Publications by authors named "Shinsuke Iida"

208 Publications

A phase I, dose-escalation study of oral PIM447 in Japanese patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma.

Int J Hematol 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

PIM447, a pan-proviral integration site for Moloney leukemia (PIM) kinase inhibitor, has shown preclinical activity in multiple myeloma (MM). This phase I, open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended dose for expansion (RDE) of PIM447 in Japanese patients with relapsed and/or refractory (R/R) MM. The study included 13 patients (250 mg once daily (QD), [n = 7]; 300 mg QD, [n = 6]). The sole dose-limiting toxicity observed was grade 3 QTc prolongation in one patient from the 300 mg group, and the MTD and RDE was not determined. The most common suspected PIM447-related adverse events (AEs) included thrombocytopenia (76.9%), anemia (53.8%), and leukopenia (53.8%). All patients experienced at least one grade 3 or 4 AE, most frequently thrombocytopenia or leukopenia (61.5% each). The overall response rate was 15.4%, disease control rate 69.2%, clinical benefit rate 23.1%, and two patients had a partial response (one in each dose group). Two patients treated with 250 mg QD had a progression-free survival > 6 months. PIM447 250 mg or 300 mg QD was tolerated in Japanese patients with R/R MM. Further studies are required to evaluate clinical outcomes of PIM447 in combination with other drugs for the treatment of MM.Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov: (NCT02160951).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03096-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Subcutaneous daratumumab in Asian patients with heavily pretreated multiple myeloma: subgroup analyses of the noninferiority, phase 3 COLUMBA study.

Ann Hematol 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Morioka, Iwate, Japan.

The phase 3 COLUMBA study demonstrated noninferiority of subcutaneous daratumumab (DARA SC) to intravenous daratumumab (DARA IV) in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. We present a subgroup analysis of Asian patients from COLUMBA. Eligible patients had ≥ 3 prior lines of therapy, including a proteasome inhibitor and an immunomodulatory drug, or were double refractory. Co-primary endpoints were overall response rate (ORR) and maximum trough concentration (C). Secondary endpoints included rates of infusion-related reactions, progression-free survival, and patient-reported satisfaction with therapy. Sixty-seven Asian patients (DARA SC, n = 30; DARA IV, n = 37) were randomized, including 42 Japanese patients (DARA SC, n = 18; DARA IV, n = 24). Comparable ORRs for DARA SC versus DARA IV were seen in the Asian cohort (66.7% vs 43.2%) and Japanese-only cohort (61.1% vs 54.2%), including patients weighing ≤ 65 kg. Similarity of C was seen in both Asian and Japanese-only cohorts; the ratio of the geometric mean of the C concentrations for DARA SC/DARA IV was 143.96% (90% confidence interval (CI), 112.03-185.00%) and 148.02% (90% CI, 113.32-193.34%), respectively. The Asian cohort (both treatment groups) and Japanese-only cohort (DARA SC group) experienced higher rates of grade 3/4 cytopenias compared with the global COLUMBA population, occurring predominantly in patients of low bodyweight; no patients discontinued treatment due to cytopenias. The Cancer Therapy Satisfaction Questionnaire results generally favored DARA SC. In the Asian and Japanese-only cohorts, DARA SC was comparable to DARA IV. The efficacy, pharmacokinetic, safety, and satisfaction results were generally consistent with the global COLUMBA population regardless of patient bodyweight. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03277105.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04405-2DOI Listing
February 2021

A randomized phase 2/3 study of R-CHOP vs CHOP combined with dose-dense rituximab for DLBCL: the JCOG0601 trial.

Blood Adv 2021 Feb;5(4):984-993

Department of Hematology, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Aichi, Japan.

Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone (R-CHOP) is the standard of care for untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the schedule for rituximab administration has not been optimized. To compare standard R-CHOP with CHOP plus dose-dense weekly rituximab (RW-CHOP) in patients with untreated DLBCL, we conducted a phase 2/3 study (JCOG0601, jRCTs031180139). Patients were randomly assigned to R-CHOP (CHOP-21 with 8 doses of rituximab once every 3 weeks [375 mg/m2]) or RW-CHOP (CHOP-21 with 8 doses of weekly rituximab [375 mg/m2]) groups. The primary end point of the phase 2 component was percent complete response (%CR) of the RW-CHOP arm, whereas that of the phase 3 component was progression-free survival (PFS). Between December 2007 and December 2014, 421 untreated patients were randomly assigned to R-CHOP (213 patients) or RW-CHOP (208 patients). The %CR in the RW-CHOP arm was 85.3% and therefore met the prespecified decision criteria for the phase 2 component. With a median follow-up of 63.4 months, the 3-year PFS and overall survival were 79.2% and 88.7% in the R-CHOP arm and 80.3% and 90.4% in the RW-CHOP arm, respectively. There was no significant difference in PFS (hazard ratio, 0.95; 90.6% confidence interval, 0.68-1.31). Although the safety profile and efficacy of RW-CHOP was comparable with R-CHOP and its tolerability was acceptable, weekly rituximab in combination with CHOP during the early treatment period did not improve PFS in untreated patients with DLBCL. This trial was registered at jrct.niph.go.jp as #jRCTs031180139.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903239PMC
February 2021

Evaluation of Sustained Minimal Residual Disease Negativity With Daratumumab-Combination Regimens in Relapsed and/or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Analysis of POLLUX and CASTOR.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jan 29:JCO2001814. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

University of Calgary, Arnie Charbonneau Cancer Institute, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Purpose: In relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma, daratumumab reduced the risk of progression or death by > 60% in POLLUX (daratumumab/lenalidomide/dexamethasone [D-Rd]) and CASTOR (daratumumab/bortezomib/dexamethasone [D-Vd]). Minimal residual disease (MRD) is a sensitive measure of disease control. Sustained MRD negativity and outcomes were evaluated in these studies.

Methods: MRD was assessed via next-generation sequencing (10) at suspected complete response (CR), 3 and 6 months following confirmed CR (POLLUX), 6 and 12 months following the first dose (CASTOR), and every 12 months post-CR in both studies. Sustained MRD negativity (≥ 6 or ≥ 12 months) was evaluated in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and ≥ CR populations.

Results: The median follow-up was 54.8 months in POLLUX and 50.2 months in CASTOR. In the ITT population, MRD-negativity rates were 32.5% versus 6.7% for D-Rd versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) and 15.1% versus 1.6% for D-Vd versus bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd; both < .0001). Higher MRD negativity rates were achieved in ≥ CR patients in POLLUX (D-Rd, 57.4%; Rd, 29.2%; = .0001) and CASTOR (D-Vd, 52.8%; Vd, 17.4%; = .0035). More patients in the ITT population achieved sustained MRD negativity ≥ 6 months with D-Rd versus Rd (20.3% 2.1%; < .0001) and D-Vd versus Vd (10.4% 1.2%; < .0001), and ≥ 12 months with D-Rd versus Rd (16.1% 1.4%; < .0001) and D-Vd versus Vd (6.8% 0%). Similar results for sustained MRD negativity were observed among ≥ CR patients. More patients in the daratumumab-containing arms achieved MRD negativity and sustained MRD negativity, which were associated with prolonged progression-free survival.

Conclusion: Daratumumab-based combinations induce higher rates of sustained MRD negativity versus standard of care, which are associated with durable remissions and prolonged clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01814DOI Listing
January 2021

Subcutaneous daratumumab plus standard treatment regimens in patients with multiple myeloma across lines of therapy (PLEIADES): an open-label Phase II study.

Br J Haematol 2021 Mar 30;192(5):869-878. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Hematology Department, University Hospital Hôtel-Dieu, Nantes, France.

Daratumumab is a CD38-targeting monoclonal antibody approved for intravenous (IV) infusion for multiple myeloma (MM). We describe the Phase II PLEIADES study of a subcutaneous formulation of daratumumab (DARA SC) in combination with standard-of-care regimens: DARA SC plus bortezomib/lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-VRd) for transplant-eligible newly diagnosed MM (NDMM); DARA SC plus bortezomib/melphalan/prednisone (D-VMP) for transplant-ineligible NDMM; and DARA SC plus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-Rd) for relapsed/refractory MM. In total, 199 patients were treated (D-VRd, n = 67; D-VMP, n = 67; D-Rd, n = 65). The primary endpoints were met for all cohorts: the ≥very good partial response (VGPR) rate after four 21-day induction cycles for D-VRd was 71·6% [90% confidence interval (CI) 61·2-80·6%], and the overall response rates (ORRs) for D-VMP and D-Rd were 88·1% (90% CI 79·5-93·9%) and 90·8% (90% CI 82·6-95·9%). With longer median follow-up for D-VMP and D-Rd (14·3 and 14·7 months respectively), responses deepened (ORR: 89·6%, 93·8%; ≥VGPR: 77·6%, 78·5%), and minimal residual disease-negativity (10 ) rates were 16·4% and 15·4%. Infusion-related reactions across all cohorts were infrequent (≤9·0%) and mild. The median DARA SC administration time was 5 min. DARA SC with standard-of-care regimens demonstrated comparable clinical activity to DARA IV-containing regimens, with low infusion-related reaction rates and reduced administration time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16980DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical significance of CD28 gene-related activating alterations in adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2021 Jan 18;192(2):281-291. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan.

Multiple oncogenic events are involved in the development of adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL). Because CD28 plays a pivotal role in T-cell activation, we focused on alterations of the CD28 gene in ATL. We found multiple genetic abnormalities related to CD28 among the 144 patients enrolled in the present study. These involved gene fusions with the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 or the inducible T-cell co-stimulator in 14 patients (10%), CD28-activating mutations in 3 (2%), and CD28 copy number variations in 34 (24%). Patients with such CD28 gene alterations were significantly younger than those without. In patients not receiving allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, those with CD28 gene alterations tended to have a worse prognosis than those without. Finally, patients with chronic or smouldering ATL subtypes with CD28 gene alterations had a significantly worse prognosis than those without. These findings indicate that ATL, especially chronic or smouldering subtypes, have a more aggressive clinical course and are more refractory to conventional chemotherapies or mogamulizumab if they harbour CD28 gene alterations, likely because of continuous, prolonged, and enhanced CD28 activatory signalling. Novel treatment strategies to overcome the effects of these CD28 gene alterations are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894310PMC
January 2021

Bortezomib administration is a risk factor associated with the development of tumor lysis syndrome in male patients with multiple myeloma: a retrospective study.

BMC Cancer 2020 Nov 17;20(1):1117. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Pharmacy, Nagoya City University Hospital, 1-Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 467-8602, Japan.

Background: Novel agents such as proteasome inhibitors have been developed for several years to treat multiple myeloma. Although multiple myeloma is a low-risk disease for developing tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), treatment with these novel therapies might increase TLS risk. Previous studies, mostly case reports or case series, have reported bortezomib-induced TLS in patients with multiple myeloma. This study aimed to investigate risk factors associated with TLS development in multiple myeloma patients.

Methods: We retrospectively investigated incidences of laboratory and clinical TLS (LTLS and CTLS, respectively) in patients who received primary therapy for treatment-naive, symptomatic multiple myeloma between May 2007 and January 2018. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to evaluate the associations between TLS and several parameters previously reported to be associated with increased risk.

Results: This study included 210 patients with multiple myeloma, of which ten (4.8%) had LTLS and seven (3.3%) had CTLS. The characteristics of the administered anticancer or prophylactic antihyperuricemic agents were similar between patients with and without TLS. Multivariate analyses revealed that TLS was most strongly associated with bortezomib-containing therapy (odds ratio = 3.40, P = 0.069), followed by male sex (odds ratio = 2.29, P = 0.153). In a subgroup analysis focused on men, treatment with bortezomib-containing therapy was significantly associated with increased risk of TLS (odds ratio = 8.51, P = 0.046).

Conclusion: In the present study, we investigated the risk factors associated with TLS development in 210 multiple myeloma patients, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the largest number of patients reported to date. Furthermore, this study is the first to evaluate TLS risk factors in MM by adjusting for the effects of potential confounding factors in patients' backgrounds. Consequently, we found that bortezomib-containing therapy increases the risk of TLS in male patients with multiple myeloma. TLS risk should be evaluated further in low-risk diseases such as multiple myeloma, since a significant number of novel therapies can achieve high antitumor responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07592-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672870PMC
November 2020

Daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory myeloma: a cytogenetic subgroup analysis of POLLUX.

Blood Cancer J 2020 11 3;10(11):111. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer, Pamplona, Spain.

High cytogenetic risk abnormalities confer poor outcomes in multiple myeloma patients. In POLLUX, daratumumab/lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-Rd) demonstrated significant clinical benefit versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients. We report an updated subgroup analysis of POLLUX based on cytogenetic risk. The cytogenetic risk was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization/karyotyping; patients with high cytogenetic risk had t(4;14), t(14;16), or del17p abnormalities. Minimal residual disease (MRD; 10) was assessed via the clonoSEQ assay V2.0. 569 patients were randomized (D-Rd, n = 286; Rd, n = 283); 35 (12%) patients per group had high cytogenetic risk. After a median follow-up of 44.3 months, D-Rd prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus Rd in standard cytogenetic risk (median: not estimable vs 18.6 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.43; P < 0.0001) and high cytogenetic risk (median: 26.8 vs 8.3 months; HR, 0.34; P = 0.0035) patients. Responses with D-Rd were deep, including higher MRD negativity and sustained MRD-negativity rates versus Rd, regardless of cytogenetic risk. PFS on subsequent line of therapy was improved with D-Rd versus Rd in both cytogenetic risk subgroups. The safety profile of D-Rd by cytogenetic risk was consistent with the overall population. These findings demonstrate the improved efficacy of daratumumab plus standard of care versus standard of care in RRMM, regardless of cytogenetic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00375-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643179PMC
November 2020

Medical database analysis of japanese multiple myeloma patients with planned stem cell transplantation (MEDALIST) - a focus on healthcare resource utilization and cost.

Int J Hematol 2021 Feb 15;113(2):271-278. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

This study explored the burden associated with stem cell mobilization, with or without cyclophosphamide (CPA), in patients who intended to receive autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for multiple myeloma (MM). A Japanese health care claims database (MDV) was used to analyze the health care resource utilization patterns and medical cost between 2013 and 2016 (pre-plerixafor launch). The patients were further categorized into groups who received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or G-CSF + CPA group and analyzed in both mobilization and ASCT phases of treatment. Overall, there were more MM patients who were treated with G-CSF + CPA combination therapy than G-CSF alone. Length-of-stay was 1.6 times longer in the combination group during the mobilization phase. A reverse trend was observed during the ASCT phase. Direct cost was approximately 1.2 million yen during the mobilization phase and 2.3 million yen during the ASCT phase, with hospitalization basic fee accounting for the highest proportion in both groups and phases. A substantial amount of healthcare resource and cost was consumed in both phases. This study may serve as a basic reference for further health technology assessment of new medicines such as plerixafor. Further investigation of differences between treatment groups is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-03022-5DOI Listing
February 2021

Once-weekly vs. twice-weekly carfilzomib dosing in a subgroup of Japanese relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma patients from a randomized phase 3 trial (A.R.R.O.W.) and comparison with ENDEAVOR.

Int J Hematol 2021 Feb 10;113(2):219-230. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

A.R.R.O.W. evaluated the superiority of once-weekly carfilzomib plus dexamethasone (Kd) 20/70 mg/m vs. twice-weekly Kd 20/27 mg/m based on progression-free survival (PFS) in relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma patients. Forty Japanese patients (once-weekly arm, n = 26; twice-weekly arm, n = 14) were randomized in A.R.R.O.W. In the Japanese subgroup of A.R.R.O.W., median PFS was 14.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5-not evaluable [NE]) and 9.7 months (95% CI, 3.8-NE) in the once- and twice-weekly arms, respectively. The overall response rate (ORR) was 73.1% (19/26; 95% CI, 52.2-88.4) and 57.1% (8/14; 95% CI, 28.9-82.3) in each arm. The adverse events (AEs) incidence was 100% in both arms. Grade ≥ 3 AE incidence was 80.8% (21/26) and 78.6% (11/14) in each arm. Two fatal treatment-related AEs (acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome) occurred in the once-weekly arm. In exploratory unadjusted analyses of A.R.R.O.W. (once-weekly Kd 20/70 mg/m) vs. ENDEAVOR (twice-weekly Kd 20/56 mg/m), median PFS was 14.8 months vs. NE due to not yet being reached, and ORR was 73.1% (19/26) vs. 42.9% (3/7). In the Japanese subgroup, once-weekly Kd tended to improve ORR vs. twice-weekly Kd. Results from A.R.R.O.W. tended to be consistent with results from ENDEAVOR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-03013-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547551PMC
February 2021

Immunohistochemistry for CCR4 C-terminus predicts CCR4 mutations and mogamulizumab efficacy in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

J Pathol Clin Res 2021 01 6;7(1):52-60. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan.

Mogamulizumab targets extracellular N-terminal domain of CCR4, which is expressed in most adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) cases. Recently, we reported that CCR4 C-terminal gain-of-function mutations were frequent in ATL cases, and a subgroup with these mutations who were treated without allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and with mogamulizumab-containing [HSCT (-) and mogamulizumab (+)] regimens had a superior survival rate. Although these mutations are most likely a biomarker for predicting a strong response to mogamulizumab, their detection is time-consuming and costly. A more convenient screening tool may be necessary in the clinical setting. In this study, the clinicopathological importance of immunohistochemistry for the CCR4 N-terminus (CCR4-N-IHC) and C-terminus (CCR4-C-IHC) was examined in a large ATL cohort (n = 92). We found that CCR4-C-IHC, but not CCR4-N-IHC, was inversely correlated with the CCR4 mutation status. In ATL patients negative for CCR4-C-IHC, a subgroup treated with HSCT (-) and mogamulizumab (+) regimens showed a significantly better prognosis. In addition, CCR4-C-IHC was found to be a useful marker for high-sensitivity screening of the CCR4 mutational status (87%). The present study suggests that CCR4-C-IHC may be useful for identifying ATL patients harboring mutated CCR4 who may benefit from the superior efficacy of mogamulizumab-containing regimens and that CCR4-C-IHC may be a rapid and cost-efficient tool for screening for CCR4 mutation status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjp2.180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737778PMC
January 2021

Ixazomib as Postinduction Maintenance for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Not Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: The Phase III TOURMALINE-MM4 Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2020 Dec 6;38(34):4030-4041. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Purpose: Maintenance therapy prolongs progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) not undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) but has generally been limited to immunomodulatory agents. Other options that complement the induction regimen with favorable toxicity are needed.

Patients And Methods: The phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled TOURMALINE-MM4 study randomly assigned (3:2) patients with NDMM not undergoing ASCT who achieved better than or equal to partial response after 6-12 months of standard induction therapy to receive the oral proteasome inhibitor (PI) ixazomib or placebo on days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles as maintenance for 24 months. The primary endpoint was PFS since time of randomization.

Results: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ixazomib (n = 425) or placebo (n = 281). TOURMALINE-MM4 met its primary endpoint with a 34.1% reduction in risk of progression or death with ixazomib versus placebo (median PFS since randomization, 17.4 9.4 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.659; 95% CI, 0.542 to 0.801; < .001; median follow-up, 21.1 months). Ixazomib significantly benefitted patients who achieved complete or very good partial response postinduction (median PFS, 25.6 12.9 months; HR, 0.586; < .001). With ixazomib versus placebo, 36.6% versus 23.2% of patients had grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs); 12.9% versus 8.0% discontinued treatment because of TEAEs. Common any-grade TEAEs included nausea (26.8% 8.0%), vomiting (24.2% 4.3%), and diarrhea (23.2% 12.3%). There was no increase in new primary malignancies (5.2% 6.2%); rates of on-study deaths were 2.6% versus 2.2%.

Conclusion: Ixazomib maintenance prolongs PFS with no unexpected toxicity in patients with NDMM not undergoing ASCT. To our knowledge, this is the first PI demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial to have single-agent efficacy for maintenance and is the first oral PI option in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768338PMC
December 2020

Isatuximab monotherapy in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: A Japanese, multicenter, phase 1/2, safety and efficacy study.

Cancer Sci 2020 Dec 15;111(12):4526-4539. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya City University Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

Isatuximab, an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, targets cells that strongly express CD38 including malignant plasma cells. This open-label, single-arm, multicenter, phase 1/2 trial investigated the tolerability/safety and efficacy of isatuximab monotherapy in Japanese patients with heavily pretreated, relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). In Phase 1, patients were sequentially assigned to receive isatuximab once weekly (QW) in cycle 1 (4 weeks) and every 2 weeks (Q2W) in subsequent cycles. Cohort 1 (n = 3) received 10 mg/kg QW/Q2W; cohort 2 (n = 5) received 20 mg/kg QW/Q2W. No dose-limiting toxicities occurred; the recommended dose for the single-arm phase 2 study (n = 28) was 20 mg/kg QW/Q2W. The overall safety profile was consistent with the current knowledge of isatuximab. The most common adverse events were infusion reactions (42.9%; 12/28); all were grade 1/2 and generally occurred during the first infusion. The overall response rate with 20 mg/kg QW/Q2W isatuximab was 36.4% (12/33); patients with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities had comparable results. In phase 2, the median progression-free survival was 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.75 to not reached) months. Median overall survival was not reached. Isatuximab monotherapy was well tolerated and effective in patients with heavily pretreated RRMM including high-risk cytogenetic patients. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02812706.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734004PMC
December 2020

Pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in treatment-naive multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-185): subgroup analysis in Japanese patients.

Int J Hematol 2020 Nov 19;112(5):640-649. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

The global, randomized, open-label KEYNOTE-185 study closed early after an interim analysis showed an unfavorable benefit-risk profile with pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) versus Rd alone in treatment-naive, transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma. This subgroup analysis reported outcomes in the Japanese population. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to pembrolizumab plus Rd or Rd alone, stratified by age and International Staging System. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-two Japanese patients were randomly assigned to pembrolizumab plus Rd (n = 27) or Rd (n = 25). The median follow-up was 7.2 months (range, 0.4-13.8). The median PFS was not reached (NR); 6-month PFS was 91.2% versus 86.2% with pembrolizumab plus Rd versus Rd [hazard ratio (HR), 0.31; 95% CI, 0.06-1.63]. The median overall survival (OS) was NR; 6-month OS was 96.2% versus 95.7% with pembrolizumab plus Rd versus Rd (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.03-3.72). With pembrolizumab plus Rd versus Rd, grade 3-5 adverse events occurred in 70.4% versus 69.6% of patients; serious adverse events occurred in 40.7% versus 52.5%. Although in the Japanese subgroup of KEYNOTE-185 adding pembrolizumab to Rd did not show an unfavorable risk-benefit, the analysis is limited by short follow-up and small sample size, affecting generalizability of the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02953-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical significance of tryptophan catabolism in follicular lymphoma.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Dec 29;38(5):742-753. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Hematology & Oncology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

The enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO), catabolizes tryptophan (Trp) in the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway, and is important in suppressing antitumor immune responses in the tumor microenvironment. With regard to previously untreated patients with follicular lymphoma (FL), we sought to establish the prognostic significance of Trp catabolism in this disease. Serum Trp and Kyn levels in 110 patients with FL were quantified, and their relationship to different clinical parameters studied. IDO expression in the lymph nodes of affected patients was studied. Study participants included 54 males and 56 females (age range 39-86, median 62 years), showing a 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of 78.5%. Patients with a high Kyn level (5-year OS, 65.0% vs. 81.7%; p = 0.026), high Kyn/Trp ratio (71.1% vs. 81.7%; p = 0.002), and low hemoglobin (Hb) level (<12.0 g/dL; p = 0.001; a component of FL international prognostic indexes) demonstrated a significantly shorter OS. Multivariate analysis included the following 10 variables: age, sex, serum β2-microglobulin, Hb, longest diameter of the largest involved node, Ann Arbor stage, serum lactate dehydrogenase, histologic grading, B symptoms, and serum Kyn/Trp ratio; a lower Hb level and a high Kyn/Trp ratio (HR, 3.239; 95% CI, 1.296-8.096) led to a significantly inferior OS. In the microenvironment, some CD11c-positive myeloid dendritic cells but not FL tumor cells were found to produce IDO. Overall, measuring levels of serum Kyn and Trp in individual patients with FL contributed to predicting their prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2804DOI Listing
December 2020

Subcutaneous delivery of daratumumab in Japanese patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Int J Hematol 2021 Jan 11;113(1):112-121. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

Subcutaneous daratumumab (DARA SC; daratumumab co-formulated with recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20) is administered in ~ 5 min and demonstrates safety and efficacy comparable to intravenous daratumumab, with low infusion-related reaction (IRR) rates in global populations. This open-label, multicenter, phase 1 study is the first evaluation of DARA SC in Japanese patients. Eligible patients had relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM; ≥ 2 prior lines of therapy including a proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulatory drug). Patients (N = 6) received DARA SC 1,800 mg until progression (weekly for Cycles 1-2; every 2 weeks for Cycles 3-7; monthly for Cycles 7 + [28-day cycles]). The primary objective was to evaluate safety. Secondary objectives included efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Median time of administration was 3-4 min for all injections. No dose-limiting toxicity occurred, and no treatment-emergent adverse events were serious or led to discontinuation. No IRRs were observed; 4 (67%) patients had injection-site reactions (all grade 1). Overall response rate was 67%. Pharmacokinetics of DARA SC in Japanese patients were similar to findings from the global phase 1b PAVO study (NCT02519452). DARA SC at a flat dose of 1,800 mg was well tolerated in Japanese RRMM patients with comparable efficacy and pharmacokinetics to intravenous daratumumab. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03242889.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02985-9DOI Listing
January 2021

Greater treatment satisfaction in patients receiving daratumumab subcutaneous vs. intravenous for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: COLUMBA clinical trial results.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Feb 27;147(2):619-631. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Janssen Global Services, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA.

Purpose: The phase III COLUMBA study evaluated daratumumab (DARA) intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Here, we report patient-reported satisfaction with therapy (SWT) in COLUMBA.

Methods: DARA IV or DARA SC was administered weekly (cycles 1-2), every 2 weeks (cycles 3-6), and every 4 weeks (cycles 7 +). Patients completed a modified version of the Cancer Therapy Satisfaction Questionnaire (CTSQ) at weekly (cycles 1-2) and monthly (cycles 3 +) intervals and at the end of treatment. Results for each item and the SWT domain score were summarized using descriptive statistics. The distribution of responses for individual items was calculated for each assessment. The proportion of patients for whom SWT domain score change from first assessment met or exceeded the minimally important difference (MID) of 5.9 points was calculated at each assessment time point.

Results: Two-hundred fifty-nine patients were randomized to DARA IV and 263 to DARA SC. Mean scores for SWT domain questions were high and largely positive during treatment. Responses indicating positive perceptions of therapy were given by a numerically greater proportion of patients in the DARA SC group than the DARA IV group for most questions. Changes from the first assessment in SWT domain scores met or exceeded the MID for an average of ~ 40% of patients.

Conclusion: In COLUMBA, modified CTSQ results suggest patients in the DARA SC group were more satisfied with their cancer therapy than those in the DARA IV group.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03277105. Registered September 8, 2107.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-020-03365-wDOI Listing
February 2021

Greater treatment satisfaction in patients receiving daratumumab subcutaneous vs. intravenous for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: COLUMBA clinical trial results.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Feb 27;147(2):619-631. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Janssen Global Services, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA.

Purpose: The phase III COLUMBA study evaluated daratumumab (DARA) intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Here, we report patient-reported satisfaction with therapy (SWT) in COLUMBA.

Methods: DARA IV or DARA SC was administered weekly (cycles 1-2), every 2 weeks (cycles 3-6), and every 4 weeks (cycles 7 +). Patients completed a modified version of the Cancer Therapy Satisfaction Questionnaire (CTSQ) at weekly (cycles 1-2) and monthly (cycles 3 +) intervals and at the end of treatment. Results for each item and the SWT domain score were summarized using descriptive statistics. The distribution of responses for individual items was calculated for each assessment. The proportion of patients for whom SWT domain score change from first assessment met or exceeded the minimally important difference (MID) of 5.9 points was calculated at each assessment time point.

Results: Two-hundred fifty-nine patients were randomized to DARA IV and 263 to DARA SC. Mean scores for SWT domain questions were high and largely positive during treatment. Responses indicating positive perceptions of therapy were given by a numerically greater proportion of patients in the DARA SC group than the DARA IV group for most questions. Changes from the first assessment in SWT domain scores met or exceeded the MID for an average of ~ 40% of patients.

Conclusion: In COLUMBA, modified CTSQ results suggest patients in the DARA SC group were more satisfied with their cancer therapy than those in the DARA IV group.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03277105. Registered September 8, 2107.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-020-03365-wDOI Listing
February 2021

Autocrine HGF/c-Met signaling pathway confers aggressiveness in lymph node adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

Oncogene 2020 08 4;39(35):5782-5794. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Division of Cancer Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell neoplasm. While ATL cells in peripheral blood (PB-ATL) are sensitive to anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 treatment, non-PB-ATLs, including lymph node ATLs (LN-ATLs), are more aggressive and resistant. We examined characteristic cytokines and growth factors that allow non-PB-ATLs to proliferate and invade compared with PB-ATLs. Protein array analysis revealed hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and C-C motif chemokine 2 (CCL2) were significantly upregulated in non-PB-ATLs compared with PB-ATLs. The HGF membrane receptor, c-Met, was expressed in PB-ATL and non-PB-ATL cell lines, but CCR2, a CCL2 receptor, was not. Immunohistochemical analysis in clinical ATLs revealed high HGF expression in LNs, pharynx, bone marrow, and tonsils. The HGF/c-Met signaling pathway was active downstream in non-PB-ATLs. Downregulation of HGF/c-Met by siRNA or chemical inhibitors decreased in vitro and in vivo proliferation and invasion by non-PB-ATLs. Treatment with bromodomain and extra-terminal motif inhibitor suppressed HGF expression and decreased levels of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27Ac) and bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) binding promoter and enhancer regions, suppressing non-PB-ATL cellular growth. Our data indicate H3K27Ac/BRD4 epigenetics regulates the HGF/c-MET pathway in ATLs; targeting this pathway may improve treatment of aggressive non-PB-ATLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01393-xDOI Listing
August 2020

A multicenter, open-label, phase II study of tirabrutinib (ONO/GS-4059) in patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.

Cancer Sci 2020 Sep 20;111(9):3327-3337. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Hematology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Tirabrutinib is a second-generation Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor with greater selectivity than ibrutinib. Here, we conducted a multicenter, phase II study of tirabrutinib in patients with treatment-naïve (Cohort A) or with relapsed/refractory (Cohort B) Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). Patients were treated with tirabrutinib 480 mg once daily. The primary endpoint was major response rate (MRR; ≥ partial response). Secondary endpoints included overall response rate (ORR; ≥ minor response), time to major response (TTMR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. In total, 27 patients (18 in Cohort A; 9 in Cohort B) were enrolled. The median age was 71 y, and the median serum immunoglobulin M level was 3600 mg/dL. Among the patients, 96.2% had the MYD88 mutation. MRR and ORR were 88.9% and 96.3%, respectively (Cohort A: MRR, 88.9%; ORR, 94.4%; Cohort B: MRR, 88.9%; ORR, 100%). Median TTMR was 1.87 mo. PFS and OS were not reached with a median follow-up of 6.5 and 8.3 mo for Cohorts A and B, respectively. The most common adverse events (AEs) were rash (44.4%), neutropenia (25.9%), and leukopenia (22.2%), with most AEs classified as grade 1 or 2. Grade ≥ 3 AEs included neutropenia (11.1%), lymphopenia (11.1%), and leukopenia (7.4%). No grade 5 AEs were noted. All bleeding events were grade 1; none were associated with drug-related atrial fibrillation or hypertension. Although the follow-up duration was relatively short, the study met the primary endpoint. Therefore, tirabrutinib monotherapy is considered to be highly effective for both untreated and relapsed/refractory WM with a manageable safety profile. (JapicCTI-173646).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469793PMC
September 2020

Clinical utility of target capture-based panel sequencing in hematological malignancies: A multicenter feasibility study.

Cancer Sci 2020 Sep 17;111(9):3367-3378. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Although next-generation sequencing-based panel testing is well practiced in the field of cancer medicine for the identification of target molecules in solid tumors, the clinical utility and clinical issues surrounding panel testing in hematological malignancies have yet to be fully evaluated. We conducted a multicenter prospective clinical sequencing study to verify the feasibility of a panel test for hematological tumors, including acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Out of 96 eligible patients, 79 patients (82%) showed potentially actionable findings, based on the clinical sequencing assays. We identified that genetic alterations with a strong clinical significance were found at a higher frequency in terms of diagnosis (n = 60; 63%) and prognosis (n = 61; 64%) than in terms of therapy (n = 8; 8%). Three patients who harbored a germline mutation in either DDX41 (n = 2) or BRCA2 (n = 1) were provided with genetic counseling. At 6 mo after sequencing, clinical actions based on the diagnostic (n = 5) or prognostic (n = 3) findings were reported, but no patients were enrolled in a clinical trial or received targeted therapies based on the sequencing results. These results suggest that panel testing for hematological malignancies would be feasible given the availability of useful diagnostic and prognostic information. This study is registered with the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN000029879, multiple myeloma; UMIN000031343, adult acute myeloid leukemia; UMIN000033144, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; and UMIN000034243, childhood leukemia).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469806PMC
September 2020

Randomised phase II study to optimise melphalan, prednisolone, and bortezomib in untreated multiple myeloma (JCOG1105).

Br J Haematol 2021 Feb 24;192(3):531-541. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Hematology, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Japan.

We conducted a randomised phase II study to determine the optimal dose and schedule of melphalan, prednisone, and bortezomib (MPB) (jRCTs031180097). Transplant-ineligible untreated multiple myeloma patients were randomised to Arm A (twice weekly bortezomib in one six-week cycle followed by eight five-week cycles of four times once weekly bortezomib with melphalan and prednisolone on days 1-4) or Arm B (nine four-week cycles of three times once weekly bortezomib with melphalan and prednisolone on days 1-4). The primary end-point was complete response (CR) rate. Of 91 patients randomised to two arms, 88 were eligible. The median cumulative bortezomib doses were 45·8 and 35·1 mg/m , CR rate was 18·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8·4-33·4] and 6·7% (95% CI 1·4-18·3), and the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 2·5 and 1·4 years in Arms A and B [hazard ratio (HR) 1·93 (95% CI 1·09-3·42)], respectively. Frequent grade ≥3 haematologic toxicities in Arms A and B were neutropenia (64·4% vs. 28·3%) and thrombocytopenia (35·6% vs. 10·9%). Grade 2/3 peripheral neuropathy was observed in 24·4/2·2% in Arm A and 8·7/0% in Arm B. In conclusion, Arm A was the more promising regimen, suggesting that the twice weekly schedule of bortezomib in the first cycle and higher cumulative dose of both bortezomib and melphalan influences the efficacy of modified MPB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7891591PMC
February 2021

Robust CD8+ T-cell proliferation and diversification after mogamulizumab in patients with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 05;4(10):2180-2191

Department of Hematology and Oncology and.

Skin-related adverse events (AEs) occur frequently in adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) patients treated with mogamulizumab, a humanized anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody. This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanisms of mogamulizumab-induced skin-related AEs. We analyzed the T-cell receptor β chain repertoire in ATL patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before and after mogamulizumab. Skin-related AEs were present in 16 patients and were absent in 8 patients. Additionally, we included 11 patients before and after chemotherapy without mogamulizumab. Immune-related gene expression in PBMCs before and after mogamulizumab was also assessed (n = 24). Mogamulizumab treatment resulted in CCR4+ T-cell depletion, and the consequent lymphopenia provoked homeostatic CD8+ T-cell proliferation, as evidenced by increased expressions of CD8B and CD8A, which were significantly greater in patients with skin-related AEs than in those without them. We hypothesize that proliferation is driven by the engagement of self-antigens, including skin-related antigens, in the face of regulatory T-cell depletion. Together with the observed activated antigen presentation function, this resulted in T-cell diversification that was significantly greater in patients with skin-related AEs than in those without. We found that the CD8+ T cells that proliferated and diversified after mogamulizumab treatment were almost entirely newly emerged clones. There was an inverse relationship between the degree of CCR4+ T-cell depletion and increased CD8+ T-cell proliferation and diversification. Thus, lymphocyte-depleting mogamulizumab treatment provokes homeostatic CD8+ T-cell proliferation predominantly of newly emerging clones, some of which could have important roles in the pathogenesis of mogamulizumab-induced skin-related AEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7252545PMC
May 2020

Hepatitis B virus reactivation in a myeloma patient with resolved infection who received daratumumab-containing salvage chemotherapy.

J Clin Exp Hematop 2020 Jun 13;60(2):51-54. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

A 72-year-old female complaining of back pain was diagnosed with IgG-κ multiple myeloma. After osteosynthesis for fracture of the left femoral shaft due to myeloma, she received bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisolone as an initial regimen for multiple myeloma, but discontinued it after three courses due to progressive disease. The patient subsequently received lenalidomide and dexamethasone as a second-line regimen for 2.5 years, and pomalidomide and dexamethasone as a third-line regimen for only 2 months. An anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, daratumumab (DARA), and bortezomib and dexamethasone (DVd) as a fourth-line regimen were administered for refractory myeloma. However, hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation occurred on day 15 of the third course of DVd. The HBV DNA level in peripheral blood suddenly increased to 2.2 log IU/mL. An anti-HBV nucleotide analog, entecavir, was subsequently administered when the HBV DNA level increased to 2.6 log IU/mL. No HBV-related hepatitis was observed during follow-up. DARA can improve the prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma, but also potentially increase the risk of HBV reactivation. Host and viral risk factors need to be identified in such patients in order to implement a more cost-effective strategy against HBV reactivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3960/jslrt.19034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337267PMC
June 2020

Genomic analysis of multiple myeloma using targeted capture sequencing in the Japanese cohort.

Br J Haematol 2020 Dec 9;191(5):755-763. Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Japan.

Previous genomic studies have revealed the genomic landscape of myeloma cells. Although some of the genomic abnormalities shown are believed to be correlated to the molecular pathogenesis of multiple myeloma and/or clinical outcome, these correlations are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to elucidate the correlation between genomic abnormalities and clinical characteristics by targeted capture sequencing in the Japanese multiple myeloma cohort. We analysed 154 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The analysis revealed that the study cohort consisted of a less frequent hyperdiploid subtype (37·0%) with relatively high frequencies of KRAS mutation (36·4%) and IGH-CCND1 translocation (26·6%) compared with previous reports. Moreover, our targeted capture sequencing strategy was able to detect rare IGH-associated chromosomal translocations, such as IGH-CCND2 and IGH-MAFA. Interestingly, all 10 patients harboured MAX mutations accompanied by 14q23 deletion. The patients with del(17p) exhibited an unfavourable clinical outcome, and the presence of KRAS mutation was associated with shorter survival in patients with multiple myeloma, harbouring IGH-CCND1. Thus, our study provides a detailed landscape of genomic abnormalities, which may have potential clinical application for patients with multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16720DOI Listing
December 2020

Subcutaneous versus intravenous daratumumab in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (COLUMBA): a multicentre, open-label, non-inferiority, randomised, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2020 May 23;7(5):e370-e380. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Levine Cancer Institute-Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Intravenous daratumumab for treatment of patients with multiple myeloma involves a lengthy infusion that affects quality of life, and infusion-related reactions are common. Subcutaneous daratumumab is thought to be easier to administer and to cause fewer administration-related reactions. In this study (COLUMBA), we tested the non-inferiority of subcutaneous daratumumab to intravenous daratumumab.

Methods: In this ongoing, multicentre (147 sites in 18 countries), open-label, non-inferiority, randomised, phase 3 trial, we recruited adult patients (age ≥18 years) if they had confirmed relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma according to International Myeloma Working Group criteria; received at least three previous lines of therapy, including a proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulatory drug, or were double refractory to both a proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulatory drug; and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 2 or lower. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated randomisation schedule and balanced using randomly permuted blocks to receive daratumumab subcutaneously (subcutaneous group) or intravenously (intravenous group). Randomisation was stratified on the basis of baseline bodyweight (≤65 kg, 66-85 kg, >85 kg), previous therapy lines (≤four vs >four), and myeloma type (IgG vs non-IgG). Patients received 1800 mg of subcutaneous daratumumab co-formulated with 2000 U/mL recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 or 16 mg/kg of intravenous daratumumab once weekly (cycles 1-2), every 2 weeks (cycles 3-6), and every 4 weeks thereafter (28-day cycles) until progressive disease or toxicity. The co-primary endpoints were overall response and maximum trough concentration (C; cycle 3, day 1 pre-dose). The non-inferiority margin for overall response was defined using a 60% retention of the lower bound (20·8%) of the 95% CI of the SIRIUS trial. Efficacy analyses were done by intention-to-treat population. The pharmacokinetic-evaluable population included all patients who received all eight weekly daratumumab doses in cycles 1 and 2 and provided a pre-dose pharmacokinetics blood sample on day 1 of cycle 3. The safety population included all patients who received at least one daratumumab dose. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03277105.

Findings: Between Oct 31, 2017, and Dec 27, 2018, 655 patients were screened, of whom 522 were recruited and randomly assigned (subcutaneous group n=263; intravenous group n=259). Three patients in the subcutaneous group and one in the intravenous group did not receive treatment and were not evaluable for safety. At a median follow-up of 7·5 months (IQR 6·5-9·3), overall response and C met the predefined non-inferiority criteria. An overall response was seen in 108 (41%) of 263 patients in the subcutaneous group and 96 (37%) of 259 in the intravenous group (relative risk 1·11, 95% CI 0·89-1·37). The geometric means ratio for C was 107·93% (90% CI 95·74-121·67), and the maximum C was 593 μg/mL (SD 306) in the subcutaneous group and 522 μg/mL (226) in the intravenous group. The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were anaemia (34 [13%] of 260 patients evaluable for safety in the subcutaneous group and 36 [14%] of 258 patients in the intravenous group), neutropenia (34 [13%] and 20 [8%]), and thrombocytopenia (36 [14%] and 35 [14%]). Pneumonia was the only serious adverse event in more than 2% of patients (seven [3%] in the subcutaneous group and 11 [4%] in the intravenous group). There was one death resulting from a treatment-related adverse event in the subcutaneous daratumumab group (febrile neutropenia) and four in the intravenous group (sepsis [n=2], hepatitis B reactivation [n=1], and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia [n=1]).

Interpretation: Subcutaneous daratumumab was non-inferior to intravenous daratumumab in terms of efficacy and pharmacokinetics and had an improved safety profile in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. These data could contribute to the approval of the subcutaneous daratumumab formulation by regulatory bodies.

Funding: Janssen Research & Development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30070-3DOI Listing
May 2020

Expression, mutation, and methylation of cereblon-pathway genes at pre- and post-lenalidomide treatment in multiple myeloma.

Cancer Sci 2020 Apr 12;111(4):1333-1343. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

Cereblon (CRBN) is a target for immunomodulatory drugs. This study investigated the prognostic value of the expression of CRBN-pathway genes on the clinical relevance of lenalidomide (Len) treatment and evaluated the levels of CRBN-binding proteins and mutations in these genes after Len treatment. Forty-eight primary multiple myeloma cells were collected prior to treatment with Len and dexamethasone (Ld) and 25 paired samples were obtained post-Ld therapy. These tumor cells were used to determine the expression and mutated forms of the CRBN-pathway genes. Following normalization with CRBN levels, there was a significantly reduced IKZF1/CRBN ratio in samples that responded poorly to Ld therapy. Moreover, patients with low ratios of IKZF1/CRBN showed a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than those with higher ratios. However, patients with high ratios of KPNA2/CRBN showed a significantly shorter PFS and OS than patients with lower ratios. Of the 25 paired samples analyzed, most samples showed a reduction in the expression of CRBN and an increase in IKZF1 gene expression. No mutations were observed in CRBN, IKZF1, or CUL4A genes in the post-Ld samples. In conclusion, a decreased expression of IKZF1 and increased expression of KPNA2 compared to that of CRBN mRNA predicts poor outcomes of Ld therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156787PMC
April 2020

Developments in continuous therapy and maintenance treatment approaches for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

Blood Cancer J 2020 02 13;10(2):17. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

The evolving paradigm of continuous therapy and maintenance treatment approaches in multiple myeloma (MM) offers prolonged disease control and improved outcomes compared to traditional fixed-duration approaches. Potential benefits of long-term strategies include sustained control of disease symptoms, as well as continued cytoreduction and clonal control, leading to unmeasurable residual disease and the possibility of transforming MM into a chronic or functionally curable condition. "Continuous therapy" commonly refers to administering a doublet or triplet regimen until disease progression, whereas maintenance approaches typically involve single-agent or doublet treatment following more intensive prior therapy with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) or doublet, triplet, or even quadruplet induction therapy. However, the requirements for agents and regimens within these contexts are similar: treatments must be tolerable for a prolonged period of time, should not be associated with cumulative or chronic toxicity, should not adversely affect patients' quality of life, should ideally be convenient with a minimal treatment burden for patients, and should not impact the feasibility or efficacy of subsequent treatment at relapse. Multiple agents have been and are being investigated as long-term options in the treatment of newly diagnosed MM (NDMM), including the immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and thalidomide, the proteasome inhibitors bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib, and the monoclonal antibodies daratumumab, elotuzumab, and isatuximab. Here we review the latest results with long-term therapy approaches in three different settings in NDMM: (1) maintenance treatment post ASCT; (2) continuous frontline therapy in nontransplant patients; (3) maintenance treatment post-frontline therapy in the nontransplant setting. We also discuss evidence from key phase 3 trials. Our review demonstrates how the paradigm of long-term treatment is increasingly well-established across NDMM treatment settings, potentially resulting in further improvements in patient outcomes, and highlights key clinical issues that will need to be addressed in order to provide optimal benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-0273-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7018731PMC
February 2020

Clinical study designs and patient selection methods based on genomic biomarkers: Points-to-consider documents.

Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2020 Apr 18;35(2):187-190. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Japan.

Recently, genomic biomarkers have been widely used clinically for prediction of the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy and diagnosis and prognosis of pathological conditions. Therefore, genomic biomarkers are anticipated to accelerate not only precision medicine for pharmacotherapy but also development of molecularly targeted drugs. Because the design of clinical studies involving biomarkers may differ from conventional clinical study designs, a concept paper focused on clinical studies and patient selection methods based on genomic biomarkers is desired to prompt innovative drug development. Thus, this concept paper aimed to compile and present current scientific information from the related guidelines regarding application of genomic biomarkers to clinical trials and studies for drug development. We hope that this concept paper will prompt the development of guidelines for biomarker application to drug development by industry, regulatory authorities, the medical profession, and academia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dmpk.2020.01.003DOI Listing
April 2020

Daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone in Japanese patients with transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a phase 1b study.

Int J Hematol 2020 May 30;111(5):692-701. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Hematology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) treatment is common for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. Daratumumab plus Rd (D-Rd) is effective and well tolerated for treating relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. In this ongoing phase 1b trial, transplant-ineligible Japanese patients with NDMM received daratumumab (16 mg/kg intravenously every week for 8 weeks, every 2 weeks for 16 weeks, then every 4 weeks until disease progression) plus Rd (R 25 mg on Days 1‒21 of 28-day cycle; d 40 mg weekly). The primary objective was to evaluate D-Rd tolerability and safety in Japanese patients with NDMM. Secondary objectives included daratumumab pharmacokinetics and response rate. During the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) evaluation period, two DLTs occurred in seven (28.6%) patients, indicating D-Rd tolerability. At an 11.0-month median follow-up (interim analysis), grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in six (85.7%) patients, including lymphopenia (71.4%), leukopenia (57.1%), and neutropenia (42.9%). Three (42.9%) patients experienced infusion-related reactions (IRRs). All IRRs were grade 2, occurred during the first daratumumab infusion, and resolved within 24 h. Pharmacokinetic findings were comparable to those in previous studies. A 100% overall response rate was achieved. These findings suggest D-Rd is tolerable in Japanese patients with transplant-ineligible NDMM. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02918331.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02825-wDOI Listing
May 2020