Publications by authors named "Shin-Wen Chen"

119 Publications

Rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 of maternal origin by quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction analysis following tissue culture failure for conventional cytogenetic analysis in a fetus with holoprosencephaly, ventricular septal defect, arthrogryposis of bilateral wrists and aplasia of the thumbs.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May;60(3):549-550

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 of maternal origin by quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) analysis following tissue culture failure for conventional cytogenetic analysis in a fetus with holoprosencephaly (HPE), ventricular septal defect (VSD), arthrogryposis of bilateral wrists and aplasia of the thumbs.

Case Report: A 22-year-old, primigravid woman was referred for first-trimester ultrasound screening at 13 weeks of gestation, and the fetus was found to have HPE and VSD. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated at 14 weeks of gestation, and a malformed fetus was delivered with cebocephaly, arthrogryposis of bilateral wrists and aplasia of the thumbs. The umbilical cord and placental tissues were collected for genetic analysis. However, tissue culture failure for conventional cytogenetic analysis occurred because of contamination. QF-PCR analysis using the polymorphic DNA markers of D18S1369 (18q12.2) and D18S1361 (18q22.3) confirmed trisomy 18 of maternal origin.

Conclusion: QF-PCR analysis is useful for rapid confirmation of trisomy 18 and the parental origin when tissue culture failure for conventional cytogenetic analysis occurs in pregnancy suspicious of fetal trisomy 18.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.03.043DOI Listing
May 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for double aneuploidy of 47,XXY and trisomy 7 (48,XXY,+7) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May;60(3):543-548

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for double aneuploidy of 47, XXY and trisomy 7 (48,XXY,+7) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 33-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of an increased risk for Down syndrome in maternal serum screening. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 48,XXY,+7[8]/46,XY[16]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr [GRCh37] (7) × 3 [0.54], (X) × 2 [0.52], (Y) × 1, compatible with trisomy 7 mosaicism and Klinefelter syndrome mosaicism. The parental karyotypes and prenatal ultrasound findings were normal. Repeat amniocentesis performed at 23 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 48,XXY,+7[13]/46,XY[7]. Simultaneous molecular cytogenetic analyses on uncultured amniocytes revealed 30% mosaicism for 48,XXY,+7 by aCGH and 37% (37/100 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 7 and disomy X by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 7 and indicated a maternal origin of the chromosome aberration. The pregnancy was continued to 39 weeks of gestation, and a 3070-g healthy male baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XY, the umbilical cord had a karyotype of 48,XXY,+7[3]/46,XY[37], and the placenta had a karyotype of 48,XXY,+7. At age one month, the neonate was phenotypically normal, and interphase FISH analysis revealed 4.8% (5/105 cells) mosaicism on buccal mucosal cells and 8.9% (8/90 cells) mosaicism on urinary cells for trisomy 7 and disomy X, compared with 2% in normal control. Interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells at age two months revealed normal findings in 100/100 cells.

Conclusion: Mosaic 48,XXY,+7 at amniocentesis without UPD 7 can be associated with a favorable fetal outcome. Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may occur in mosaic 48,XXY,+7 at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.03.029DOI Listing
May 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 11 in a single colony of cultured amniocytes at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May;60(3):540-542

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 11 in a single colony of cultured amniocytes at amniocentesis and the perinatal outcome.

Case Report: A 36-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+11[1]/46,XX[16]. In 17 colonies of cultured amniocytes, all five cells in one colony had a karyotype of 47,XX,+11, while the rest 16 colonies had a normal karyotype. The parental karyotypes were normal. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 21 weeks of gestation. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied on the uncultured amniocytes, and the result revealed 0.9% mosaicism (1/101 cells) for trisomy 11 with only one cell with three signals, while the other 100 cells had two signals, compared with no trisomy 11 signals (0/100 cells) in the normal control. Uniparental disomy (UPD) 11 was excluded by polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNAs extracted from uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods. The cultured amniocytes at repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46, XX in 28/28 colonies. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. The pregnancy was continued to 38 weeks of gestation, and a 2724-g healthy female baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XX. The interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells revealed no trisomy 11 signals (0/100 cells). When follow-up at three months of age, the neonate manifested normal psychomotor and physical development.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 11 in a single colony at amniocentesis without abnormal fetal ultrasound and UPD 11 can be associated with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.03.028DOI Listing
May 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy 16 associated with mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis, and pericardial effusion and intrauterine growth restriction in the fetus.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May;60(3):534-539

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 16 associated with mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis, and pericardial effusion and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the fetus.

Case Report: A 38-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age, and the result was 47,XX,+16[2]/46,XX[54]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed 14% mosaicism for trisomy 16 and a paternally inherited 319-kb microdeletion of 15q11.2 encompassing the genes of TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA2 and NIPA1. Prenatal ultrasound revealed persistent left superior vena cava, pericardial effusion and severe IUGR. Cordocentesis at 23 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46,XX, but polymorphic DNA marker analysis revealed maternal UPD 16. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 27 weeks of gestation and revealed a karyotype of 46, XX in 21/21 colonies. Molecular cytogenetic analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed 22.4% mosaicism (26/116 cells) for trisomy 16 on interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and 20% mosaicism for trisomy 16 on aCGH. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNAs extracted from uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods revealed maternal UPD 16. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism and severe IUGR. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+16[28]/46,XX[16]. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on placenta confirmed a maternal origin of trisomy 16.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may present in mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis. Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 should alert the association of maternal UPD 16 which may be associated with congenital heart defects and severe IUGR on prenatal ultrasound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.03.027DOI Listing
May 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of persistent left superior vena cava, polyhydramnios and a small gastric bubble in a fetus with VACTERL association.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):355-358

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We reported a fetus that presenting with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC), polyhydramnios, and a small gastric bubble during prenatal examination and identified VACTERL association after birth.

Case Report: A 34-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age and the result was normal. Subsequently, an ultrasound revealed single umbilical artery (SUA) at 21 weeks of gestation. She received a detailed fetal anatomy survey that presented the same findings and PLSVC. A small visible gastric bubble was noted at that time, and the other organs were unremarkable. Polyhydramnios was identified at 30 weeks of gestation and amnioreduction was subsequently performed at 32 weeks of gestation. However, polyhydramnios was persisted despite amnioreduction and intrauterine growth restriction was also detected. A cesarean section was performed because of fetal distress at 36 + 2 weeks, and a 1832-g female baby was delivered. Pre-axial polydactyly at left thumb, SUA and esophageal atresia with distal tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) were identified after birth. The neonate died at age of 4 days because of surgical complication following esophageal anastomosis.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of PLSVC associated with polyhydramnios and a small gastric bubble may indicate esophageal atresia with TEF, and further examination for associated syndromes such as VACTERL association is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.016DOI Listing
March 2021

Low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):345-349

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 31-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 24 weeks of gestation because of IUGR. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [3]/46,XX [22]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed gene dosage increase in chromosome 16 consistent with 28% mosaicism for trisomy 16. Uniparental disomy (UPD) 7 and UPD 11 were excluded. She underwent repeat amniocentesis at 27 weeks of gestation. Repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [1]/46,XX [24]. Simultaneous aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed 25%-35% (log ratio = 0.17-0.25) mosaicism for trisomy 16. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis detected trisomy 16 signals in 28/100 (28%) uncultured amniocytes. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis excluded UPD 16. Level II ultrasound revealed no fetal abnormalities except symmetric IUGR. The pregnancy was continued to 37 weeks of gestation, and a 2306-g phenotypically normal baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46, XX in 50/50 lymphocytes. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [14]/46,XX [36]. Interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells and urinary cells at age three days revealed trisomy 16 signals in 3.8% (4/106) buccal mucosal cells and 6.5% (7/107) urinary cells, compared with 1% in the normal control. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on placenta confirmed trisomy 16 in the placenta and a maternal origin of the extra chromosome 16.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may present in mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis. Low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis without maternal UPD 16 can be associated with a favorable outcome despite the presence of IUGR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo chromosome 1q41-q42.11 microdeletion of paternal origin in a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation, developmental delay, autism and congenital heart defects.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):341-344

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo chromosome 1q41-q42.11 microdeletion of paternal origin in a mentally retarded child of a family requesting for genetic counseling of the future pregnancy.

Case Report: A 43-year-old, gravida 1, para 1, woman, who had a 15-year-old son with mental retardation, planned to have another normal child and requested for genetic counseling of the future pregnancy. Her husband was 48 years old. The 15-year-old boy had a body height of 148 cm (<3rd centile) and a body weight of 40 Kg (<35th centile). He had facial dysmorphism, mental retardation, scoliosis, abnormal gaits, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary stenosis and autism but did not have any history of epilepsy. Cytogenetic analysis of the boy and the parents revealed normal karyotypes. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis of the family revealed a de novo 2.028-Mb 1q41-q42.11 microdeletion, or arr 1q41q42.11 (222,571,596-224,599,234) × 1.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)], encompassing 13 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes including DISP1, SUSD4, FBXO28, TP53BP2 and WDR26 in the child. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed a paternal origin of the deletion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed a 1q41 deletion.

Conclusion: Genetic counseling of the parents who have a previous child with mental retardation and who wish to have another normal child in the future pregnancy should include genetic studies, and aCGH is useful under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.013DOI Listing
March 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of a 15q11.2-q14 deletion of paternal origin associated with increased nuchal translucency, mosaicism for de novo multiple unbalanced translocations involving 15q11-q14, 5qter, 15qter, 17pter and 3qter and Prader-Willi syndrome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):335-340

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of a 15q11.2-q14 deletion of paternal origin associated with increased nuchal translucency (NT), mosaicism for de novo multiple unbalanced translocations involving 15q11-q14, 5qter, 15qter, 17pter and 3qter, and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS).

Case Report: A 32-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of an increased NT thickness of 5.6 mm and abnormal maternal serum screening results in the first trimester. The pregnancy was conceived by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,XX,der(5)t(5;15)(q35;q14),-15 [16]/45,XX,-15,der(17)t(15;17)(q14;p13)[3]/45,XX,der(15)t(15;15)(q35;q14),-15[2]. The parental karyotypes were normal. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from cultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr 15q11.2q14 (22,765,628-38,651,755) × 1.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)] with a 15.886-Mb 15q11.2-q14 deletion encompassing TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA2, NIPA1, SNRPN, SNURF, SNORD116-1, IPW, UBE3A, ACTC1 and MEIS2. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus with facial dysmorphism was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 45,XX,der(5)t(5;15)(q35;q14),-15[46]/45,XX,der(3)t(3;15) (q29;q14),-15[2]/45,XX,-15,der(17)t(15;17)(q14;p13)[2]. The placenta had a karyotype of 45,XX,der(5) t(5;15)(q35;q14),-15. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis confirmed a paternal origin of the proximal 15q deletion.

Conclusion: Increased NT and abnormal maternal serum screening results may prenatally be associated with PWS. Chromosome 15 rearrangements in PWS include mosaicism for de novo multiple unbalanced translocations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.012DOI Listing
March 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 9q (9q13-q21.33) in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome, and cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):331-334

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 9q (9q13-q21.33) in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome, and cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes.

Case Report: A 36-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Cytogenetic analysis on cultured amniocytes revealed a karyotype of 46,XY in 20/20 colonies. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed 30% mosaicism for a de novo 20.3-Mb gene dosage increase at 9q13-q21.33. Repeat amniocentesis and cordocentesis were performed at 21 weeks of gestation. Cytogenetic analysis on cord blood revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [3]/46,XY [37]. aCGH analysis of cord blood revealed 7.5% mosaicism for a 17.15-Mb gene dosage increase at 9q21.11-q21.33. aCGH analysis of uncultured amniocytes revealed 11.7% mosaicism for a 17.15-Mb gene dosage increase at 9q21.11-q21.33. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis excluded uniparental disomy 9. The parental karyotypes were normal. The pregnancy was carried to 37 weeks of gestation, and a 2955-g phenotypically normal male baby was delivered. At birth, the cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [3]/46,XY [37], the placenta had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [10]/46,XY [30], and the umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [14]/46,XY [36]. aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from cord blood at birth revealed no genomic imbalance. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on buccal mucosal cells at age two months detected 3.8% (4/106 cells) mosaicism for the sSMC, compared with 2% (2/100 cells) in the normal control. The neonate had normal physical development at age two months.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may exist in the pregnancy with fetal mosaic sSMC. Low-level mosaicism for an sSMC derived from chromosome 9q13-q21.33 at prenatal diagnosis can be associated with a favorable outcome in the fetus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Tetrasomy of 11q13.4-q14.3 due to an intrachromosomal triplication associated with paternal uniparental isodisomy for 11q14.3-qter, intrauterine growth restriction, developmental delay, corpus callosum dysgenesis, microcephaly, congenital heart defects and facial dysmorphism.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):169-172

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present tetrasomy of 11q13.4-q14.3 due to an intrachromosomal triplication associated with paternal isodisomy of uniparental disomy (iso-UPD) for 11q14.3-qter and multiple abnormalities.

Case Report: A 30-year-old primigravid woman was found to have intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the fetus since 28 weeks of gestation, and a 2056-g baby was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation with fetal distress. The baby postnatally manifested hypotonia, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism of micrognathia, retrognathia and low-set ears, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, tricuspid regurgitation and corpus callosum dysgenesis. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on the DNA extracted from the peripheral blood revealed the result of arr 11q13.4q14.3 (71,567,724-89,547,851) × 4, arr 11q14.3q25 (89,466,484-134,942,626) hmz [GRCh37 (hg19)] with a 17.980-Mb triplication of 11q13.4-q14.3 encompassing the genes of GRM5 and MAP6, and loss of heterozygosity for a 45.476-Mb region of 11q14.3-qter consistent with iso-UPD for 11q14.3-qter. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis confirmed paternal iso-UPD for 11q14.3-qter. Cytogenetic analysis of the blood revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,trp(11) (q13.4q14.3). The parental karyotypes were normal. When follow-ups at age 2 years, the neonate manifested physical and psychomotor developmental delay and intellectual disability.

Conclusion: Tetrasomy 11q13.4-q14.3 may present the phenotype of IUGR, developmental delay, corpus callosum dysgenesis, microcephaly, congenital heart defects and facial dysmorphism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.11.027DOI Listing
January 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of familial 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in a pregnancy with concomitant cardiac and urinary tract abnormalities in the fetus and the mother.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):165-168

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of familial 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in a pregnancy with concomitant cardiac and urinary tract abnormalities in the fetus and the mother.

Case Report: A 28-year-old woman primigravid underwent amniocentesis at 23 weeks of gestation because of fetal ultrasound findings of aortic stenosis, interrupted aortic arch (IAA), left multicystic kidney, right hydronephrosis and ureterocele. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr 22q11.21 (18,894,835-21,505,417) × 1.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)] with a 2.611-Mb 22q11.21 deletion encompassing 41 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes including UFD1L, TBX1, GNB1L, COMT and MED15. aCGH analysis on the DNAs extracted from parental bloods confirmed that the mother carried the same 22q11.21 microdeletion. Level II ultrasound additionally found ventricular septal defect (VSD) and persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC). Examination of the woman showed short stature, malar hypoplasia, hypertelorism, bulbous nasal tip, prominent nasal root, hypoplasia of nasal wings, right renal agenesis, left ureterovesical reflux and VSD with repair, but normal intelligence and normal neuropsychiatric development. The woman decided to continue the pregnancy, and a 2903-g female baby was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation with left multicystic kidney, right hydronephrosis, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, IAA, VSD, PLSVC, patent ductus arteriosus, patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, dilated main pulmonary artery and tricuspid regurgitation. The neonate died at the age of one month.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of concomitant congenital heart defects and urinary tract abnormalities in the fetus and the parent should raise a suspicion of familial 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.11.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of familial 2p15 microduplication associated with pulmonary artery stenosis, single umbilical artery and left foot postaxial polydactyly on fetal ultrasound.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):161-164

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of familial 2p15 microduplication associated with pulmonary artery stenosis, single umbilical artery and left foot postaxial polydactyly on fetal ultrasound.

Case Report: A 34-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed the karyotype of 46,XX. Prenatal ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation showed pulmonary artery stenosis, single umbilical artery and left foot postaxial polydactyly. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 22 weeks of gestation and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNAs extracted from amniocytes revealed the result of arr 2p15 (61, 495, 220-62,885,679) × 3.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)] with a 1.391-Mb 2p15 duplication encompassing seven Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes of USP34, XPO1, FAM161A, CCT4, COMMD1, B3GNT2 and TMEM17. aCGH analysis on the DNAs extracted from parental bloods confirmed a familial transmission from a normal carrier mother who had no phenotypic abnormality. A 3270-g female baby was delivered at term with mild pulmonary artery stenosis and left foot postaxial polydactyly. The infant had normal physical and psychomotor development when follow-up at age of one year.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of fetal structural abnormalities should include aCGH analysis in addition to conventional cytogenetic analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.11.025DOI Listing
January 2021

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a pure ring chromosome 21 with a 4.657-Mb 21q22.3 deletion.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):157-160

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a pure ring chromosome [r(21)] with a 4.657-Mb 21q22.3 deletion.

Case Report: A 44-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype 46,XX,r(21)(p11.2q22.3). Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed a 4.657-Mb deletion at 21q22.3. The parental karyotypes were normal. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism and clinodactyly. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of umbilical cord revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,r(21)(p11.2q22.3). aCGH analysis of umbilical cord revealed the result of arr 21q22.3 (43,427,188-48,084,156) × 1.0 with a 4.657-Mb 21q22.3 deletion encompassing 57 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes including TRPM2, TSPEAR, COL18A1, COL6A1, COL6A2, LSS, PCNT, DIP2A, S100B and PRMT2. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the umbilical cord fibroblasts confirmed a 21q22.3 deletion.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of an r(21) should include molecular cytogenetic characterization such as aCGH and FISH to determine the extent of the 21q22.3 deletion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.11.024DOI Listing
January 2021

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 15 in a pregnancy associated with recurrent Down syndrome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):152-156

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 15 in a pregnancy associated with recurrent Down syndrome.

Case Report: A 33-year-old, gravida 4, para 2, woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of a previous child with Down syndrome and a karyotype of 46,XY,der(14;21)(q10; q10),+21. In this pregnancy, amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[12]/48,XX,+21,+mar[3]. The parental karyotypes were normal. The pregnancy was terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with characteristic craniofacial appearance of Down syndrome and hypoplastic middle phalanx of the fifth fingers. The placenta had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[37]/48,XX,+21,+mar[3]. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[38]/48,XX,+21,+mar[2]. In addition to trisomy 21, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on the DNA extracted from umbilical cord revealed 40∼50% mosaicism for a 2.604-Mb duplication of 15q25.2-q25.3, or arr 15q25.2q25.3 (83,229,665-85,834,131) × 2.4 [GRCh37 (hg19)] encompassing 19 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) using the DNAs extracted from cultured amniocytes and parental bloods revealed maternal origin of the sSMC(15) and the extra chromosome 21.

Conclusion: aCGH is useful for identification of the nature of sSMC, and QF-PCR is useful for determination of the parental origin of the aberrant chromosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.11.023DOI Listing
January 2021

Prenatal diagnosis and management of monozygotic twins discordant for severe fetal abnormalities.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Nov;59(6):945-947

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and management of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for severe fetal abnormalities.

Case Report: A 36-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age, and hydrops fetalis, a giant cystic hygroma of 5 × 3.5 cm and left hydronephrosis in a co-twin. The other co-twin was structurally normal. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY in both co-twins. Simultaneous polymorphic DNA marker analysis using the DNAs extracted from maternal blood and uncultured amniocytes confirmed MZ twinning. The woman underwent a successful selective fetal reduction by radiofrequency ablation at 22 weeks of gestation. At 28 weeks of gestation, premature rupture of membranes occurred, and a 1280-g normal male baby and a 275-g dead malformed co-twin were delivered. The normal co-twin was phenotypically normal and was doing well at age seven weeks.

Conclusions: Prenatal diagnosis of MZ twins discordant for structural abnormalities should include a differential diagnosis of MZ twinning, and a zygosity test is necessary under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.09.025DOI Listing
November 2020

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from 2q11.1-q12.1 associated with fetal bilateral radial dysplasia.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Nov;59(6):941-944

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from 2q11.1-q12.1 associated with fetal bilateral radial dysplasia.

Case Report: A 27-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of club hands on fetal ultrasound. The internal organs of the fetus were normal. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [13]/46,XY [11]. The parental karyotypes were normal. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis of the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr 2q11.1q12.1 (95,529,039-102,825,556) × 3.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)]. The pregnancy was terminated at 20 weeks of gestation, and a malformed fetus was delivered with isolated bilateral radial dysplasia. The cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar[24]/46,XY[16]. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis of the DNAs extracted from umbilical cord and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy for chromosome 2. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed an sSMC derived from chromosome 2q11.1-q12.1 in cultured amniocytes.

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for an sSMC derived from chromosome 2q11.1-q12.1 can be associated with fetal abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.09.024DOI Listing
November 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of a familial normal euchromatic variant of dup(15)(q11.2q11.2) in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):770-772

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of a familial normal euchromatic variant of dup(15)(q11.2q11.2) in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 32-year-old woman underwent elective amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of anxiety. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(15)(q11.2q11.2). Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr (1-22, X) × 2 with no genomic imbalance. Cytogenetic analysis of the parental bloods showed that the mother had a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(15)(q11.2q11.2), and the father had a karyotype of 46,XY. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. A healthy 2948 g female baby was delivered at 39 weeks of gestation without any phenotypic abnormality. Cytogenetic analysis of the cord blood revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(15)(q11.2q11.2).

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of dup(15)(q11.2q11.2) should include a differential diagnosis of a 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) microduplication encompassing TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA2 and NIPA1, and aCGH analysis is useful for the differential diagnosis under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.027DOI Listing
September 2020

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo 3.19-Mb chromosome 14q32.13-q32.2 deletion of paternal origin.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):766-769

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo 3.19-Mb chromosome 14q32.13-q32.2 deletion of paternal origin.

Case Report: A 36-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation because of an advanced maternal age. Her husband was 36 years old. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,del(14)(q32.1q32.2). Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis showed the result of a 14q32.13-q32.2 deletion. Prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable. The parental karyotypes were normal and did not have such a deletion. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism. aCGH was applied on the DNA extracted from cord blood. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis was applied on the DNAs extracted from placenta and parental bloods. aCGH confirmed a 3.19-Mb 14q32.13-q32.2 deletion or arr 14q32.13q32.2 (96,151,751-99,341,476) × 1.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)] encompassing 10 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes of TCL1B, TCL1A, TUNAR, BDKRB2, BDKRB1, ATG2B, GSKIP, AK7, PAPOLA and VRK1. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis confirmed a paternal origin of a de novo interstitial distal 14q deletion.

Conclusion: Determination of the paternal origin of a prenatally detected de novo interstitial distal 14q deletion by polymorphic DNA marker analysis in this case is significant, and the information acquired is useful for genetic counseling, especially when amniocentesis is performed because of an advanced maternal age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.026DOI Listing
September 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of a 1.651-Mb 19q13.42-q13.43 microdeletion in a fetus with micrognathia and bilateral pyelectasis on prenatal ultrasound.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):763-765

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of a de novo 1.651-Mb 19q13.42-q13.43 microdeletion in a fetus with micrognathia and bilateral pyelectasis on prenatal ultrasound.

Case Report: A 32-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 28 weeks of gestation because of fetal micrognathia and bilateral pyelectasis on prenatal ultrasound. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr 19q13.42q13.43 (55,028,722-56,680,564) × 1.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)] or a 1.651-Mb microdeletion encompassing 44 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes including NLRP7, GP6, TNNT1, TNNI3 and DNAAF3. The parents did not have such a deletion and decided to continue the pregnancy. At 37 weeks of gestation, a 2560-g female baby was delivered by cesarean section because of oligohydramnios and decreased fetal movements. The baby manifested cleft palate, micrognathia and retrognathia at birth. She was doing well at age three months. Her body weight was 5.3 Kg (15th-25th centile), and body length was 59.2 cm (25th-50th centile). Renal sonogram showed bilateral mild pelvic dilation. She manifested no psychomotor retardation and no other internal organ abnormalities during pediatric follow-ups.

Conclusion: A 19q13.42-q13.43 microdeletion can be associated with micrognathia, retrognathia, cleft palate and bilateral pyelectasis at birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.025DOI Listing
September 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of partial monosomy 2q (2q37.3→qter) and partial trisomy 10q (10q24.31→qter) of paternal origin associated with increased nuchal translucency and abnormal maternal serum screening results.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):758-762

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of terminal 2q deletion and distal 10q duplication of paternal origin in a fetus associated with increased nuchal translucency and abnormal maternal serum screening results.

Case Report: A 26-year-old woman who had experienced spontaneous abortion twice underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of an increased nuchal translucency thickness of 3.5 mm at 12 weeks of gestation and abnormal maternal serum screening results of 2.573 multiples of the median (MoM) of free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) and 1.536 MoM of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) resulting in a trisomy 21 risk of 1:64. Amniocentesis revealed a derivative chromosome 2. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed arr [hg19] 2q37.3 (238,294,223-242,782,258) × 1, 10q24.31q26.3 (102,018,246-135,426,386) × 3. Cytogenetic analysis of parental bloods revealed a karyotype of 46,XX in the mother and a karyotype of 46,XY,t(2;10)(q37.3;q24.3) in the father. The fetal karyotype was 46,XX,der(2)t(2;10)(q37.3;q24.3)pat. The pregnancy was terminated at 20 weeks of gestation, and a malformed fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism. Postnatal analysis of the cord blood confirmed the results of prenatal diagnosis. The fetus had a 4.693-Mb deletion of 2q37.3 encompassing the genes of HDAC4, KIF1A, PASK, HDLBP, FARP2 and D2HGDH, and a 33.34-Mb duplication of 10q24.31-q26.3 encompassing the gene of NFκB2.

Conclusion: First-trimester ultrasound and maternal serum biochemistry screening may help to identify an unexpected unbalanced familial translocation at prenatal diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.024DOI Listing
September 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for trisomy 21 by amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 21 in the fetus and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):754-757

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present perinatal molecular cytogenetic analysis of low-level mosaicism for trisomy 21 in a pregnancy with maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 21 in the fetus.

Case Report: A 39-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[6]/46,XX[25]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed arr (21) × 2-3, (X) × 2 with about 18% gene dosage increase in chromosome 21 consistent with mosaic trisomy 21. Cordocentesis was performed at 20 weeks of gestation, and the cord blood lymphocytes had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[3]/46,XX[72]. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. After genetic counseling, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy. At 39 weeks of gestation, a 3,494-g phenotypically normal female baby was delivered without phenotypic features of Down syndrome. There was no dysplasia of middle phalanx of the fifth fingers of both hands. The cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[2]/46,XX[48]. The placenta had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[37]/46,XX[3]. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[1]/46,XX[39]. aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from cord blood revealed no genomic imbalance. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNAs extracted from cord blood and parental bloods revealed maternal uniparental heterodisomy 21 in the baby. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on buccal mucosal cells revealed trisomy 21 signals in 15/101 (14.9%) buccal cells at birth and in 1/122 (0.82%) buccal cells at age 45 days.

Conclusion: Low-level mosaicism for trisomy 21 at amniocentesis associated with maternal UPD 21 in the fetus can have a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.023DOI Listing
September 2020

Cytogenetic discrepancy between uncultured amniocytes and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):728-735

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis.

Materials And Methods: A 41-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) result suspicious of trisomy 15. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed 26% mosaicism for trisomy 15. She was referred for repeat amniocentesis. aCGH, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) assays and/or conventional cytogenetic analysis were applied on various cells and tissues including uncultured amniocytes, cultured amniocytes, cord blood, placenta, parental bloods and/or buccal mucosal cells.

Results: Repeat amniocentesis at 21 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46, XY in cultured amniocytes, and 30% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by aCGH and 32% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by FISH in uncultured amniocytes. Repeat amniocentesis at 29 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46, XY in cultured amniocytes, and 15% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by aCGH and 7.2% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by FISH in uncultured amniocytes. QF-PCR on cultured amniocytes excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 15. A phenotypically normal baby was delivered subsequently with a karyotype of 46, XY in cord blood and 2% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by FISH in buccal mucosal cells. The aCGH analysis revealed trisomy 15 in placenta and no genomic imbalance in cord blood. QF-PCR assays determined a maternal origin of trisomy 15 in placenta.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between uncultured and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis. The cells of trisomy 15 cell line in prenatally detected mosaic trisomy 15 may decrease in number as the fetus grows. Whenever NIPT suspects trisomy 15, a confirmatory amniocentesis should include genetic analysis on both uncultured and cultured amniocytes to exclude mosaic trisomy 15 and maternal UPD 15, especially when the cultured amniocytes have a normal karyotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.018DOI Listing
September 2020

Detection of paternal origin of fetal trisomy 21 in a pregnancy with isolated ventriculomegaly but without advanced parental age.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Jul;59(4):610-612

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present detection of paternal origin of fetal trisomy 21 in a pregnancy with isolated ventriculomegaly but without advanced parental age.

Case Report: A 29-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to the hospital at 18 weeks of gestation for tocolytic treatment because of irregular uterine contractions. Her husband was 30 years old. The couple had a healthy daughter. Prenatal ultrasound incidentally found isolated ventriculomegaly, and subsequent amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+21 in 20/20 colonies of cultured amniocytes. The pregnancy was terminated, and the fetus manifested characteristic craniofacial appearance of Down syndrome and hyposplastic middle phalanx of the fifth finger. Postnatal polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNAs extracted from the cord blood and parental bloods using quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) showed a paternal origin of fetal trisomy 21. The father had a karyotype of 46, XY in 40/40 blood lymphocytes.

Conclusion: QF-PCR is useful for rapid confirmation of prenatally detected fetal trisomy 21 and determination of paternal origin of fetal trisomy 21 especially in pregnancies with fetal structural abnormalities but without advanced parental age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.05.025DOI Listing
July 2020

Detection of paternal origin of fetal trisomy 18 in a pregnancy conceived by assisted reproductive technology and in vitro fertilization.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Jul;59(4):607-609

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present detection of paternal origin of fetal trisomy 18 in a pregnancy conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) and in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Case Report: A 39-year-old woman underwent ART and IVF because of primary infertility. The woman was infertile because of myoma and endometriosis. Her husband was 39 years old, and the sperm analysis was normal. The couple was phenotypically normal. This pregnancy was conceived successfully by IVF. She received non-invasive prenatal testing at 11 weeks of gestation, the result showed a high risk for trisomy 18. She underwent chorionic villus sampling at 12 weeks of gestation, and the result was 47,XY,+18 in 24/24 cultured chorionic villi cells. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. She underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation, and the result was 47,XY,+18 in 20/20 colonies of cultured amniocytes. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated. Postnatal cytogeneic analysis confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNAs extracted from the umbilical cord and parental bloods showed a paternal origin of the extra chromosome 18, indicating a paternal origin of fetal trisomy 18. Cytogenetic analysis of paternal blood revealed a karyotype of 46,XY.

Conclusion: Fetal trisomy 18 in pregnancies conceived by ART may be of paternal origin, and determination of paternal origin by polymorphic DNA marker analysis is useful for genetic counseling under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.05.024DOI Listing
July 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for trisomy 12 in a single colony at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Jul;59(4):604-606

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for trisomy 12 in a single colony at amniocentesis with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 36-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+12[1]/46,XY[14]. In 15 colonies of cultured amniocytes, all three cells in one colony had the karyotype of 47,XY,+12, while the rest 14 colonies had the karyotype of 46,XY. The parental karyotypes were normal. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis using the DNAs extracted from cultured amniocytes and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 12. At 37 weeks of gestation, a healthy 2,828-g male baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XY in 40/40 lymphocytes. Postnatal interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on buccal cells and urinary cells revealed normal signals in 72/72 buccal cells, and trisomy 12 signals in 1/47 (2.1%) urinary cells compared with 0% (0/75 cells) of trisomy 12 signals in the normal control.

Conclusion: Mosaicism for trisomy 12 in a single colony at amniocentesis without UPD 12 and fetal ultrasound abnormalities can be associated with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.05.023DOI Listing
July 2020

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a chromosome 1q42.3-q44 deletion in a fetus associated with ventriculomegaly on prenatal ultrasound.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Jul;59(4):598-603

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a chromosome 1q42.3-q44 deletion in a fetus associated with ventriculomegaly on prenatal ultrasound, and we discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation.

Case Report: A 36-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,del(1) (q42.3q44). Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed arr 1q42.3q44 (234,747,397-246,081,267) × 1 [GRCh37 (hg19)] with an 11.33-Mb 1q42.3-q44 deletion encompassing RGS7, FH, CEP170, AKT3, ZBTB18 and HNRNPU. The parental karyotypes were normal. Prenatal ultrasound at 20 weeks of gestation revealed bilateral ventriculomegaly and dilation of the third ventricle. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed female fetus was delivered with characteristic facial dysmorphism. Postnatal conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis showed a paternal origin of the distal 1q deletion in the fetus.

Conclusion: Fetuses with a chromosome 1q42.3-q44 deletion may present ventriculomegaly on prenatal ultrasound. Prenatal diagnosis of ventriculomegaly should include a differential diagnosis of chromosome 1q distal deletions, and aCGH is useful under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.05.022DOI Listing
July 2020

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from inv dup(15).

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Jul;59(4):580-585

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of an inverted duplication of proximal chromosome 15 [inv dup(15)] presenting as a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) at amniocentesis associated with concomitant microduplication of 8q22.1.

Materials And Methods: A 39-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age, and the result was 47, XY, +mar dn. The woman requested for repeat amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) and DNA methylation analysis were applied to determine the nature of the sSMC.

Results: aCGH on the uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr 8q22.1 (93,918,763-96,618,539) × 3.0, arr 15q11.2q13.2 (22,765,628-30,658,876) × 4.0, arr 15q13.2q13.3 (30,653,877-32,509,926) × 3.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)]. Interphase FISH analysis using RP11-34H12 [15q13.2; Texas Red, 30,709,033-30,893,021 (hg19)] on 100 uncultured amniocytes showed that 38 cells had three signals, 45 cells had four signals and 27 cells had two signals. The parental bloods had normal aCGH results. The karyotype of cultured amniocytes was 47, XY, +inv dup(15) (pter→q13::q13→pter) which was confirmed by metaphase FISH analysis. No informative markers could be found in QF-PCR analysis. DNA methylation analysis on cord blood confirmed a maternal origin of the 15q11-q13 gene dosage increase with a result of 15q11.2 SNRPN DNA hypermethylation. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis on cord blood, umbilical cord and placenta showed the results consistent with the prenatal diagnosis.

Conclusion: Molecular cytogenetic techniques are useful for rapid diagnosis of an inv dup(15) chromosome presenting as an sSMC at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.05.019DOI Listing
July 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for double trisomies of trisomy 11 and trisomy 12 in a single colony at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 May;59(3):443-445

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for double trisomies of trisomy 11 and trisomy 12 in a single colony at amniocentesis with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 23-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 24 weeks of gestation because of congenital bowel dilation in the fetus. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 48,XX,+11,+12[1]/46,XX[24]. In 25 colonies of cultured amniocytes, all five cells in one colony had the karyotype of 48,XX,+11,+12, while the rest 24 colonies had the karyotype of 46,XX. The parental karyotypes were normal. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 26 weeks of gestation. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) were applied on the uncultured amniocytes, and conventional cytogenetic analysis was applied on cultured amniocytes. Interphase FISH analysis showed no trisomy 11 signal and no trisomy 12 signal in 102 uncultured amniocytes. QF-PCR analysis excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 11 and UPD 12. aCGH analysis showed no genomic imbalance. The cultured amniocytes at repeat amniocentesis had the karyotype of 46,XX in 13/13 colonies. At term, a healthy 3445-g female baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality except imperforate anus and a perianal fistula. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XX in 40/40 lymphocytes. Postnatal interphase FISH analysis of buccal cells and urinary cells revealed trisomies 11 and 12 signals in 11/111 (9.9%) buccal cells compared with 3% in normal control, and in 3/103 (2.9%) urinary cells compared with 0.98% in normal control.

Conclusion: Mosaicism for double trisomies of trisomy 11 and trisomy 12 in a single colony at amniocentesis without UPD 11 and UPD 12 can be associated with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.03.020DOI Listing
May 2020

Perinatal cytogenetic discrepancy in a fetus with low-level mosaicism for trisomy 21 and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 May;59(3):440-442

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present perinatal cytogenetic discrepancy in a fetus with low-level mosaicism for trisomy 21 and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 40-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 19 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+21[7]/46,XY[14]. She underwent cordocentesis 21 weeks of gestation, and the karyotype of cord blood was 47,XY,+21[13]/46,XY[38]. The prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. After genetic counseling of a favorable outcome of low-level mosaic trisomy 21 at amniocentesis, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a 3128-g phenotypically normal male baby was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation without phenotypic features of Down syndrome. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of cord blood revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+21[3]/46,XY[47]. The placenta had a karyotype of 47,XY,+21[8]/46,XY[32], and the umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XY,+21[5]/46,XY[35]. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on the DNA extracted from cord blood revealed no genomic imbalance. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis excluded uniparental disomy 21. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on urinary cells revealed trisomy 21 signals in 2/102 (1.96%) cells compared with 2/103 (1.94%) cells in normal control.

Conclusion: The cells of abnormal cell line in prenatally detected mosaic trisomy 21 may decrease in number or disappear in various tissues as the fetus grows, and there exists perinatal cytogenetic discrepancy in mosaic trisomy 21 detected at prenatal diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.03.019DOI Listing
May 2020

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo interchromosomal insertion of ins(1;8)(p22.1;q22q23).

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 May;59(3):437-439

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo interchromosomal insertion of ins(1; 8)(p22.1; q22q23) at amniocentesis.

Case Report: A 34-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Conventional cytogenetic analysis revealed a chromosome 1p22.1 interstitial duplication and a chromosome 8q22-q23 interstitial deletion. The parental karyotypes were normal. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis using the DNA extracted from cultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on cultured amniocytes showed an interchromosomal insertion of ins(1; 8)(p22.1; q22q23) or ins(1; 8) (1pter→1p22.1::8q23→8q22::1p22.1→1qter; 8pter→8q22::8q23→8qter). The long arm of chromosome 8 between bands 8q22 and 8q23 had been directly inserted into the short arm of chromosome 1 at band 1p22.1. The karyotype was 46,XY,ins(1; 8)(p22.1; q22q23) or 46,XY,ins(1; 8)(1pter→1p22.1::8q23→8q22::1p22.1→1qter; 8pter→8q22::8q23→8qter). After genetic counseling, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy. A phenotypically normal male baby was delivered at term.

Conclusion: FISH and aCGH are useful for genetic counseling and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo interchromosomal insertion detected by amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.03.018DOI Listing
May 2020