet, but did not change with diet + LIRET or with LIRET alone. Leg muscle strength increased similarly with LIRET (P = 0.001) and diet + LIRET (P = 0.0001), but did not change with diet alone. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) decreased with diet (P = 0.04) and diet + LIRET (P = 0.01), whereas femoral-ankle PWV (legPWV) decreased only with diet (P = 0.01). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased after LIRET (P = 0.03), diet (P = 0.04), and diet + LIRET (P = 0.004). Carotid-femoral PWV, serum adiponectin concentration, and insulin were not significantly affected by the interventions examined in the study. The reductions in baPWV and legPWV were correlated with one another (r = 0.73, P = 0.0001), and the reductions in legPWV and trunk FM were also correlated with one another (r = 0.36, P = 0.03).

Conclusions: A hypocaloric diet decreases baPWV mainly by reducing legPWV, and this reduction is related to the loss of truncal fat. Although LIRET alone does not affect PWV or body composition, LIRET combined with diet improves baPWV and muscle strength while preventing loss of lean body mass in obese postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hps050DOI Listing
March 2013