Publications by authors named "Shin Takahashi"

191 Publications

Historical record of polychlorinated biphenyls in a sediment core from Lake Biwa, Japan: Significance of unintentional emission and weathering signals revealed by full congener-specific analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 21;788:147913. Epub 2021 May 21.

Center of Advanced Technology for the Environment (CATE), Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

The occurrence of 209 PCB congeners was determined in a sediment core dated between 1930 and 2019 from Lake Biwa, a typical temperate monomictic lake in Japan. Concentrations of total PCBs ranged from 5.3 to 48 ng/g dry weight (dw), showing a highest peak at the 1960s to 1970s. The temporal trend of total PCBs in this sediment core generally matched with Japanese PCB production and emission pattern (i.e., increasing from the 1950s, peaking at 1970, and gradually decreasing since 1972). The vertical PCB profiles in our core were affected by physical mixing and bioturbation. By using a detailed and comprehensive analytical method, we have found elevated concentrations and special historical profiles of several congeners such as CB-7, -11, -47/48/75, -51, -68, and -209, which are still rarely included in routine PCB analysis. Some tetra-CB congeners like CB-47/48/75, -51, and -68 showed their concentration peaks at the early 2010s, which may be unintentionally produced during polymer manufacturing processes. PCB homolog- and congener-specific profiles in our sediment core samples have experienced weathering with higher proportions of penta- and hexa-CBs as compared to the Kanechlor usage pattern (i.e., dominated by tri- and tetra-CBs). Both intentional (i.e., technical mixtures) and unintentional (e.g., PCB-containing polymers and pigments) sources of PCBs were suggested from congener-specific analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147913DOI Listing
September 2021

Early Ventricular Septal Defect Closure Prevents the Progression of Aortic Regurgitation: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Iwate Medical University, 1-1-1 Idaidori, Yahaba-cho, Shiwa-gun, Morioka, Iwate, 028-3694, Japan.

According to current short-term evidence, ventricular septal defect (VSD) closure should be performed as early as possible after aortic regurgitation (AR) diagnosis in pediatric patients to prevent AR progression. However, long-term follow-up data are lacking. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the long-term follow-up (≥ 10 years) of patients who underwent VSD closure as early as possible after AR diagnosis and to evaluate whether early VSD closure prevents progression of AR. This was a retrospective cohort study of 42 patients with VSD and AR who had undergone VSD closure at a median age of 2.9 years, with a median waiting period from AR diagnosis to VSD closure of 3.4 months and follow-up of a median 13.1 years (interquartile range 10.0-15.8 years). The preoperative degree of AR was trivial in 25 patients, mild in 15, and moderate in 2. Of the 33 patients followed up for ≥ 10 years, none required aortic valve replacement and there was no incidence of mortality. The degree of AR improved or did not change, except in 1 patient. The size of the VSD (odds ratio [OR] 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-1.18; p = 0.33), time from diagnosis to surgery (OR 1.00; 95% CI 1.000-1.001; p = 0.657), and age at the time of surgery (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.998-1.004; p = 0.452) were not predictive of persistent postoperative AR. Therefore, VSD closure performed as early as possible after AR diagnosis could successfully prevent AR progression in patients with less than moderate preoperative AR, eliminating the need for aortic valve replacement and valvuloplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-021-02647-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Characterization of unsubstituted and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in settled dust: Combination of instrumental analysis and in vitro reporter gene assays and implications for cancer risk assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 18;788:147821. Epub 2021 May 18.

Center of Advanced Technology for the Environment (CATE), Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

Concentrations of 34 unsubstituted and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and Me-PAHs) and AhR-mediated activities in settled dust samples were determined by a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and an in vitro reporter gene assay (PAH-CALUX). The levels of Σ34PAHs and bioassay-derived benzo[a]pyrene equivalents (CALUX BaP-EQs) were significantly higher in workplace dust from informal end-of-life vehicle dismantling workshops than in common house dust and road dust. In all the samples, the theoretical BaP-EQs of PAHs (calculated using PAH-CALUX relative potencies) accounted for 28 ± 19% of the CALUX BaP-EQs, suggesting significant contribution of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists and/or mixture effects. Interestingly, the bioassay-derived BaP-EQs in these samples were significantly correlated with not only unsubstituted PAHs with known carcinogenic potencies but also many Me-PAHs, which should be included in future monitoring and toxicity tests. The bioassay responses of many sample extracts were substantially reduced but not suppressed with sulfuric acid treatment, indicating contribution of persistent AhR agonists. Cancer risk assessment based on the CALUX BaP-EQs has revealed unacceptable level of risk in many cases. The application of bioassay-derived BaP-EQs may reduce underestimation in environmental management and risk evaluation regarding PAHs and their derivatives (notably Me-PAHs), suggesting a consideration of using in vitro toxic activity instead of conventional chemical-specific approach in such assessment practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147821DOI Listing
September 2021

Phase II study of trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) therapy in elderly patients with colorectal cancer (T-CORE1401): geriatric assessment tools and plasma drug concentrations as possible predictive biomarkers.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Medical Oncology, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi 1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8574, Japan.

Purpose: The current study aimed to determine the efficacy of trifluridine/tipiracil for elderly patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

Methods: This single-arm, open-label, multicenter, phase II study included elderly patients aged 65 years or more who had fluoropyrimidine-refractory advanced colorectal cancer and received trifluridine/tipiracil (70 mg/m, days 1-5 and 8-12, every 4 weeks). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), while secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), toxicities, association between efficacy and geriatric assessment scores, and association between toxicity and plasma drug concentrations.

Results: A total of 30 patients with a mean age of 73 years were enrolled. Median PFS was 2.3 months (95% confidence interval, 1.9-4.3 months), while median OS was 5.7 months (95% confidence interval, 3.7-8.9 months). Patients had an ORR of 0%, with 57% having stable disease. Grade 4 neutropenia was observed in 13% of the patients. Patients with a higher G8 score (15 or more) showed longer PFS than those with a lower G8 score (median 4.6 vs. 2.0 months; p = 0.047). Moreover, patients with grade 3 or 4 neutropenia showed higher maximum trifluridine concentrations than those with grade 1 or 2 neutropenia (mean 2945 vs. 2107 ng/mL; p = 0.036).

Discussion: The current phase II trial demonstrated that trifluridine/tipiracil was an effective and well-tolerated option for elderly patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Moreover, geriatric assessment tools and/or plasma drug concentration monitoring might be helpful in predicting the efficacy and toxicities in elderly patients receiving this drug.

Trial Registration Number: UMIN000017589, 15/May/2015 (The University Hospital Medical Information Network).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-021-04277-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Determination of brominated flame retardants including polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pentabromoethylbenzene, hexabromobiphenyl, and decabromodiphenyl ethane in sediment samples: Validation of a rapid and efficient clean-up method and application to a sediment core from Lake Biwa, Japan.

Chemosphere 2021 May 13;281:130867. Epub 2021 May 13.

Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, 790-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

The development of rapid and efficient analytical method for the determination of legacy and current-use brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has been performed due to environmental concern related to these pollutants. In the present study, we used an automated clean-up device equipped with pre-packed micro-column sets (containing sulfuric acid impregnated silica gel and silver-modified alumina) to develop an effective purification method for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pentabromoethylbenzene, hexabromobiphenyl, and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in sediment extracts. Matrix-spiked sediments (n = 6) and the Standard Reference Material® 1944 samples (n = 6) were tested. Our method showed acceptable accuracy, repeatability, and sensitivity for almost all the target compounds with reduced processing time, labor requirement, and solvent amounts as compared to conventional clean-up method (e.g., sulfuric acid treatment and self-packed chromatographic columns). The validated method was applied to sediment core samples (n = 16) collected in 2019 from Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan. PBDEs were detected in sediment samples of 0-13 cm depth (dated between 1990 and 2019) at relatively low concentrations (median 5.7; range 2.6-9.4 ng/g dry weight). PBDE profiles were dominated by BDE-209, which accounted for 91 ± 10% of total PBDEs. Among other BFRs, only DBDPE was found in sediment layers of 0-9 cm depth (deposited between 2005 and 2019). DBDPE concentrations ranged from 0.43 to 1.6 (median 0.71) ng/g and showed increasing trend toward shallower depths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130867DOI Listing
May 2021

Static balloon atrial septostomy in Japan in shortage of standard balloon septostomy catheter.

J Cardiol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Working Group on Balloon Atrial Septostomy Catheter, Japanese Society of Congenital Interventional Cardiology; Pediatric Heart Disease and Adult Congenital Heart Disease Center, Showa University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The supply of Rashkind balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) catheters (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) has suddenly been discontinued in the world due to its recall. Consequently, Japan fell into a critical shortage of standard BAS catheters. Although the use of static BAS is off-label in Japan, its importance is increasing in such a situation. A nationwide survey of static BAS is needed in such a critical period.

Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among centers in Japan regarding BAS performed between October 1, 2020, and December 15, 2020, while the supply of Rashkind BAS catheter was discontinued.

Results: We received answers from 70 of the 90 centers, for a response rate of 78%. In this survey, 25 patients who underwent static BAS were enrolled, and a total of 47 BAS procedures were performed. Median age and weight at static BAS were 10 days of life and 3001 g, respectively. The most common diagnosis was transposition of the great arteries without pulmonary stenosis and hypoplastic left heart syndrome and its variants, with 8 cases each. The most frequently used balloon diameter was 10 mm (13 balloons), followed by 12 mm (10 balloons), and 3 cases required double-balloon techniques. The 3-point scale of the efficacy of static BAS rated by physicians were 10 excellent, 15 good, and 0 poor, respectively. Complications included cardiac tamponade during the procedure in 1 patient and the need for Rashkind BAS later in 2 patients. Comparing the share of static BAS in all transcatheter atrial septostomy, its share in the current survey (28/53) is significantly higher compared to the annual registry data in 2018 (86/304) (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: This survey shows that static BAS is widely performed in Japan and is effective and safe. Static BAS cases have increased significantly due to a shortage of standard BAS catheters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2021.04.008DOI Listing
May 2021

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter samples from Hanoi, Vietnam: Particle size distribution, aryl hydrocarbon ligand receptor activity, and implication for cancer risk assessment.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 30;280:130720. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi, 11400, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Concentrations and profiles of unsubstituted and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and Me-PAHs) were analyzed in airborne particulate matter (PM) samples collected from high-traffic roads in Hanoi urban area. Levels of PAHs and Me-PAHs ranged from 210 to 660 (average 420) ng/m in total PM, and these pollutants were mainly associated with fine particles (PM) rather than coarser ones (PM and PM). Proportions of high-molecular-weight compounds (i.e., 5- and 6-ring) increased with decreasing particle size. Benzo[b+k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and benzo[ghi]perylene were the most predominant compounds in the PM samples. In all the samples, Me-PAHs were less abundant than unsubstituted PAHs. The PAH-CALUX assays were applied to evaluate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand activities in crude extracts and different fractions from the PM samples. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalents (BaP-EQs) derived by the PAH-CALUX assays for low polar fractions (mainly PAHs and Me-PAHs) ranged from 300 to 840 ng/m, which were more consistent with theoretical values derived by using PAH-CALUX relative potencies (270-710 ng/m) rather than conventional toxic equivalency factor-based values (22-69 ng/m). Concentrations of PAHs and Me-PAHs highly correlated with bioassay-derived BaP-EQs. AhR-mediated activities of more polar compounds and interaction effects between PAH-related compounds were observed. By using PAH-CALUX BaP-EQs, the ILCR values ranged from 1.0 × 10 to 2.8 × 10 for adults and from 6.4 × 10 to 1.8 × 10 for children. Underestimation of cancer risk can be eliminated by using effect-directed method (e.g., PAH-CALUX) rather than chemical-specific approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130720DOI Listing
October 2021

Comprehensive determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in surface sediment samples from Hanoi urban area, Vietnam: Contamination status, accumulation profiles, and potential ecological risks.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 20;197:111158. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, 10000, Viet Nam; Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, 10000, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Comprehensive and updated information about polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in surface sediments from Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam, is rather scarce. In this study, concentrations and profiles of 209 PCBs, 41 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were determined in sediment samples collected from the Red River and some inner-city rivers of Hanoi. Concentrations (ng/g dry weight, median and range) of pollutants decreased in the order: DBDPE (28; not detected ND - 59) ≈ PCBs (27; 1.7-50) > PBDEs (23; 0.20-61) > HBCD (1.2; ND - 5.2) > BTBPE (0.46; ND - 3.6) > BB-153 (0.004; ND - 0.014) > PBEB (ND). Pollutant levels in the inner-city river sediments were about one to two orders of magnitude higher than those measured in the Red River main stream sediments. Tri-to hexa-CBs are major homologs but detailed profiles vary between individual samples, reflecting source and/or seasonal variations. CB-11 and CB-209 were found at higher proportions in sediments than in technical PCB mixtures, suggesting their novel sources from pigments. Deca-BDE and DBDPE are the most predominant BFRs with an increasing trend predicted for DBDPE. A preliminary ecological risk assessment was conducted for these pollutants in sediments. Total PCBs and deca-BDE in a few inner-city river sediments may exhibit adverse effects on benthic organisms, but no serious risk was estimated in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111158DOI Listing
June 2021

Contamination status, emission sources, and human health risk of brominated flame retardants in urban indoor dust from Hanoi, Vietnam: the replacement of legacy polybrominated diphenyl ether mixtures by alternative formulations.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, 10000, Vietnam.

This study investigated the occurrence, distribution of several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and some novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in urban indoor dust collected from ten inner districts of Hanoi, Vietnam to assess the contamination status, emission sources, as well as their associated human exposure through indoor dust ingestion and health risks. Total concentrations of PBDEs and NBFRs in indoor dust samples ranged from 43 to 480 ng g (median 170 ng g) and from 56 to 2200 ng g (median 180 ng g), respectively. The most abundant PBDE congener in these dust samples was BDE-209 with concentrations ranging from 29 to 360 ng g, accounting for 62.6-86.5% of total PBDE levels. Among the NBFRs analyzed, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) was the predominant compound with a mean contribution of 98.6% total NBFR amounts. Significant concentrations of DBDPE were detected in all dust samples (median 180 ng g, range 54-2200 ng g), due to DBDPE as a substitute for deca-BDE. Other NBFRs such as 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) were found at very low levels. Based on the measured BFR concentrations, daily intake doses (IDs) of PBDEs and NBFRs via dust ingestion at exposure scenarios using the median and 95 percentile levels for both adults and children were calculated for risk assessment. The results showed that the daily exposure doses via dust ingestion of all compounds, even in the high-exposure scenarios were also lower than their reference dose (RfD) values. The lifetime cancer risks (LTCR) were much lower than the threshold level (10), which indicated the acceptable health risks resulting from indoor BFRs exposure for urban residents in Hanoi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13822-9DOI Listing
April 2021

Unsubstituted and Methylated PAHs in Surface Sediment of Urban Rivers in the Red River Delta (Hanoi, Vietnam): Concentrations, Profiles, Sources, and Ecological Risk Assessment.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Natural Product Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, 10000, Vietnam.

Unsubstituted and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (22 PAHs and 17 Me-PAHs) were examined in surface sediments collected from the Red River and four inner-city rivers of Hanoi City, Vietnam. Concentrations of total PAHs and Me-PAHs ranged from 52 to 920 (median 710) and from 70 to 2600 (median 1000) ng/g dry weight in samples of dry and wet seasons, respectively. Significant correlation was observed between total PAHs and organic carbon contents (Spearman's ρ = 0.782; p < 0.05). PAHs were more abundant than Me-PAHs in all samples and dominated by 4-6 ring compounds. The most predominant PAHs were benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[b/j]fluoranthene, chrysene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and phenanthrene. Methylated derivatives of naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and benz[a]anthracene were frequently detected. The patterns of PAHs indicated principal pyrogenic sources (notably gasoline exhaust) in this highly urbanized area. The occurrence of several PAHs were occasionally associated with adverse effects on benthic organisms of the inner-city rivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03174-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Reliability of respiratory-triggered two-dimensional cine k-adaptive-t-autocalibrating reconstruction for Cartesian sampling for the assessment of biventricular volume and function in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

Br J Radiol 2021 Apr 18;94(1120):20201249. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Radiology, Iwate Medical University, Iwate, Japan.

Objective: To compare left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volume, function, and image quality of a respiratory-triggered two-dimensional (2D)-cine k-adaptive-t-autocalibrating reconstruction for Cartesian sampling (2D kat-ARC) with those of the standard reference, namely, breath-hold 2D balanced steady-state free precession (2D SSFP), in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).

Methods: 30 patients (14 males, mean age 32.2 ± 13.9 years) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance, and 2D kat-ARC and 2D SSFP images were acquired on short-axis view. Biventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and LV mass (LVM) were analysed.

Results: The 2D kat-ARC had significantly shorter scan time (35.2 ± 9.1 s 80.4 ± 16.7 s; < 0.0001). Despite an analysis of image quality showed significant impairment using 2D kat-ARC compared to 2D SSFP cine ( < 0.0001), the two sequences demonstrated no significant difference in terms of biventricular EDV, LVESV, LVSV, LVEF, and LVM. However, the RVESV was overestimated for 2D kat-ARC compared with that for 2D SSFP (73.8 ± 43.2 ml 70.3 ± 44.5 ml, = 0.0002) and the RVSV and RVEF were underestimated (RVSV = 46.2±20.5 ml 49.4 ± 20.4 ml, = 0.0024; RVEF = 40.2±12.7% vs. 43.5±14.0%, = 0.0002).

Conclusion: Respiratory-triggered 2D kat-ARC cine is a reliable technique that could be used in the evaluation of LV volumes and function.

Advances In Knowledge: 2D cine kat-ARC is a reliable technique for the assessment LV volume and function in patients with repaired TOF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20201249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010533PMC
April 2021

Advanced colorectal cancer subtypes (aCRCS) help select oxaliplatin-based or irinotecan-based therapy for colorectal cancer.

Cancer Sci 2021 Apr 27;112(4):1567-1578. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Tohoku University Hospital, Miyagi, Japan.

Oxaliplatin (OX) and irinotecan (IRI) are used as key drugs for the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, no biomarkers have been identified to decide which of the drugs is initially used. In this translational research (TR) of the TRICOLORE trial, the advanced colorectal cancer subtype (aCRCS) was analyzed as a potential biomarker for the selection of OX or IRI. We collected 335 (68.8%) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor specimens from 487 patients registered in the TRICOLORE trial and performed direct sequencing and immunohistochemical staining of CRC-related genes, comprehensive gene-expression analysis, and genome-wide methylation analysis. The progression-free survival (PFS) of the IRI group was significantly better compared with the OX group in BRAF wild-type (WT), PTEN-positive, and aCRCS A1 patients. Among the molecular factors, aCRCS were only associated with the PFS of OX and IRI groups. The PFS of the IRI group was significantly better compared with the OX group in aCRCS A1 + B1 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41-0.82; P = .0023). In contrast, the OX group had better PFS compared with the IRI group in aCRCS B2, although this was not statistically significant (HR = 1.66; 95% CI = 0.94-2.96; P = .083). Nearly half of patients with mCRC (46.8%, aCRCS A1 + B1) respond well to IRI, while only about 18.5% (aCRCS B2) of patients with mCRC responded well to OX. In conclusion, the aCRCS might be a predictive factor for the clinical outcomes of OX-based and IRI-based therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019218PMC
April 2021

Snakes as bimonitors of environmental pollution: A review on organic contaminants.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 20;770:144672. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan.

Monitoring data on organic pollutants published between the late 1960s and 2020 are reviewed to provide comprehensive and updated insights into their bioaccumulation characteristics, sources, and fate in snakes. Multiple organic pollutant classes including pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated paraffins, dioxin-related compounds, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, flame retardants, plasticizers, etc., were detected in various aquatic and terrestrial snake species with concentrations and patterns varying between species and locations. In general, higher concentrations of organic pollutants were found in snakes collected from contaminated sites (e.g., densely populated, pesticide-treated, and waste processing areas), suggesting that snakes can serve as good biomonitors of environmental pollution caused by organic contaminants. Factors influencing concentrations and patterns of organic pollutants in snakes are discussed, providing an overview of current understanding about their accumulation, transformation, and elimination processes. Potential negative effects associated with organic pollutants in snakes and their predators are also considered. Based on such discussions, research gaps and future perspectives on the utilization of snake biomonitoring studies are addressed, heading towards an effective monitoring and assessment scheme for a variety of legacy and emerging organic pollutants in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144672DOI Listing
May 2021

Inhalation bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of flame retardants in indoor dust from Vietnamese e-waste-dismantling workshops.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 9;760:143862. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan.

Although bioaccessibility testing is applied worldwide for appropriate chemical risk assessment, few studies have focused on the bioaccessibility of flame retardants (FRs), especially inhalation exposure. This study assessed inhalation exposure to FRs in indoor dust by workers at e-waste-dismantling workshops in northern Vietnam, by using modified simulated epithelial lung fluid (SELF) and artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF). The average mass concentrations of FRs were 130,000 ng/g for workplace dust (n = 3), 140,000 ng/g for floor dust (n = 3), and 74,000 ng/g for settled dust (n = 2), whereas the average bioaccessible concentrations of FRs were 1900, 1400, and 270 ng/g in the SELF condition and 2600, 770, and 490 ng/g in the ALF condition, respectively. Results clearly indicate that the bioaccessible concentrations of FRs are markedly lower than their mass concentrations. Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP, ~19%), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP, ~35%), and tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP, ~22%) showed comparably high bioaccessibility in both SELF and ALF conditions. In contrast, the bioaccessibility of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA, ~20%) was high in the SELF condition, but not in the ALF condition. With regard to the test compounds' physicochemical properties, the inhalation bioaccessibility of FRs in both conditions increased as molecular weight or octanol-water partition coefficient decreased, and it decreased as water solubility decreased. Health risk assessment clearly indicated that the hazard quotient of FRs via inhalation exposure for workers in the e-waste-dismantling workshops was less than 1, suggesting that the inhalation exposure to FRs during indoor dismantling of e-waste at this site was negligible based on the current methodology of non-cancer health risk assessment used in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143862DOI Listing
March 2021

Contamination levels and temporal trends of legacy and current-use brominated flame retardants in a dated sediment core from Beppu Bay, southwestern Japan.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 3;266:129180. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Center of Advanced Technology for the Environment (CATE), Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, 790-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

Contamination levels and temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and some alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were examined in a dated sediment core from the deepest part of the Beppu Bay, southwestern Japan. PBDEs were found in the upper layers of 0-15 cm depth at concentrations ranging from 5200 to 32,600 pg g with the peak estimated at 1995. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) was the most abundant congener, accounting for 96% in average of total PBDEs. The vertical profile of BDE-209 observed in our sediment core generally agreed with the historical pattern of domestic demand of commercial deca-BDE mixtures in Japan, and perfectly matched with maximum stock of these products (i.e., 42,000 tons in 1995). Among alternative BFRs, only decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), a replacement of deca-BDE, was found at significant levels with concentrations of 69-850 pg g in sediment layers dated between 1991 and 2011. Ratios of DBDPE to BDE-209 gradually increased during this period, implying opposite trends of these two compounds and the role of DBDPE as a deca-BDE's alternative. The occurrence of deca-BDE components in sediments may pose medium risk to benthic aquatic life, while the ecological risk of other PBDE homologs and DBDPE was negligible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129180DOI Listing
March 2021

Extractable organochlorine (EOCl) and extractable organobromine (EOBr) in GPC-fractionated extracts from high-trophic-level mammals: Species-specific profiles and contributions of legacy organohalogen contaminants.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 27;756:143843. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Center of Advanced Technology for the Environment (CATE), Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566, Japan; Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan.

Previous studies have suggested that unidentified compounds constitute a large proportion of extractable organochlorine (EOCl) and extractable organobromine (EOBr) in the crude extracts without fractionation; however, the proportion of unidentified EOX (X = chlorine, bromine) associated with high-/low-molecular-weight compounds is still unknown. In this study, we applied gel permeation chromatography to fractionate extracts from archived liver samples of high-trophic marine and terrestrial mammals (striped dolphins, cats, and raccoon dogs), for which concentrations of legacy organohalogen contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs]) had been previously reported. EOX in high- (>1000 g/mol) and low- (≤1000 g/mol) molecular-weight fractions (EOX-H and EOX-L) were determined by neutron activation analysis. Comparison of EOCl and EOBr enabled the characterization among species. Despite small differences in the concentrations and molecular-weight profiles of EOCl among species, the contribution of chlorine in identified compounds to EOCl-L varied from 1.5% (cats) to 79% (striped dolphins). Considerable species-specific variations were observed in the concentrations of EOBr: striped dolphins exhibited significantly greater concentrations of both EOBr-H and EOBr-L than cats and/or raccoon dogs. Moreover, the contribution of bromine in PBDEs to EOBr-L was >50% in two cats, while it was <6% in other specimens. This is the first report on EOBr mass balance in cetaceans and on EOX mass balance in terrestrial mammals living close to humans. These results suggest the need for analysis of unidentified chlorinated compounds in terrestrial mammals and unidentified brominated compounds in marine mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143843DOI Listing
February 2021

Use of comprehensive target analysis for determination of contaminants of emerging concern in a sediment core collected from Beppu Bay, Japan.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 20;272:115587. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Environment Preservation Research Center, Kyoto University, Japan.

In recent years, concern about the release of anthropogenic organic micropollutants referred to as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) has been growing. The objective of this study was to find potential CECs by means of an analytical screening method referred to as comprehensive target analysis with an automated identification and quantification system (CTA-AIQS), which uses gas and liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS and LC-QTOF-MS). We used CTA-AIQS to analyze samples from a sediment core collected in Beppu Bay, Japan. With this method, we detected 80 compounds in the samples and CTA-AIQA could work to useful tool to find CECs in environmental media. Among the detected chemicals, three PAHs (anthracene, chrysene, and fluoranthene) and tris(isopropylphenyl)phosphate (TIPPP) isomers were found to increase in concentration with decreasing sediment depth. We quantified TIPPP isomers in the samples by means of targeted analysis using LC-MS/MS for confirmation. The concentration profiles, combined with previous reports indicating persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties, suggest that these chemicals can be categorized as potential CECs in marine environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115587DOI Listing
March 2021

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor and outdoor dust from Southeast Asia: An updated review on contamination status, human exposure, and future perspectives.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 6;272:116012. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Center of Advanced Technology for the Environment, Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, 790-8566, Japan.

Contamination status, potential emission sources, environmental fate, and human exposure risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reviewed for indoor and outdoor dust from Southeast Asian countries, under an international comparison point of view. PBDEs have been widely detected in house, workplace, car, and road dust samples collected from Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The highest PBDE levels up to hundreds of μg/g were found in settled dust from some e-waste processing areas in Thailand and Vietnam. Concentrations of PBDEs in house, car, and road dust from this region were generally lower than those reported in China and Western developed countries. BDE-209 was the most predominant congener in almost all analyzed samples, reflecting the widespread application of materials and products treated with commercial deca-BDE mixtures in this region. The market demand and application rate of commercial PBDE mixtures in Southeast Asia were lower than those documented for other regions in the world. As a result, PBDE contamination levels in the environments (e.g., indoor and outdoor dust) and associated risks in these countries were not significantly high. However, more attention should be paid to informal processing activities and management strategies for modern wastes such as e-waste, plastics, and end-of-life vehicles. There exist several knowledge gaps about spatiotemporal trends, potential sources, risk assessment, inventory, management, and legislation regarding PBDEs in dust from this region, which should be filled by additional comprehensive, detailed studies with relevant inter-country/regional monitoring schemes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116012DOI Listing
March 2021

Antibiotics in surface water of East and Southeast Asian countries: A focused review on contamination status, pollution sources, potential risks, and future perspectives.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 9;764:142865. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

University of Science, Vietnam National University, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi 10000, Viet Nam.

This review provides focused insights into the contamination status, sources, and ecological risks associated with multiple classes of antibiotics in surface water from the East and Southeast Asia based on publications over the period 2007 to 2020. Antibiotics are ubiquitous in surface water of these countries with concentrations ranging from <1 ng/L to hundreds μg/L and median values from 10 to 100 ng/L. Wider ranges and higher maximum concentrations of certain antibiotics were found in surface water of the East Asian countries like China and South Korea than in the Southeast Asian nations. Environmental behavior and fate of antibiotics in surface water is discussed. The reviewed occurrence of antibiotics in their sources suggests that effluent from wastewater treatment plants, wastewater from aquaculture and livestock production activities, and untreated urban sewage are principal sources of antibiotics in surface water. Ecological risks associated with antibiotic residues were estimated for aquatic organisms and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic-resistant bacteria were reviewed. Such findings underline the need for synergistic efforts from scientists, engineers, policy makers, government managers, entrepreneurs, and communities to manage and reduce the burden of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in water bodies of East and Southeast Asian countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142865DOI Listing
April 2021

Site-Specific and Targeted Therapy Based on Molecular Profiling by Next-Generation Sequencing for Cancer of Unknown Primary Site: A Nonrandomized Phase 2 Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2020 Dec;6(12):1931-1938

Department of Medical Oncology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama, Japan.

Importance: Although profiling of gene expression and gene alterations by next-generation sequencing (NGS) to predict the primary tumor site and guide molecularly targeted therapy might be expected to improve clinical outcomes for cancer of unknown primary site (CUP), to our knowledge, no clinical trial has previously evaluated this approach.

Objective: To assess the clinical use of site-specific treatment, including molecularly targeted therapy based on NGS results, for patients with CUP.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This phase 2 clinical trial was conducted at 19 institutions in Japan and enrolled 111 previously untreated patients with the unfavorable subset of CUP between March 2015 and January 2018, with 97 patients being included in the efficacy analysis. Eligibility criteria included a diagnosis of unfavorable CUP after mandatory examinations, including pathological evaluation by immunohistochemistry, chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography scans, and a positron emission tomography scan.

Interventions: RNA and DNA sequencing for selected genes was performed simultaneously to evaluate gene expression and gene alterations, respectively. A newly established algorithm was applied to predict tumor origin based on these data. Patients received site-specific therapy, including molecularly targeted therapy, according to the predicted site and detected gene alterations.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was 1-year survival probability. Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate, safety, efficacy according to predicted site, and frequency of gene alterations.

Results: Of 97 participants, 49 (50.5%) were women and the median (range) age was 64 (21-81) years. The cancer types most commonly predicted were lung (21 [21%]), liver (15 [15%]), kidney (15 [15%]), and colorectal (12 [12%]) cancer. The most frequent gene alterations were in TP53 (45 [46.4%]), KRAS (19 [19.6%]), and CDKN2A (18 [18.6%]). The 1-year survival probability, median OS, and median PFS were 53.1% (95% CI, 42.6%-62.5%), 13.7 months (95% CI, 9.3-19.7 months), and 5.2 months (95% CI, 3.3-7.1 months), respectively. Targetable EGFR mutations in tumor specimens were detected in 5 patients with predicted non-small-cell lung cancer (5.2%), 4 of whom were treated with afatinib; 2 of these patients achieved a durable PFS of longer than 6 months.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study's findings suggest that site-specific treatment, including molecularly targeted therapy based on profiling gene expression and gene alterations by NGS, can contribute to treating patients with the unfavorable subset of CUP.

Trial Registration: UMIN Identifier: UMIN000016794.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.4643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563669PMC
December 2020

Unintentionally produced polychlorinated biphenyls in pigments: An updated review on their formation, emission sources, contamination status, and toxic effects.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 26;755(Pt 1):142504. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Center of Advanced Technology for the Environment (CATE), Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

The formation, emission, environmental occurrence, and potential adverse effects of unintentionally produced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in pigments are reviewed, providing a comprehensive and up-to-date picture on these pollutants. PCBs are typically formed during manufacturing of organic pigments that involve chlorinated intermediates and reaction solvents, rather than those of inorganic pigments. Concentrations and profiles of PCBs vary greatly among pigment types and producers, with total PCB levels ranging from lower than detection limits to several hundred ppm; major components can be low-chlorinated (e.g., CB-11) or high-chlorinated congeners (e.g., CB-209). Pigment-derived PCBs can be released into the environment through different steps including pigment production, application, and disposal. They can contaminate atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems, and then affect organisms living there. This situation garners scientific and public attention to nonlegacy emissions of PCBs and suggests the need for appropriate monitoring, management, and abatement strategies regarding these pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142504DOI Listing
February 2021

Characterization of mono- to deca-chlorinated biphenyls in a well-preserved sediment core from Beppu Bay, Southwestern Japan: Historical profiles, emission sources, and inventory.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 6;743:140767. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan.

Contamination levels and profiles of mono- to deca-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were characterized in a sediment core dated in 1954-2011 from Beppu Bay, southwestern Japan, providing a comprehensive and detailed picture on the environmental occurrence, temporal trends, and emission sources of these pollutants in the study area. Concentrations of total PCBs in the core ranged from 3.5 to 150 (median 15) ng g dry weight and exhibited depth profile matching with Japanese PCB production and emission patterns (i.e., drastically increasing from the early 1960s, peaking in 1970, and then rapidly decreasing). Origin of PCBs in the studied samples largely associated with Kanechlor mixtures (e.g., KC-300 and KC-400), especially for sediment layers dated between the mid-1960s and early 1970s (i.e., the intensive PCB production period in Japan). In addition, dechlorination and weathering signals and emerging inputs of PCBs were also observed in deeper and shallower sediment segments with notable proportions of some unique congeners such as CB-47/48/51 and CB-11, respectively. Historical fluxes of PCBs in our samples showed quite similar vertical shape as concentrations. In the context of national implementation for complete treatment of PCB-containing waste until 2024, further investigations on spatiotemporal trends and environmental loads of PCBs in Japan are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140767DOI Listing
November 2020

Antibiotics Improve the Treatment Efficacy of Oxaliplatin-Based but Not Irinotecan-Based Therapy in Advanced Colorectal Cancer Patients.

J Oncol 2020 17;2020:1701326. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Medical Oncology, Tohoku University Hospital, 4-1, Seiryo-machi, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan.

Background: Oxaliplatin and irinotecan are generally used to treat advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Antibiotics improve the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin but not irinotecan in a colon cancer cell line . This study retrospectively assessed whether antibiotics improve the treatment efficacy of oxaliplatin- but not irinotecan-based therapy in advanced CRC patients. . The medical records of 220 advanced CRC patients who underwent oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based therapy were retrospectively reviewed. The oxaliplatin and irinotecan groups were further divided into antibiotic-treated (group 1) and antibiotic-untreated (group 2) subgroups.

Results: In oxaliplatin groups 1 and 2, the response rate (RR) was 58.2% and 30.2%, while the disease control rate (DCR) was 92.5% and 64.2%, respectively; the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.5 months (95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.5-12.2) and 7.0 months (95% CI = 17.0-26.0), respectively, and the median overall survival (OS) was 23.8 months (95% CI = 5.1-9.1) and 17.4 months (95% CI = 13.1-24.9), respectively. In irinotecan groups 1 and 2, the RR was 17.8% and 20.0%, while the DCR was 75.6% and 69.1%, respectively; the median PFS was 8.2 months (95% CI = 6.2-12.7) and 7.9 months (95% CI = 12.0-23.0), respectively, and the median OS was 16.8 months (95% CI = 5.9-10.6) and 13.1 months (95% CI = 10.4-23.7), respectively.

Conclusion: To improve the treatment efficacy of oxaliplatin-based therapy in advanced CRC patients, adding antibiotics is a potential therapeutic option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1701326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317329PMC
June 2020

Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dusts from an end-of-life vehicle processing area and normal house dusts in northern Vietnam: Occurrence, potential sources, and risk assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 21;728:138823. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Center of Advanced Technology for the Environment (CATE), Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

Concentrations and congener-specific profiles of total 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in settled dust samples collected from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) processing, urban, and rural areas in northern Vietnam. Concentrations of total 209 PCBs, seven indicator congeners, and twelve dioxin-like PCBs decreased in the order: ELV working > ELV living ≈ urban > rural dusts. Penta- and hexa-CBs dominated the homolog patterns in all the samples with higher proportions in the ELV dusts compared to the urban and rural house dusts. The abundance and pattern of PCBs in the ELV dusts suggest on-going emissions of these compounds related to processing of vehicular oils and lubricants containing PCBs, whereas the presence of PCBs in the urban and rural house dusts indicate long-time releases. However, levels of some PCBs identified as by-products of pigment manufacturing (e.g., PCB-11 and PCB-209) were higher in the urban house dusts than those from other locations, resulting from human activities utilizing paints and pigments. Daily intake doses (ID), non-carcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ), and lifetime cancer risk (CR) of PCBs through dust ingestion were estimated for ELV workers and residents in the studied areas. The workers and children in the ELV sites were estimated to be at higher risk of PCB exposure, however almost all of the HQ < 1 and CR < 10 indicate no serious risk related to dust-bound PCBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138823DOI Listing
August 2020

Bioaccessibility and exposure assessment of flame retardants via dust ingestion for workers in e-waste processing workshops in northern Vietnam.

Chemosphere 2020 Jul 29;251:126632. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, 305-8506, Japan.

Flame retardants (FRs) from electronic waste (e-waste) are a widespread environmental concern. In our study, in vitro physiologically based extraction tests (PBETs) for FRs were conducted in three different areas where dust remained after processing of e-waste to identify the bioaccessible FRs and quantify their bioaccessibilities of gastrointestinal tract for human as well as to assess the exposure via ingestion of workers in e-waste processing workshops. All 36 FRs were measured and detected in indoor dusts. Among the FRs, the mean concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the floor dust and settled dust were highest, 65,000 ng/g, and 31,000 ng/g, respectively. In contrast, phosphorus-containing flame retardants (PFRs) presented the highest mean concentration in the workplace dust samples, 64,000 ng/g. However, the highest bioaccessible concentrations in workplace dust, floor dust, and settled dust were observed for PFRs: 5900, 1600, and 680 ng/g, respectively. This study revealed that the higher bioaccessibility of PFRs versus other compounds was related to the negative correlation between FR concentrations and log K (hydrophobicity) values. The fact that hazard indices calculated using measured bioaccessibilities were less than 1 suggested that the non-cancer risk to human health by the FRs exposure via dust ingestion might be low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126632DOI Listing
July 2020

Nontarget and Target Screening of Organohalogen Compounds in Mussels and Sediment from Hiroshima Bay, Japan: Occurrence of Novel Bioaccumulative Substances.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 05 23;54(9):5480-5488. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577, Japan.

Recent screening surveys have shown the presence of unknown halogenated compounds in the marine environment at comparable levels to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, their exposure levels and profiles in marine organisms and bioaccumulative potentials remain unclear. The present study performed nontarget/target screening of organohalogen compounds (OHCs) in mussel and sediment samples collected from Hiroshima Bay, Japan, in 2012 and 2018 by using integrated analyses of two-dimensional gas chromatography-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-HRToFMS) and magnetic sector GC-HRMS. Nontarget analysis by GC×GC-HRToFMS revealed the detection of approximately 60 OHCs including unknown mixed halogenated compounds (UHC-BrCl) with molecular formulae of CHBrClO, CHBrClO, and CHBrClO in the mussel. Interestingly, UHC-BrCl concentrations in the mussel samples, which were semi-quantified by GC-HRMS, were comparable to or higher than those of POPs at all the locations surveyed, and their geographical distribution patterns differed from those of other OHCs. These results suggest that UHC-BrCl are ubiquitous in coastal waters of Hiroshima Bay and derived from a specific source(s). The biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) of UHC-BrCl, estimated for a paired sample set of mussel (ng/g lw) and sediment (ng/g TOC), were 1 order of magnitude higher than those for POPs with similar log values, indicating their high bioaccumulative potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b06998DOI Listing
May 2020

Polyurethane foam-based passive air sampling for simultaneous determination of POP- and PAH-related compounds: A case study in informal waste processing and urban areas, northern Vietnam.

Chemosphere 2020 May 21;247:125991. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Center of Advanced Technology for the Environment (CATE), Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, 790-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and unsubstituted/methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs/Me-PAHs) were simultaneously monitored in the air samples collected from Vietnamese urban and vehicular waste processing areas by using polyurethane foam-based passive air sampling (PUF-PAS) method. Concentrations (pg m) of organic pollutants decreased in the order: PAHs (median 29,000; range 5100-100,000) > Me-PAHs (6000; 1000-33,000) > PCBs (480; 170-1100) > PBDEs (11; 5.3-86) > NBFRs (0.20; n. d. - 51) > BB-153 (n.d.). The difference in total PCB and PBDE concentrations between the urban and waste processing air samples was not statistically significant. Meanwhile, levels of PAHs, Me-PAHs, benzo [a]pyrene equivalents (BaP-EQs), and toxic equivalents of dioxin-like PCBs (WHO-TEQs) were much higher in the waste processing sites. This is the first report on the abundance of mono- and di-CBs (notably CB-11) in the air from a developing country, suggesting their roles as emerging and ubiquitous air pollutants. Our results have indicated potential sources of specific organic pollutants such as dioxin-like PCBs, PAHs, and Me-PAHs from improper treatment of end-of-life vehicles and other vehicle related materials (e.g., waste oils and rubber tires), as well as current emission of PCBs and PBDEs in the urban area in Vietnam. Further atmospheric monitoring studies should be conducted in this developing country that cover both legacy and emerging contaminants with a focus on areas affected by rapid urbanization and informal waste processing activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.125991DOI Listing
May 2020

Outcomes of regional-based newborn hearing screening for 35,461 newborns for 5 years in Akita, Japan.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Apr 10;131:109870. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery. Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, Japan.

Objectives: Newborn hearing screening (NHS) has been actively performed since 2001 in Akita, Japan. The NHS coverage rate has increased yearly, and performance has been consistently >90% since 2012. The purpose of this study was to summarize NHS outcomes in the Akita prefecture of Japan and to obtain new insights for from our summarized data for the future.

Methods: A total of 35,461 newborns in hospitals and clinics where hearing screening was performed in Akita from 2012 to 2016 were included. The outcome data of NHS were collected for analysis.

Results: The overall screening coverage rate for hearing loss was 94.7%. Of the screened infants, 0.53% received a referral on the 2-stage automated auditory brainstem response (ABR), and 80.4% of referred infants had a check-up at the hospital to receive a diagnostic hearing examination. Finally, the prevalence of bilateral congenital hearing loss was 0.14%, that of bilateral moderate to profound hearing loss was 0.12%, and that of unilateral congenital hearing loss was 0.10%. Furthermore, the average consultation period in infants with risk factors was significantly later than that in infants without risk factors (p = 0.0015). Follow-up for infants diagnosed with normal hearing after diagnostic hearing examination revealed that 4.7% suffered bilateral moderate to profound hearing loss later. This percentage is significantly higher than that of the general group (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The prevalence of bilateral congenital hearing loss was 0.14% in Akita and 0.12% of infants were diagnosed with bilateral moderate to severe hearing loss. Medical personnel should be enlightened regarding the importance of performing hearing diagnostic examinations until 3 months of age. Even if infants were diagnosed with normal hearing after a diagnostic examination, we strongly suggest continuing follow-up until they are able to perform pure tone audiometry with accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2020.109870DOI Listing
April 2020

Soil and sediment contamination by unsubstituted and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an informal e-waste recycling area, northern Vietnam: Occurrence, source apportionment, and risk assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Mar 5;709:135852. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Improper processing activities of e-waste are potential sources of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, however, information about the environmental occurrence and adverse impacts of these toxic substances is still limited for informal e-waste recycling areas in Vietnam and Southeast Asia. In this study, unsubstituted and methylated PAHs were determined in surface soil and river sediment samples collected from a rural village with informal e-waste recycling activities in northern Vietnam. Total levels of PAHs and MePAHs decreased in the order: workshop soil (median 2900; range 870-42,000 ng g) > open burning soil (2400; 840-4200 ng g) > paddy field soil (1200; range 530-6700 ng g) > river sediment samples (750; 370-2500 ng g). About 60% of the soil samples examined in this study were heavily contaminated with PAHs. Fingerprint profiles of PAHs and MePAHs in the soil and sediment samples indicated that these pollutants were mainly released from pyrogenic sources rather than petrogenic sources. The emissions of PAHs and MePAHs in this area were probably attributed to uncontrolled burning of e-waste and agricultural by-products, domestic coal and biomass combustion, and traffic activities. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of PAHs in the e-waste workshop soils were significantly higher than those of the field soils; however, the incremental lifetime cancer risk of PAH-contaminated soils in this study ranged from 5.5 × 10 to 4.6 × 10, implying acceptable levels of human health risk. Meanwhile, concentrations of some compounds such as phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene in several soil samples exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations, indicating the risk of ecotoxicological effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135852DOI Listing
March 2020

Efficacy of modified FOLFOX6 chemotherapy for patients with unresectable pseudomyxoma peritonei.

Int J Clin Oncol 2020 Apr 10;25(4):774-781. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Medical Oncology, Tohoku University Hospital, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

Background: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare malignancy, and there is insufficient evidence about systemic chemotherapy for this disease.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of a chemotherapeutic regimen with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (modified FOLFOX6, mFOLFOX6) for patients with unresectable pseudomyxoma peritonei. Patients who received the therapy between April 2000 and February 2019 at the Department of Medical Oncology, Tohoku University Hospital, were enrolled in this study.

Results: Eight patients were treated with mFOLFOX6. The sites of primary tumor were appendix in six patients, ovary in a patient, and urachus in a patient. Six patients received surgery. Seven patients had histologically high-grade PMP, and one patient had low-grade PMP. The median follow-up duration was 27.2 months. All the patients had non-measurable regions as the targets of tumor response. Non-complete response or non-progressive disease was observed in seven patients, with a disease control rate of 87.5%. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 13.0 months and 27.9 months, respectively. An obvious reduction in the symptoms was observed in two patients. Five patients experienced decline in the serum tumor markers, CEA or CA19-9. The grade 3/4 toxicity that was observed was grade 4 neutropenia in one patient and grade 3 neutropenia in two patients.

Conclusions: mFOLFOX6 might be an effective and tolerable treatment option for patients with unresectable PMP. To our knowledge, this is the first case series of mFOLFOX6 in patients with unresectable PMP and the first case series of systemic chemotherapy for Asian patients with unresectable PMP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-019-01592-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118031PMC
April 2020