Publications by authors named "Shin-ichi Nishio"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

ACTH-producing thymic neuroendocrine tumor initially presenting as psychosis: A case report and literature review.

Thorac Cancer 2019 07 11;10(7):1648-1653. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Comprehensive Cancer Therapy, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Asahi Matsumoto, Japan.

A 32-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of severe psychosis and was found to have an ectopic ACTH-producing thymic neuroendocrine tumor. Laboratory data revealed an elevated serum cortisol and plasma ACTH level, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed an anterior mediastinal mass and multiple pulmonary nodules. As the patient was unable to communicate because of her consciousness disturbance, she was managed with artificial ventilation and deep sedation. Metyrapone and potassium supplementation were administered, and steroid psychosis gradually improved. Thoracic surgery was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was thymic neuroendocrine tumor with positive anti-ACTH immunohistochemical staining. Here we present details of the case and review the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6610259PMC
July 2019

Repression of insulin gene transcription by indirect genomic signaling via the estrogen receptor in pancreatic beta cells.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2019 Apr 21;55(4):226-236. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, 390-8621, Japan.

The mechanism whereby 17β-estradiol (E2) mediates insulin gene transcription has not been fully elucidated. In this study, exposure of hamster insulinoma (HIT-T15) cells to 5 × 10 to 1 × 10 M E2 led to a concentration-dependent decrease of insulin mRNA levels. Transient expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) in HIT-T15 cells revealed that estrogen receptor α (ERα) repressed transcription of the rat insulin II promoter in both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent manners. The N-terminal A/B domain of ERα was not required for either activity. However, the repression was absent with mutated ER lacking the DNA-binding domain. Moreover, introducing mutations in the D-box and P-box of the zinc finger of ER (C227S, C202L) also abolished the repression. Deletion of the insulin promoter region revealed that nucleotide positions - 238 to - 144 (relative to the transcriptional start site) were needed for ER repression of the rat insulin II gene. PDX1- and BETA2-binding sites were required for the repression, but an estrogen response element-like sequence or an AP1 site in the promoter was not involved. In conclusion, we found that estrogen repressed insulin mRNA expression in a beta cell line. In addition, the ER suppressed insulin gene transcription in a ligand-independent matter. These observations suggest ER may regulate insulin transcription by indirect genomic signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-019-00328-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443913PMC
April 2019

Implications of thyroid autoimmunity in infertile women with subclinical hypothyroidism in the absence of both goiter and anti-thyroid antibodies: lessons from three cases.

Endocr J 2019 Feb 18;66(2):193-198. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Division of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan.

There is a great deal of research interest regarding the underlying causes of slightly elevated TSH values in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) without abnormal findings on ultrasonography or anti-thyroid antibodies. Twelve infertile women with thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb)-negative nongoitrous SH were referred to our department of endocrinology between September 2007 and September 2015. None had been diagnosed with autoimmune thyroid disease or had any possible causes of SH. In all cases, LT4 was prescribed to bring TSH value below 2.5 mIU/L. Among those with infertility treatments, six (50%) became pregnant and gave birth to infants. Here, we report three of these six women who successfully became pregnant with infertility treatments and were found to have thyroid autoimmunity on data obtained during the postpartum period. Two developed postpartum thyroiditis, and the remaining one woman was temporarily weakly positive for TPOAb at 9 months postpartum. We describe three infertile subclinically hypothyroid women without goiter or anti-thyroid antibodies with potential thyroid autoimmunity. Thyroid autoimmunity is one of the most important issues for management of pregnant women, and thus, our findings are noteworthy for the care of infertile women with SH. This report provides valuable insights into the presence of autoimmunity in nongoitrous thyroid-associated antibody-negative SH patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ18-0350DOI Listing
February 2019

Loss of μ-crystallin causes PPARγ activation and obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 01 10;508(3):914-920. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, 390-8621, Japan.

The thyroid hormone-binding protein μ-crystallin (CRYM) mediates thyroid hormone action by sequestering triiodothyronine in the cytoplasm and regulating the intracellular concentration of thyroid hormone. As thyroid hormone action is closely associated with glycolipid metabolism, it has been proposed that CRYM may contribute to this process by reserving or releasing triiodothyronine in the cytoplasm. We aimed to clarify the relationship between CRYM and glycolipid metabolism by comparing wild-type and CRYM knockout mice fed a high-fat diet. Each group was provided a high-fat diet for 10 weeks, and then their body weight and fasting blood glucose levels were measured. Although no difference in body weight was observed between the two groups with normal diet, the treatment with a high-fat diet was found to induce obesity in the knockout mice. The knockout group displayed increased dietary intake, white adipose tissue, fat cell hypertrophy, and hyperglycemia in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. In CRYM knockout mice, liver fat deposits were more pronounced than in the control group. Enhanced levels of PPARγ, which is known to cause fatty liver, and ACC1, which is a target gene for thyroid hormone and is involved in the fat synthesis, were also detected in the livers of CRYM knockout mice. These observations suggest that CRYM deficiency leads to obesity and lipogenesis, possibly in part through increasing the food intake of mice fed a high-fat diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.12.038DOI Listing
January 2019

Occurrence of IgG4-related hypophysitis lacking IgG4-bearing plasma cell infiltration during steroid therapy.

Intern Med 2014 1;53(7):753-7. Epub 2012 Mar 1.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Japan.

Eight years after an episode of multiple IgG4-related disease, a pituitary mass with panhypopituitarism and a visual disturbance developed in a 70-year-old man under low-dose steroid therapy. A pituitary biopsy revealed findings of lymphocytic hypophysitis with the absence of IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration. The serum IgG4 level was unremarkable. Although performing a pituitary biopsy and measuring the serum IgG4 level is crucial for making a diagnosis of IgG4-related hypophysitis, it is occasionally difficult to diagnose the disease in patients treated with steroid therapy, as observed in the present case. Based on a review of the diagnosis, conducting a careful assessment is required, especially in men and elderly patients thought to have solitary hypophysitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.53.0714DOI Listing
May 2015

Cytosolic T3-binding protein modulates dynamic alteration of T3-mediated gene expression in cells.

Endocr J 2014 20;61(6):561-70. Epub 2014 Mar 20.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan.

μ-Crystallin (CRYM) is also known as NADPH-dependent cytosolic T3-binding protein. A study using CRYM-null mice suggested that CRYM stores triiodothyronine (T3) in tissues. We previously established CRYM-expressing cells derived from parental GH3 cells. To examine the precise regulation of T3-responsive genes in the presence of CRYM, we evaluated serial alterations of T3-responsive gene expression by changing pericellular T3 concentrations in the media. We estimated the constitutive expression of three T3-responsive genes, growth hormone (GH), deiodinase 1 (Dio1), and deiodinase 2 (Dio2), in two cell lines. Subsequently, we measured the responsiveness of these three genes at 4, 8, 16, and 24 h after adding various concentrations of T3. We also estimated the levels of these mRNAs 24 and 48 h after removing T3. The levels of constitutive expression of GH and Dio1 were low and high in C8 cells, respectively, while Dio2 expression was not significantly different between GH3 and C8 cells. When treated with T3, Dio2 expression was significantly enhanced in C8 cells, while there were no differences in GH or Dio1 expression between GH3 and C8 cell lines. In contrast, removal of T3 retained the mRNA expression of GH and Dio2 in C8 cells. These results suggest that CRYM expression increases and sustains the T3 responsiveness of genes in cells, especially with alteration of the pericellular T3 concentration. The heterogeneity of T3-related gene expression is dependent on cellular CRYM expression in cases of dynamic changes in pericellular T3 concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.ej13-0418DOI Listing
April 2015

A new experimental model of ATP-sensitive K⁺ channel-independent insulinotropic action of glucose: a permissive role of cAMP for triggering of insulin release from rat pancreatic β-cells.

Endocr J 2013 17;60(5):599-607. Epub 2013 Jan 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan.

In pancreatic β-cells, glucose metabolism leads to closure of ATP sensitive K⁺ channels (K(ATP) channel) and Ca²⁺ influx, which is regarded as a required step for triggering of insulin release. Here, we demonstrate that glucose triggers rapid insulin release independent from its action on K(ATP) channels given the cellular cAMP is elevated. We measured insulin release from rat pancreatic islets by static and perifusion experiments. Changes in cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺]i) were monitored using fura-2 loaded rat pancreatic β-cells. Glucose-induced insulin release was abolished when Ca²⁺ influx was inhibited by a combination of 250 μM diazoxide, an opener of K(ATP) channel, and 10 μM nifedipine, a blocker of L-type voltage-dependent Ca²⁺ channels. However, with both nifedipine and diazoxide, glucose induced a 5-fold increase in insulin release in the presence of 10 μM forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase. In the presence of diazoxide, nifedipine, and forskolin, 22 mM glucose sharply increased the rate of insulin release within 2 min which peaked at 6 min: this was followed by a further gradual increase in insulin release. In contrast, it lowered [Ca(2+)]i with a nadir at 2-3 min followed by a gradual increase in [Ca²⁺]i. The glucose effect was mimicked by 20 mM α-ketoisocaproic acid, a mitochondrial fuel, and it was nullified by 2 mM sodium azide, an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport. Cerulenin, an inhibitor of protein acylation, decreased the glucose effect. In conclusion, a rise in [Ca²⁺]i through voltage-dependent Ca²⁺ channels is not mandatory for glucose-induced triggering of insulin release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.ej12-0388DOI Listing
October 2013

Fasting induces CART down-regulation in the zebrafish nervous system in a cannabinoid receptor 1-dependent manner.

Mol Endocrinol 2012 Aug 14;26(8):1316-26. Epub 2012 Jun 14.

Institut de Genomique Fonctionelle de Lyon, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5242 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Central and peripheral mechanisms modulate food intake and energy balance in mammals and the precise role of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) in these processes is still being explored. Using the zebrafish, Danio rerio, we show that rimonabant, a CB1-specific antagonist with an EC(50) of 5.15 × 10(-8) m, decreases embryonic yolk sac reserve use. We reveal a developmental overlap between CART genes and CB1 expression in the hypothalamus and medulla oblongata, two brain structures that play crucial roles in appetite regulation in mammals. We show that morpholino knockdown of CB1 or fasting decreases cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript (CART)-3 expression. Strikingly, this down-regulation occurs only in regions coexpressing CB1 and CART3, reinforcing the link between CB1, CART, and appetite regulation. We show that rimonabant treatment impairs the fasting-induced down-regulation of CART expression in specific brain regions, whereas vehicle alone-treated embryos do not display this rescue of CART expression. Our data reveal that CB1 lies upstream of CART and signals the appetite through the down-regulation of CART expression. Thus, our results establish the zebrafish as a promising system to study appetite regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.2011-1180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5416984PMC
August 2012

Gender-specific regulation of response to thyroid hormone in aging.

Thyroid Res 2012 Jan 26;5(1). Epub 2012 Jan 26.

Department of Aging Medicine and Geriatrics, Institute on Aging and Adaptation, Shinshu University, Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-1, Asahi, Matsumoto, 390-8621, Japan.

Background: Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for the assessment of thyroid hormone action is TSH level. Although age and gender are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and gender-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported.

Methods: We analyzed the results of 3564 thyroid function tests obtained from patients who received medication at both out- and inpatient clinics of Shinshu University Hospital. Subjects were from among those with thyroid function test results in the normal or mildly abnormal range. Based on a log-linear relationship between the concentrations of FHs and TSH, we established the putative resistance index to assess the relation between serum FH and TSH levels.

Results: Free thyroid hormone and TSH concentration showed an inverse log-linear relation. In males, there was a negative relationship between the free T3 resistance index and age. In females, although there were no relationships between age and FHs, the indices were positively related to age.

Conclusions: These findings indicated that there is a gender-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Although the TSH level is a useful marker for the assessment of peripheral thyroid hormone action, the values should be interpreted carefully, especially with regard to age- and gender-related differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-6614-5-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281778PMC
January 2012

Fetal goitrous hypothyroidism due to maternal thyroid stimulation-blocking antibody: a case report.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2010 29;28(4):220-4. Epub 2010 Sep 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.

Most fetal goitrous hypothyroidisms are reportedly caused by the maternal use of an antithyroid drug or fetal dyshormonogenesis. However, fetal goitrous hypothyroidism due to the transplacental passage of maternal thyroid stimulation-blocking antibody (TSBAb) is extremely rare. A woman at 28 weeks of gestation was found to have a fetal goiter by ultrasonography. Because the maternal serum showed hypothyroidism with an elevated titer of TSBAb, levothyroxine sodium was administered. The patient delivered a male infant, 3,412 g, with a goiter at term. Umbilical blood revealed primary hypothyroidism with increased TSBAb, and the infant was given levothyroxine sodium. After a month, neonatal thyroid function and TSBAb levels became normal. Attention should be paid to possible fetal hypothyroidism when a fetal goiter is observed to avoid impaired mental development of the neonate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000320098DOI Listing
March 2011

Transient polyuria related to central diabetes insipidus caused by lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis in a patient treated for Graves' disease.

Intern Med 2010 1;49(17):1885-90. Epub 2010 Sep 1.

Department of Aging Medicine and Geriatrics, Shinshu University Graduate School, Matsumoto, Japan.

A 45-year-old man was hospitalized because of weight loss, finger tremor, thirst, polydipsia and increased urinary frequency. He was diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) and central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the enlarged posterior pituitary with thickened stalk. Histological examination obtained from biopsy of the pituitary revealed lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis. He received treatment with thiamazole (MMI) for GD and desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) for CDI. However, DDAVP administration could be discontinued as GD was gradually improved. This course indicates that not only the recovered renal response to arginine-vasopressin but also the immunomodulative effects of MMI might attribute to the improvement of polyuria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.49.3381DOI Listing
January 2011

The phytoestrogen genistein affects zebrafish development through two different pathways.

PLoS One 2009 25;4(3):e4935. Epub 2009 Mar 25.

Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, INRA, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Background: Endocrine disrupting chemicals are widely distributed in the environment and derive from many different human activities or can also be natural products synthesized by plants or microorganisms. The phytoestrogen, genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxy-isoflavone), is a naturally occurring compound found in soy products. Genistein has been the subject of numerous studies because of its known estrogenic activity.

Methodology/principal Findings: We report that genistein exposure of zebrafish embryos induces apoptosis, mainly in the hindbrain and the anterior spinal cord. Timing experiments demonstrate that apoptosis is induced during a precise developmental window. Since adding ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, does not rescue the genistein-induced apoptosis and since there is no synergistic effect between genistein and estradiol, we conclude that this apoptotic effect elicited by genistein is estrogen-receptors independent. However, we show in vitro, that genistein binds and activates the three zebrafish estrogen receptors ERalpha, ERbeta-A and ERbeta-B. Furthermore using transgenic ERE-Luciferase fish we show that genistein is able to activate the estrogen pathway in vivo during larval stages. Finally we show that genistein is able to induce ectopic expression of the aromatase-B gene in an ER-dependent manner in the anterior brain in pattern highly similar to the one resulting from estrogen treatment at low concentration.

Conclusion/significance: TAKEN TOGETHER THESE RESULTS INDICATE THAT GENISTEIN ACTS THROUGH AT LEAST TWO DIFFERENT PATHWAYS IN ZEBRAFISH EMBRYOS: (i) it induces apoptosis in an ER-independent manner and (ii) it regulates aromatase-B expression in the brain in an ER-dependent manner. Our results thus highlight the multiplicity of possible actions of phytoestrogens, such as genistein. This suggests that the use of standardized endpoints to study the effect of a given compound, even when this compound has well known targets, may carry the risk of overlooking interesting effects of this compound.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0004935PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2655710PMC
July 2009

Acromegaly accompanied by Turner syndrome with 47,XXX/45,X/46,XX mosaicism.

Intern Med 2009 16;48(6):447-53. Epub 2009 Mar 16.

Department of Aging Medicine and Geriatrics, Division of Medicine, Institute on Aging and Adaptation, Shinshu University Graduate School, Matsumoto.

A 33-year-old woman was hospitalized for examination of edematous laryngopharynx. She was acromegalic. A pituitary adenoma with elevated serum levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was detected, indicating acromegaly caused by GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Multiple pigmented nevi were also noted without overt short stature and cubitus valgus. Chromosome analysis revealed that she had contracted Turner syndrome with 47,XXX/45,X/46,XX mosaicism. Transsphenoidal resection of the tumor decreased serum GH and IGF-I levels, but the edema was not improved. Both premature ovarian failure and hypertension appeared after surgery. This case may indicate the important relationships between GH/IGF-I and Turner syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.48.1157DOI Listing
August 2009

Spontaneous remission of diabetes insipidus due to CNS sarcoidosis.

Intern Med 2009 16;48(4):225-9. Epub 2009 Feb 16.

Department of Aging Medicine and Geriatrics, Shinshu University, Graduate School of Medicine, Matsumoto.

Central nervous system (CNS) sarcoidosis is a crucial disease and has a poor prognosis. A 58-year-old woman had acute development of polydipsia and polyuria. Her pituitary MRI demonstrated a swelling of pituitary gland and hypophyseal stalk. She was diagnosed as central diabetes insipidus (CDI) due to CNS sarcoidosis based on the examinations and pituitary MRI findings as well as a result of cutaneous biopsy. Uveitis and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy were observed mildly throughout. However, CDI and pituitary MRI findings were getting recovered spontaneously without steroid treatment in a couple of months, suggesting an atypical clinical course of CNS sarcoidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.48.1583DOI Listing
May 2009

Atypical early onset of diabetes, deafness and lung cancer in a male patient with mitochondrial mutations in peripheral mononuclear cells.

BMJ Case Rep 2009 26;2009. Epub 2009 Jul 26.

Shinshu University, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Aging Medicine and Geriatrics, 3-1-1, Asahi, Matsumoto, 3908621, Japan.

As mitochondria play a major role in the conversion of dietary calories into usable energy, generating reactive oxygen species as a toxic byproduct, mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in a wide range of age-related disorders and various forms of cancer. The present report concerns a heavy smoker who died of lung cancer at age 40. He also developed progressive diabetes and sensory hearing loss. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis revealed four mutations in peripheral mononuclear cells. Three were novel point mutations, including a mutation in ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 (ATP6). Mitochondrial mutations and smoking may have contributed to the development of atypical early onset of senescence-related diseases in this case.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr.03.2009.1648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3029046PMC
November 2011

Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor genes are coexpressed during zebrafish embryogenesis and regulated by food deprivation.

Dev Dyn 2008 Jun;237(6):1682-90

Molecular Zoology Group, Institut de Génomique Fonctionelle de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that plays important roles in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Adiponectin binds to two types of transmembrane receptors: Adiponectin receptor (AdipoR) type 1 and 2. We isolated and characterized the two adiponectin genes (adiponectin A and B) and the three adiponectin receptors in zebrafish. In adult, adiponectin A is only detected in the kidney while adiponectin B mRNAs are widely expressed and are detected in the liver, adipose tissue, muscle, and brain. The receptors are found in many tissues such as the brain, gut, liver, adipose tissue, kidney, and ovary. Interestingly, we detect embryonic synexpression of all genes in the pharyngeal region. We observed that adiponectin B expression in adult liver is reduced while the expression of the receptors is increased in fasted fish. These data indicate that the upstream members of the Adiponectin pathway have complex expression patterns and are regulated by food deprivation in zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.21559DOI Listing
June 2008

OTX5 regulates pineal expression of the zebrafish REV-ERB alpha through a new DNA binding site.

Mol Endocrinol 2008 Jan 13;22(1):23-32. Epub 2007 Sep 13.

Université de Lyon, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5242 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France.

The pineal gland plays a central role in the photoneuroendocrine system and acts as a photosensory organ in lower vertebrates. The orphan nuclear receptor Rev-erbalpha (NR1D1) has previously been shown to be expressed in the pineal and to be regulated with a robust circadian rhythm during zebrafish embryogenesis. This early pineal expression is under the control of the transcription factor Orthodenticle homeobox 5 (Otx5). In this paper, we show that Otx5 regulates the second zfRev-erbalpha promoter, ZfP2. Despite the absence of a classical Otx-binding site within ZfP2, this regulation depends on the integrity of the Otx5 homeodomain. Mapping experiments as well as EMSAs show that this interaction between Otx5 and ZfP2 depends on a noncanonical bipartite Otx-binding site (GANNCTTA and TAAA) that we called pineal expression related element (PERE). We showed that PERE is necessary for pineal expression in vivo by injecting zebrafish embryos with wild type and mutated versions of zfRev-erbalpha promoter fused to green fluorescent protein. Interestingly, PERE is found upstream of other genes expressed in the pineal gland, suggesting that it may play an important role in governing pineal expression. Our data establish that PERE is a novel cis-acting element contributing to pineal-specific gene expression and to Otx target gene regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.2007-0170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5419633PMC
January 2008

Two differentially active alternative promoters control the expression of the zebrafish orphan nuclear receptor gene Rev-erbalpha.

J Mol Endocrinol 2007 May;38(5):555-68

Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire de la Cellule, CNRS UMR 5161, INRA LA 1237, IFR 128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon cedex, France.

The orphan nuclear receptor Rev-erbalpha (NR1D1) plays an important role in the regulation of the circadian pacemaker and its expression has been shown to be regulated with a robust circadian rhythm in zebrafish and mammals. In addition, in zebrafish its expression has been shown to be developmentally regulated. In order to analyze the mechanisms of the zfRev-erbalpha gene regulation, we have isolated its 5'-upstream region. We found that two promoters control the zfRev-erbalpha expression. The first one (ZfP1) is characterized by a very high degree of sequence identity with the mammalian P1 promoter and contains, as the mammalian P1, a functional Rev-erbalpha-binding site (RevDR2). Inhibition of zfRev-erbalpha activity in zebrafish embryos using antisense-morpholino knockdown results in an increase of zfRev-erbalpha gene expression suggesting that zfRev-erbalpha is repressing its own transcription in vivo. In addition, we show that ROR orphan receptors also regulate in vitro and in vivo zfRev-erbalpha gene expression through the same RevDR2 element. In contrast, the second promoter ZfP2 is strikingly different from the mammalian P2: its sequence is not conserved between zebrafish and mammals and is not regulated by the same transcription factors. Together, these data suggest that ZfP1 is orthologous to the mammalian P1 promoter, whereas zebrafish ZfP2 has no mammalian ortholog and does not function like ZfP1 to control Rev-erbalpha expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/JME-06-0063DOI Listing
May 2007

Expression of thyroid hormone receptor alpha in 3T3-L1 adipocytes; triiodothyronine increases the expression of lipogenic enzyme and triglyceride accumulation.

J Endocrinol 2004 Aug;182(2):295-302

Department of Aging Medicine and Geriatrics, Institute of Aging and Adaptation, Shinshu University Graduate School, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan.

Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. There are at least two TR isoforms, TRalpha and TRbeta, which act as mediators of thyroid hormone in tissues. However, the relative expression of each TR isoform in target tissues is still elusive. Herein, we have developed an RT-PCR and restriction enzyme digestion method to determine the expression of TRalpha1 and TRbeta1. We analyzed the expression of TR isoforms in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced to differentiate by an adipogenic cocktail in the presence or absence of 100 nM triiodothyronine (T(3)). The TRalpha1 isoform was predominantly expressed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and its expression was increased at the stage of development concomitant with the emergence of lipid droplets. Little, if any, TRbeta1 mRNA was detected in adipocytes. Administration of T(3) to the differentiating 3T3-L1 cells enhanced the accumulation of triglyceride. The expression profile of TRalpha1 in T(3)-treated adipocytes was similar to that in non-treated cells. The transcripts of adipogenic factors, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), were not altered by T(3). Lipid binding protein, aP2, that is downstream of these transcription factors was also unaffected by T(3). In contrast, the lipogenic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA was significantly increased in the presence of T(3). Therefore, T(3) appears to be a hormone capable of modulating the expression of lipogenic enzyme and augments the accumulation of lipid droplets. We conclude that the TRalpha isoform might play an important role in the generation and maintenance of the mature adipocyte phenotype, regulating the expression of lipogenic enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.1820295DOI Listing
August 2004

Gamma Knife radiosurgery for numerous brain metastases: is this a safe treatment?

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 Aug;53(5):1279-83

Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka, Japan.

Purpose: Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery has recently been employed in patients with numerous brain metastases (METs), even those with 10 or more lesions. However, cumulative irradiation doses to the whole brain (WB), with such treatment, have not been determined.

Methods And Materials: Since the GammaPlan ver. 5.10 (ver. 5.31 is presently available, Leksell GammaPlan) became available in November 1998, 92 GK procedures have been performed for 80 patients with 10 or more brain METs at our facility. The median lesion number was 17 (range: 10-43) and the median cumulative volume of all tumors was 8.02 cc (range: 0.46-81.41 cc). The median selected dose at the lesion periphery was 20 Gy (range: 12-25 Gy). Based on these treatment protocols, the cumulative irradiation dose was computed.

Results: The median cumulative irradiation dose to the WB was 4.71 (range: 2.16-8.51) Gy. The median brain volumes receiving >2 Gy, >5 Gy, >10 Gy, >15 Gy, and >20 Gy were 1105 (range 410-1501) cc, 309 (46-1247) cc, 64 (13-282) cc, 24 (2-77) cc, and 8 (0-40) cc, respectively.

Conclusion: The cumulative WB irradiation doses for patients with numerous radiosurgical targets were not considered to exceed the threshold level of normal brain necrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0360-3016(02)02855-9DOI Listing
August 2002
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