Publications by authors named "Shipra Gupta"

104 Publications

Photochemistry and photophysics of cholesta-5,7,9(11)-trien-3β-ol: a fluorescent analogue of cholesterol.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2022 Jan 9. Epub 2022 Jan 9.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306-4390, USA.

Cholesta-5,7,9(11)-trien-3β-ol (9,11-dehydroprovitamin D, CTL) is used as a fluorescent probe to track the presence and migration of cholesterol in vivo. CTL is known to be photochemically active, but little consideration has been given to the formation efficiency and possible toxicity of its photoproducts. In degassed tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution, we isolated the photoproduct of CTL and of its 25-hydroxy derivative (HOCTL), and X-ray crystal structures were obtained for HOCTL and the photorearrangement product. The X-ray crystal structure and its H NMR spectrum confirm the product structure as a pentacyclic HOCTL isomer. In the presence of air in THF, endoperoxide formation via [2+4] addition of O* across the B ring of CTL or HOCTL becomes the dominant photoreaction. The UV spectrum and decay kinetics of the triplet state of HOCTL, the precursor of O*, are determined by transient absorption spectroscopy. We confirm the proposed structure of the endoperoxide by X-ray crystallography. Kinetics analysis of quantum yields provides rate constants for photophysical and photochemical events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43630-021-00131-wDOI Listing
January 2022

Toothbrush as a sampling methodology for detection of SARS-CoV-2.

Oral Dis 2021 Dec 30. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.14122DOI Listing
December 2021

Is saltwater mouth rinse as effective as chlorhexidine following periodontal surgery?

Evid Based Dent 2021 Dec 16;22(4):130-131. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Oral Health Sciences Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.

Design Randomised prospective double-blind study.Case selection Thirty-seven chronic periodontitis patients were randomly prescribed either saltwater (n = 17) or chlorhexidine (n = 20) mouth rinse following open flap debridement. Gingival Index (GI), post-operative pain, mouth rinse satisfaction, matrix metalloproteinase activity and tasting were assessed at baseline, one week and 12 weeks.Data analysis Inter-group and intra-group comparisons were done for all the parameters recorded at different time intervals using Friedman, Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney U tests. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results There was a statistically significant decrease in GI from baseline to week 1/week 12 following surgery in both the groups. However, there was no significant difference between the groups at any time point.Conclusions Saltwater rinses are as efficient as 0.12% chlorhexidine in reducing inflammation following minimal invasive periodontal surgery. Being an inexpensive and easily accessible option, it might be considered the mouth rinse of choice during the early stages of wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41432-021-0227-6DOI Listing
December 2021

Effect of nano-crystalline silver membrane on early wound healing after periodontal surgery: A comparative randomized study.

J Indian Soc Periodontol 2021 Nov-Dec;25(6):504-509. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Periodontology, Dr. Harvansh Singh Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Periodontal dressings are used for wound protection and patient comfort. Nano-silver particles have the ability to promote wound healing through anti-inflammatory properties. Hence, the present study aims to evaluate early wound healing parameters following periodontal surgery using nano-crystalline silver membrane as periodontal dressing.

Materials And Methods: Forty-two systemically healthy patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis indicated for periodontal flap surgery were enrolled for the present study. Post surgery, the patients were randomly allocated to either a nano-crystalline silver dressing (Acticoat™) group (test group) or only the noneugenol dressing group (control group). Plaque index (PI) and wound healing index were recorded at the 7- and 14-day postsurgery. The microbiological analysis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were evaluated at baseline and 7-day postsurgery.

Results: The healing index was significantly higher in the test group as compared to the control group at days 7 and 14 ( < 0.001; < 0.001). The colony-forming units/ml count of bacteria were significantly reduced postsurgery in the test group ( = 0.019). VEGF levels increased significantly 7-day postsurgery in the test group ( = 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the PI on the 7-day postsurgery between the two groups ( = 0.173).

Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that silver can be used as a potent periodontal dressing ingredient that can decrease the microbial colonization beneath the pack and promote faster healing postsurgery due to its antimicrobial activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jisp.jisp_17_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8603803PMC
November 2021

Active matrix metalloproteinase-8: A potential biomarker of oral systemic link.

Clin Exp Dent Res 2021 Nov 19. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Head and Neck Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives: This mini review aims to address some possible gaps in periodontal diagnosis in clinical studies particularly involving the oral-systemic connection with a view to minimize such gaps, and thus improve patient treatment experiences and outcomes.

Methods: The conventional assessment of periodontitis has traditionally been by clinical and radiographic oral parameters. We reviewed numerous studies published mainly within the past decade, to affirm the oral-systemic link, the contribution of periodontitis to the inflammatory burden in various systemic diseases and conditions, and the potential role of active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8).

Results: While it is established that periodontal pathogens in dental plaque biofilm are the primary initiating agents in periodontitis, it has become clear from the appraisal of recent studies that the host inflammation, including biomarkers such as aMMP-8 play a major role, being the driving underlying pathological mechanism in both periodontitis and systemic diseases.

Conclusions: The apparent limitations of conventional diagnostic tools have led researchers to seek alternative methods of evaluation such as the quantification of biomarkers including aMMP-8, which can be a bridge between oral/periodontal and systemic diseases; aMMP-8 can form a mouth-body connection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cre2.516DOI Listing
November 2021

Amebiasis and Amebic Liver Abscess in Children.

Pediatr Clin North Am 2022 02;69(1):79-97

West Virginia University School of Medicine, One Medical Center Drive, HSC 9214, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.

Although rare in the developed world, amebiasis continues to be a leading cause of diarrhea and illness in developing nations with crowding, poor sanitation, and lack of clean water supply. Recent immigrants or travelers returning from endemic regions after a prolonged stay are at high risk of developing amebiasis. A high index of suspicion for amebiasis should be maintained for other high-risk groups like men having sex with men, people with AIDS/HIV, immunocompromised hosts, residents of mental health facility or group homes. Clinical presentation of intestinal amebiasis varies from diarrhea to colitis and dysentery. Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common form of extraintestinal amebiasis. Various diagnostic tools are available and when amebiasis is suspected, a combination of stool tests and serology should be sent to maximize the yield of testing. Treatment with an amebicidal drug such as metronidazole/tinidazole and a luminal cysticidal agent such as paromomycin for clinical disease is indicated. However, for asymptomatic disease treatment with a luminal cysticidal agent to decrease chances of invasive disease and transmission is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2021.08.003DOI Listing
February 2022

Single-molecule imaging with cell-derived nanovesicles reveals early binding dynamics at a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel.

Nat Commun 2021 11 9;12(1):6459. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Neuroscience, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Ligand binding to membrane proteins is critical for many biological signaling processes. However, individual binding events are rarely directly observed, and their asynchronous dynamics are occluded in ensemble-averaged measures. For membrane proteins, single-molecule approaches that resolve these dynamics are challenged by dysfunction in non-native lipid environments, lack of access to intracellular sites, and costly sample preparation. Here, we introduce an approach combining cell-derived nanovesicles, microfluidics, and single-molecule fluorescence colocalization microscopy to track individual binding events at a cyclic nucleotide-gated TAX-4 ion channel critical for sensory transduction. Our observations reveal dynamics of both nucleotide binding and a subsequent conformational change likely preceding pore opening. Kinetic modeling suggests that binding of the second ligand is either independent of the first ligand or exhibits up to ~10-fold positive binding cooperativity. This approach is broadly applicable to studies of binding dynamics for proteins with extracellular or intracellular domains in native cell membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26816-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8578382PMC
November 2021

Avoidance of COVID-19 for Children and Adolescents and Isolation Precautions.

Pediatr Clin North Am 2021 10 21;68(5):1103-1118. Epub 2021 May 21.

West Virginia University School of Medicine, One Medical Center Drive, HSC 9214, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.

Limiting exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has been the major principle guiding public health measures. Masking, social distancing, as well as frequent hand hygiene have been the chief nonpharmaceutical interventions as preventive strategies for all age groups. Advancement in vaccine development and vaccination of large populations offer a glimmer of hope for containing and ending this pandemic. However, until immunization is widespread in the community, masking, social distancing, and frequent handwashing, as well as early detection and isolation of infected persons, should be continued to curb the spread of illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2021.05.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139283PMC
October 2021

Active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) point-of-care test (POCT) in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Expert Rev Proteomics 2021 08 11;18(8):707-717. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Unit of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Oral Health Sciences Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Introduction: Active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP)-8 utilized in point-of-care testing (POCT) is regarded as a potential biomarker for periodontal and peri-implant diseases. Various host and microbial factors eventually influence the expression, degranulation, levels and activation of aMMP-8. The type of oral fluids (saliva, mouthrinse, gingival crevicular, and peri-implant sulcular fluids [GCF/PISF], respectively) affect the analysis.

Areas Covered: With this background, we aimed to review here the recent studies on practical, inexpensive, noninvasive and quantitative mouthrinse and GCF/PISF chair-side POCT lateral flow aMMP-8 immunoassays (PerioSafe and ImplantSafe/ORALyzer) and how they help to detect, predict, monitor the course, treatment and prevention of periodontitis and peri-implantitis. The correlations of aMMP-8 POCT to other independent and catalytic activity assays of MMP-8 are also addressed.

Expert Opinion: The mouthrinse aMMP-8 POCT can also detect prediabetes/diabetes and tissue destructive oral side-effects due to the head and neck cancers' radiotherapy. Chlorhexidine and doxycycline can inhibit collagenolytic human neutrophil and GCF aMMP-8. Furthermore, by a set of case-series we demonstrate the potential of mouthrinse aMMP-8 POCT to real-time/online detect periodontitis as a potential risk disease for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The clinical interdisciplinary utilization of aMMP-8 POCT requires additional oral, medical, and interdisciplinary studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14789450.2021.1976151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8442753PMC
August 2021

The clinical association between Periodontitis and COVID-19.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives: The study aimed to clinically assess the association between periodontitis and COVID-19-related outcomes.

Material And Methods: Data pertaining to patient demographics, medical history, blood parameters, periodontal clinical examination and aMMP-8 point-of-care diagnostics (both site-level and patient-level) was recorded for eighty-two COVID-19-positive patients. COVID-19-related outcomes such as COVID-19 pneumonia, death/survival, types of hospital admission and need of assisted ventilation were also assessed.

Results: Males were predominantly afflicted with COVID-19, with advanced age exhibiting a greater association with the presence of periodontitis. Higher severity of periodontitis led to 7.45 odds of requiring assisted ventilation, 36.52 odds of hospital admission, 14.58 odds of being deceased and 4.42 odds of COVID-19-related pneumonia. The aMMP-8 mouthrinse kit was slightly more sensitive but less specific than aMMP-8 site-specific tests.

Conclusions: Based on the findings of the present study, periodontitis seems to be related to poorer COVID-19-related outcomes. However, within the constraints of this work, a direct causality may not be established. Periodontitis, by means of skewing the systemic condition for a number of comorbidities, may eventually influence COVID-19 outcomes in an indirect manner.

Clinical Relevance: The study is the first to clinically, and by means of a validated point-of-care diagnostic methodology, assess the association between periodontal health and COVID-19-related outcomes. Assessment of the periodontal status of individuals can aid in the identification of risk groups during the pandemic along with reinforcing the need to maintain oral hygiene and seeking periodontal care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-021-04111-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8390180PMC
August 2021

Linking oral microbial proteolysis to aMMP-8 PoC diagnostics along with the stage and grade of periodontitis: A cross-sectional study.

Oral Dis 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.14008DOI Listing
August 2021

On the accuracy, sensitivity, and grading of mouthrinse active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) point-of-care testing (POCT).

J Clin Periodontol 2021 11 19;48(11):1495-1498. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, Helsinki University and University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.13521DOI Listing
November 2021

Phylogenetic analysis of VP7 and VP4 genes of the most predominant human group A rotavirus G12 identified in children with acute gastroenteritis in Himachal Pradesh, India during 2013-2016.

J Med Virol 2021 11 24;93(11):6200-6209. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

G12 strains are now considered to be the sixth most prevalent human rotaviruses globally. India has introduced rotavirus vaccine Rotavac® into the national immunization program in 2016 and Himachal Pradesh (HP) is the first state to launch it. During epidemiological rotavirus surveillance in HP, predominance of G12 rotaviruses was observed. This study investigated the genetic variability and evolution of HP G12 strains (n = 15) associated with P-genotypes P[6], P[4], and P[8] identified between 2013 and 2016. Phylogenetic analysis of VP7 gene revealed that all characterized G12 strains clustered in lineage-III and diversified into three subclusters indicating that these strains may have originated from three different ancestral G12 strains. The comparative sequence analysis of HP strains with Rotavac® and Rotarix® vaccine strains revealed various amino acid substitutions in epitope regions of VP7 and VP4 proteins especially at the antibody neutralization sites. Only 12/29 VP7 epitope residues and 2/25 VP4 epitope residues were found to be conserved between HP rotavirus strains and vaccine strains. Both long and short electropherotypes were observed in G12P[4] strains, while a single long electropherotype was observed in G12P[6] strains. Children of ≤11 months were significantly infected with G12 rotaviruses. The frequency of vomiting episodes (≥5/day) was significantly higher in children infected with G12 rotavirus strains as compared to non-G12 rotaviruses (p = 0.0405). Our study provides the comprehensive data on clinical characteristics and evolutionary pattern of the G12 rotavirus, the most prevalent strain in HP and emphasizes the need to monitor these strains for inclusion in future vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27142DOI Listing
November 2021

Buccal swabs as non-invasive specimens for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211016996

Department of Virology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Introduction: The current gold standard for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA involves subjecting nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swabs to reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). However, both sample types need to be collected by trained professionals. Using self-collected buccal swabs as an alternative could simplify and accelerate diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objective: To assess self-collected buccal swab samples as an alternative method for SARS-CoV-2 detection in patients with COVID-19.

Methods: Buccal swab samples were self-collected by 73 patients with COVID-19. Total RNA was extracted using Qiagen kits. RNA encoding the SARS-CoV-2 Env protein and human RNase P as an internal control was amplified using the TRUPCR SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR kit version 2.1 and a Bio-Rad CFX96 Real-Time Detection System.

Result: The sensitivity of RT-qPCR from buccal swabs was 58.9% (43/73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 46.77%-70.27%) and that of RT-qPCR from saliva was 62.90% (39/62; 95% CI 49.69%-74.84%) taking positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR from nasopharyngeal swabs as the gold standard.

Conclusion: Self-collected buccal swabs are promising alternatives to nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swabs for SARS CoV-2 detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211016996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142533PMC
May 2021

Psoriasis and Periodontitis: Exploring an association or lack thereof.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2021 Mar-Apr;12(2):281-284. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Dr. Harvansh Singh Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Objectives: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, non-communicable skin disease with no clear etiology or cure. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition which is now known to significantly influence various systemic diseases as an established risk factor. This study aimed at comparatively evaluating the periodontal status of Psoriatic patients vis. a vis. that of age and gender matched systemically healthy volunteers. An attempt was also made to explore a possible association, if any, amongst the two diseases.

Materials And Methods: Forty two residents of Chandigarh, suffering from Psoriasis and attending the Psoriasis Clinic of Department of Dermatology & Venereology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh were recruited over a period of 10 months (Case group) and their periodontal status was compared with forty two age and gender matched systemically healthy volunteers (Control group) randomly selected from the Out Patient Department of Periodontics, Dr. Harvansh Singh Judge Institute of Dental Sciences & Hospital, Panjab University, India. Their serum IL-33 levels were evaluated and compared in an attempt to identify an underlying common pathological pathway.

Results: The periodontal status was comparable in the two groups in terms of the debris index ( = 0.932), calculus index ( = 0.088), plaque index ( = 0.097), and mean clinical attachment loss ( = 0.401). A higher bleeding points index was recorded amongst healthy individuals as compared to the Psoriasis group, the difference being statistically significant ( = 0.001). The mean number of teeth were more in the Psoriasis group as compared to the healthy group (p=0.034). IL 33 levels were also not significantly different ( = 0.491).

Conclusion: Contrary to currently available evidence in literature, the study did not find a statistically significant association between Psoriasis and Inflammatory Periodontal Disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_445_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088189PMC
February 2021

An aMMP-8 Point-of-Care and Questionnaire Based Real-Time Diagnostic Toolkit for Medical Practitioners.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

The aim of this cross-sectional study is to propose an efficient strategy based on biomarkers adjunct with an interview/questionnaire covering risk factors for periodontitis for the identification of undiagnosed periodontitis by medical professionals. Active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP)-8 levels in mouthrinse were analyzed by a point-of-care (PoC)/chairside lateral-flow immunotest, and salivary total MMP-8, total MMP-9 and calprotectin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and active MMP-9 by gelatin zymography for 149 Greek patients. Patients underwent a full-mouth oral health examination for diagnosis according to the 2018 classification system of periodontal diseases. In addition, patient characteristics (risk factors: age, gender, education level, smoking and body mass index) were recorded. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis indicated better diagnostic precision to identify undiagnosed periodontitis for oral fluid biomarkers in adjunct with an interview/questionnaire compared with a plain questionnaire (i.e., risk factors): aMMP-8 AUC (95% confidence interval) = 0.834 (0.761-0.906), total MMP-8 = 0.800 (0.722-0.878), active MMP-9 = 0.787 (0.704-0.870), total MMP-9 = 0.773 (0.687-0.858) and calprotectin = 0.773 (0.687-0.858) vs. questionnaire = 0.764 (0.676-0.851). The findings of this study suggest that oral fluid biomarker analysis, such as a rapid aMMP-8 PoC immunotest, could be used as an adjunct to an interview/questionnaire to improve the precision of timely identification of asymptomatic, undiagnosed periodontitis patients by medical professionals. This strategy appears to be viable for referring patients to a dentist for diagnosis and treatment need assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11040711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071538PMC
April 2021

A critical residue in the αM2-M3 linker regulating mammalian GABA receptor pore gating by diazepam.

Elife 2021 02 16;10. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

University of Texas at Austin, Department of Neuroscience, Austin, United States.

Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are a class of widely prescribed psychotropic drugs that modulate activity of GABA receptors (GABARs), neurotransmitter-gated ion channels critical for synaptic transmission. However, the physical basis of this modulation is poorly understood. We explore the role of an important gating domain, the αM2-M3 linker, in linkage between the BZD site and pore gate. To probe energetics of this coupling without complication from bound agonist, we use a gain of function mutant (αL9'Tβγ) directly activated by BZDs. We identify a specific residue whose mutation (αV279A) more than doubles the energetic contribution of the BZD positive modulator diazepam (DZ) to pore opening and also enhances DZ potentiation of GABA-evoked currents in a wild-type background. In contrast, other linker mutations have little effect on DZ efficiency, but generally impair unliganded pore opening. Our observations reveal an important residue regulating BZD-pore linkage, thereby shedding new light on the molecular mechanism of these drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.64400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899671PMC
February 2021

Genetic diversity of G9 rotavirus strains circulating among diarrheic children in North India: A comparison with 116E rotavirus vaccine strain.

Vaccine 2021 01 30;39(4):646-651. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India; Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110023, India. Electronic address:

The parental rotavirus strain 116E (G9P[11]) used to generate Rotavac® vaccine was isolated in 1986 in New Delhi. Thenceforward, there is no comprehensive report on diversity of G9 rotavirus strains from 116E; therefore, the present study evaluates the VP7 gene sequence diversity of G9 strains (retrieved from GenBank) from different geographical regions (1987-2016). Additionally, 22 recently collected G9 strains from Himachal Pradesh and Delhi (2013-2016) were included in the phylogenetic analysis. Interestingly, unlike 116E which belong to lineage-II all other G9 rotavirus including these 22 samples clustered together in a separate lineage (III). Further, six amino acid substitutions including one novel, K143M (epitope 7-2) different from 116E were detected mostly in the neutralization epitopes of VP7 protein (neutralization escape mutants). Overall, the accumulation of identified substitutions in VP7 epitopes and evolution of G9 strains in India may have impact on Rotavac® efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.12.037DOI Listing
January 2021

Impact of concurrent diabetes on periodontal health in patients with acromegaly.

Sci Rep 2020 11 5;10(1):19170. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Periodontics, Dr. Harvansh Singh Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Panjab University, Sector-25, Chandigarh, 160014, India.

Previous studies have suggested excess GH/IGF1 secretion in patients with acromegaly is protective for periodontal health. Diabetes is prevalent comorbidity in patients of acromegaly and is associated with worsening of periodontal disease. The present study evaluates the periodontal health and cytokines status in treatment-naive active acromegaly patients with and without diabetes. Eleven patients, each of acromegaly with and without diabetes and 20 healthy controls were enrolled. Periodontal parameters were assessed. GCF and blood samples for IL-6, TGF-β1, and PDGF were obtained. Serum GH, IGF1, HbA1c, pituitary hormones and MRI sella were performed in patients with acromegaly. There was no significant difference in periodontal status of patients with acromegaly and healthy controls. However, a significant increase in serum IL-6 (p = 0.019) and TGF-β1 (p = 0.025) levels in patients with acromegaly was observed and all patients had concurrent hypogonadism. Nevertheless, the patients with acromegaly having diabetes had modestly higher CAL and PD and serum IL-6 levels (p = 0.051), but it could not exert adverse effects on periodontal health in presence of GH/IGF1 excess. GH/IGF1 excess did not exert a protective effect on periodontal status in acromegaly, possibly due to concurrent hypogonadism and opposing cytokines; however, it could mask the ill-effects of diabetes on periodontal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76067-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645583PMC
November 2020

Zoledronic acid induced unilateral anterior uveitis.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2020 Sep;68(9):2002-2003

Department of Pharmacology, G.B. Pant Hospital, Andaman and Nicobar Islands Institute of Medical Sciences, Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar, India.

Zoledronic acid is recommended for patients with osteoporosis. To report a case of unilateral anterior uveitis after zoledronate infusion. An osteoporotic patient presented with pain, visual loss, hyperemia, photophobia, and watering from the left eye after zoledronate infusion. Circumcorneal injection, keratic precipitates, cells, and flare suggested anterior uveitis. Her symptoms resolved completely after 20 days of prednisolone acetate with atropine eye drops. Uveitis is a rare complication of zoledronic acid with an unclear mechanism. Proinflammatory cytokines may play a role in pathogenesis. Zoledronic acid may be associated with rare but serious inflammatory ocular adverse drug reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_1654_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690502PMC
September 2020

The intriguing commonality of NETosis between COVID-19 & Periodontal disease.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Nov 7;144:109968. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

NETosis, being an alternative form of cell death is the creation of web-like chromatin decondensates by suitably primed neutrophils as a response to stimulus aimed at containing and eliminating the same. In certain situations, it causes more harm than benefit in the form of bystander damage directly or via activation of autoimmune mechanisms. Such pathophysiology finds evidence in both Periodontal disease and COVID-19. Coupled with impaired removal, NETs have been implicated in both these disease forms to promote a state of inflammation and be a source of constant harm to the tissues involved. This potentially forms groundwork to implicate Periodontal disease as predisposing towards adverse COVID-19 related outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276117PMC
November 2020

COVID-19 & Periodontitis: The cytokine connection.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Nov 30;144:109908. Epub 2020 May 30.

Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.

COVID-19 is now recognized as a pandemic throughout the world, leading to a scramble in order to gather knowledge as well as evidence regarding the 'novel' corona virus which causes this disease. Chemokines are a family of cytokines which are chemotactic in nature and cause the recruitment of cells of inflammation. Periodontitis has long been attributed to having its pathophysiology rooted in a cytokine response. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has been reported to have adverse outcomes related to the establishment of a cytokine storm, many of the components of which are common with the cytokine expression profile of periodontitis. This communication explores the connection between COVID-19 and periodontal disease through their cytokine connection to form a translational basis for recommending maintenance of oral hygiene in the COVID era and to red flag patients with periodontitis as having an increased risk of exhibiting COVID related adverse outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832148PMC
November 2020

Feasibility of 4D CT simulation with synchronized intravenous contrast injection in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2020 Mar-Apr;25(2):293-298. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, Delhi, India.

Background: Delivering Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is challenging mainly for two reasons: first, motion of the liver occurs in six degrees of freedom and, second, delineation of the tumor is difficult owing to a similar density of HCC to that of the adjoining healthy liver tissue in a non-contrast CT scan. To overcome both these challenges simultaneously, we performed a feasibility study to synchronize intravenous contrast to obtain an arterial and a delayed phase 4D CT.

Materials And Methods: We included seven HCC patients of planned for SBRT. 4D CT simulation was performed with synchronized intravenous contrast based on the formula  T - (L/Detector Coverage × Cine Duration in Seconds). This was followed by a delayed 4D CT scan.

Results: We found that, with our protocol, it is feasible to obtain a 4DCT with an arterial and a delayed phase making it comparable to a diagnostic multi-phase CT. The peak HU of the 4D scan and diagnostic CT were similar (mean peak HU 134.2 vs 143.1, p value = 0.58 N.S). Whereas in comparison with a non-contrast CT a significant rise in the peak HU was seen (mean peak 134.2 vs 61.4 p value = .00003).

Conclusion: A synchronized contrast 4D CT simulation for HCC is safe and feasible. It results in good contrast enhancement comparable to a diagnostic 3D contrast CT scan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpor.2019.12.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078516PMC
December 2019

Antibody response patterns in chikungunya febrile phase predict protection versus progression to chronic arthritis.

JCI Insight 2020 04 9;5(7). Epub 2020 Apr 9.

ICGEB-Emory Vaccine Centre, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, India.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes acute febrile illness in humans, and some of these individuals develop a debilitating chronic arthritis that can persist for months to years for reasons that remain poorly understood. In this study from India, we characterized antibody response patterns in febrile chikungunya patients and further assessed the association of these initial febrile-phase antibody response patterns with protection versus progression to developing chronic arthritis. We found 5 distinct patterns of the antibody responses in the febrile phase: no CHIKV binding or neutralizing (NT) antibodies but PCR positive, IgM alone with no NT activity, IgM alone with NT activity, IgM and IgG without NT activity, and IgM and IgG with NT activity. A 20-month follow-up showed that appearance of NT activity regardless of antibody isotype or appearance of IgG regardless of NT activity during the initial febrile phase was associated with a robust protection against developing chronic arthritis in the future. These findings, while providing potentially novel insights on correlates of protective immunity against chikungunya-induced chronic arthritis, suggest that qualitative differences in the antibody response patterns that have evolved during the febrile phase can serve as biomarkers that allow prediction of protection or progression to chronic arthritis in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.130509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205261PMC
April 2020

Multisite Evaluation of Next-Generation Methods for Small RNA Quantification.

J Biomol Tech 2020 07;31(2):47-56

Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research Gene Expression and Genotyping, University of Florida, Gainsville, Florida, USA.

Small RNAs (smRNAs) are important regulators of many biologic processes and are now most frequently characterized using Illumina sequencing. However, although standard RNA sequencing library preparation has become routine in most sequencing facilities, smRNA sequencing library preparation has historically been challenging because of high input requirements, laborious protocols involving gel purifications, inability to automate, and a lack of benchmarking standards. Additionally, studies have suggested that many of these methods are nonlinear and do not accurately reflect the amounts of smRNAs . Recently, a number of new kits have become available that permit lower input amounts and less laborious, gel-free protocol options. Several of these new kits claim to reduce RNA ligase-dependent sequence bias through novel adapter modifications and to lessen adapter-dimer contamination in the resulting libraries. With the increasing number of smRNA kits available, understanding the relative strengths of each method is crucial for appropriate experimental design. In this study, we systematically compared 9 commercially available smRNA library preparation kits as well as NanoString probe hybridization across multiple study sites. Although several of the new methodologies do reduce the amount of artificially over- and underrepresented microRNAs (miRNAs), we observed that none of the methods was able to remove all of the bias in the library preparation. Identical samples prepared with different methods show highly varied levels of different miRNAs. Even so, many methods excelled in ease of use, lower input requirement, fraction of usable reads, and reproducibility across sites. These differences may help users select the most appropriate methods for their specific question of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7171/jbt.20-3102-001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953595PMC
July 2020

Epidemiology and clinical features of rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus infections and coinfections in children with acute gastroenteritis prior to rotavirus vaccine introduction in Meerut, North India.

J Med Virol 2020 08 18;92(8):1102-1109. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

There are limited reports on the etiology of multiple enteric viruses causing acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in North India. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of three enteric viruses, namely rotavirus, astrovirus (AstV) and adenovirus (AdV) in a total of 312 diarrheic children (<5 years) hospitalized at Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh from August 2014 to July 2016; and results were compared with data from Delhi. The fecal samples were individually screened for group A rotavirus (RVA), AdV, and AstV using enzyme immunoassay kits. At least one viral agent was detected in 29.2% of 312 fecal specimens. RNA of rotavirus antigen-positive samples was extracted by TRIzol method. Rotavirus G/P genotyping was performed using seminested multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RVA was the most predominant virus (18.3%) followed by AstV (12.5%), and AdV (9.9%). Coinfections were detected in 10.6% cases and the most common coinfection in diarrheic children was RVA combined with AstV (36.4%). Overall, the enteric viruses were found most prevalent in the 6 to 11 months age group (P = .01). Increased duration of vomiting (≥3 days) was significantly (P = .04) associated with AdV infection (61.3%) as compared with AstV (30.76%) and rotavirus (26.31%). G1P[8] was detected throughout as the most prevalent rotavirus strain (10.5%). Unusual RV strains like G2P[6] and G2P[8] were also detected. Of note G3, G4, and G12 rotavirus were detected for the first time in Meerut. This is the first report that demonstrated the important contribution of multiple enteric viruses causing AGE in young children in this part of Uttar Pradesh (Meerut).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25645DOI Listing
August 2020

Translational Diffusion and Unstable Conformer Trapping in Glassy Isopentane at 77 K.

J Phys Chem A 2019 Oct 9;123(42):9102-9112. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry , Florida State University , Tallahassee , Florida 32306-4390 , United States.

Diffusional quenching in isopentane (IP) glass at 77 K is demonstrated by the reduction of triphenylene phosphorescence lifetimes in the presence of 1,3-pentadiene and/or molecular oxygen. Fluorescence spectra and lifetimes of - and -1,2-di(1-methyl-2-naphthyl)ethene in IP glass at 77 K reveal that the → photoisomerization leads to the trapping of unstable conformers of the isomer. The claim that IP at 77 K is not sufficiently viscous to trap unstable photoproduct conformers is invalidated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpca.9b07964DOI Listing
October 2019

Effect of scaling and root planing as monotherapy on glycemic control in patients of Type 2 diabetes with chronic periodontitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Indian Soc Periodontol 2019 Jul-Aug;23(4):303-310

Department of Periodontics, Dr. Harvansh Singh Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Panjab University, Chandigarh, Punjab, India.

Background: There is enough evidence, which suggests that nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) improved the glycemic control in patients of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with chronic periodontitis (CP). This meta-analysis is aimed to explore the effect of NSPT, exclusively scaling and root planing (SRP) as monotherapy on glycemic control and periodontal parameters in patients of T2DM with CP.

Materials And Methods: Two databases, MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched from June 2006 to June 2016. Initially, 464 potentially relevant studies were evaluated. Randomized controlled trials with duration of ≥3 months, based on the treatment group managed with SRP without any supportive use of local drug delivery or systemic antibiotics, while the control group received no periodontal therapy, were selected. This resulted in six appropriate articles with a total of 812 patients of T2DM with CP. Alteration in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was the primary outcome measure, whereas the changes in clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD) were the secondary outcome measures.

Results: SRP treatment resulted in a decrease in HbA1c by 0.26% ( = 0.17) at 3-4 months compared to the control group. Further, on subgroup analysis, SRP therapy revealed a decrease in PPD and CAL at 3-4 months, though statistically insignificant.

Conclusion: SRP treatment leads to modest improvement in glycemic status and periodontal parameters in T2DM patients with CP at 3-4 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jisp.jisp_417_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6628769PMC
August 2019

Epidemiology and genetic diversity of group A rotavirus in acute diarrhea patients in pre-vaccination era in Himachal Pradesh, India.

Vaccine 2019 08 19;37(36):5350-5356. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India. Electronic address:

Acute gastroenteritis due to Group A rotaviruses remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children in developing countries. India introduced its indigenous rotavirus vaccine Rotavac® in 2016 and Himachal Pradesh (HP) the first state to launch it. The present study aimed to evaluate rotavirus strain diversity associated with AGE prior to vaccine introduction in HP. A total of 331 fecal specimens collected from diarrheic children hospitalized at RPGMC Tanda, HP between July-2014 and June-2016 were screened for RVA by EIA. Rotavirus RNA was extracted by TRIZOL method and analyzed by RNA-PAGE. G/P typing was performed using semi-nested multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR. Rotavirus was detected in 45% (n = 149/331) of diarrheic children, with highest rate observed in the 6-11 months age group (47%). Vomiting was found more frequently associated with RV-infection. Among G-types, G12 was found most prevalent (33.1%) followed by G1 (28.4%), G9 (12.2%), G2 (9.5%), G3 (3.4%) and G10 (2.7%). G4 (0.7%) strains were rarely detected. Among P-types, P[6] was the most prevalent (40.5%) followed by P[8] (29.1%) and P[4] (14.2%). Of note, genotypes G3 and P[11] were detected for the first time in HP. Among G/P combinations, G12P[6] was most prevalent (30.4%) followed by G1P[8] (20.3%), G2P[4] (4.7%), G1P[6] (3.4%) and G3P[8] (2.7%). Interestingly, our study observed high percentage of unusual strains (14.2%) namely G9P[4], G2P[6], G2P[8], G12P[4] and G1P[11]. The regionally common strains G3P[6], G4P[6], G9P[6], G9P[8], G10P[6], G10P[8] and G12P[8] strains were very rarely detected. Of interest, RNA migration pattern of G1P[8] was DS-1 like and genomic heterogeneity was observed within G12P[4] strains with both long and short electropherotypes. Our study highlights rich genetic diversity with emergence of rare rotavirus strains circulating in HP and provides baseline data prior to Rotavac® introduction that will help to gauge the impact of the Rotavac® vaccine in HP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.07.037DOI Listing
August 2019

Ce O₂Cu Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity for Phenol Degradation.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2019 Aug;19(8):5220-5226

University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Sector 16-C, Dwarka 110078, New Delhi, India.

Solid solutions of CuO in CeO₂ have been prepared by the solution combustion method. This method allows the Cu ions to dissolve into CeO₂ lattice instead of Ce ions. This creates charge imbalance and lattice distortion in CeO₂ because of which oxygen vacancies are produced. The presence of Cu in ceria causes decrease in lattice parameters, smaller crystallites, and larger surface area. Both techniques XRD and Raman spectroscopy confirm the presence of cubic phase of CeO₂ with fluorite structure and they also show a peak shift after the introduction of Cu which is an indication of the total symmetry breaking of ceria structure. This may be related with the partial substitution of Ce by Cu cations in the CeO₂ lattice. TEM analysis results provide an average size of 27.4 nm for Cu-doped CeO₂ particles. XPS confirms the Cu species in Cu-doped sample. The prepared Cu-Ce materials are explored for phenol degradation. The effect of initial phenol concentration, pH and catalyst amount on phenol degradation is investigated. It is observed that with increase in an initial phenol concentration, the degradation efficiency decreased. The maximum degradation efficiency is observed at pH 3 and 0.5 g/L amount of Cu-doped CeO₂ catalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2019.16825DOI Listing
August 2019
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