Publications by authors named "Shimin Zheng"

59 Publications

Tandem Mass Tag-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Chicken Bursa of Fabricius Infected With Reticuloendotheliosis Virus.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:666512. Epub 2021 May 25.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is a type C avian retrovirus that causes immunosuppression, dwarf syndrome, and lymphoma in infected hosts. In this study, we used tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to characterize protein alterations in chicken bursa of Fabricius, before and after REV infection at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Our data showed that 1,127, 999, 910, and 1,138 differentially expressed proteins were significantly altered at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after REV infection, respectively. Morphological analysis showed that REV infection reduced in cortical lymphocytes, bursal follicle atrophy, and nuclear damage. Bioinformatics analysis indicated these proteins were mainly involved with immune responses, energy metabolism, cellular processes, biological regulation, metabolic processes, response to stimuli, and multicellular organismal process. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway cluster analysis showed that post-infection, proteins were enriched in the cell cycle, Wnt signaling, antigen processing and presentation, cytokine receptor interaction, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate signaling pathway, and NF-κB signaling. In addition, we observed that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4), peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3), catalase (CAT), and peroxidasin (PXDN) were involved in oxidative stress. Some heat shock protein (HSP) family members such as HSPH1, DNAJA4, HSPA8, and HSPA4L also changed significantly after REV infection. These findings help clarify interactions between REV and the host and provides mechanistic insights on REV-induced host immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.666512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186552PMC
May 2021

Poly (I: C) inhibits reticuloendothelial virus replication in chicken macrophage-like cells through the activation of toll-like receptor-3 signaling.

Mol Immunol 2021 Aug 4;136:110-117. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Laboratory Animals and Comparative Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathophysiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China. Electronic address:

Reticuloendothelial virus (REV) is widely found in many domestic poultry areas and results in severe immunosuppression of infected chickens. This increases the susceptibility to other pathogens, which causes economic losses to the poultry industry. The aim of our study was to determine whether polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly (I: C)] treatment could inhibit REV replication in chicken macrophage-like cell line, HD11. We found that Poly (I: C) treatment could markedly inhibit REV replication in HD11 from 24 to 48 h post infection (hpi). Additionally, Poly (I: C) treatment could switch HD11 from an inactive type into M1-like polarization from 24 to 48 hpi. Furthermore, Poly (I: C) treatment promoted interferon-β secretion from HD11 post REV infection. Moreover, Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3) mRNA and protein levels in HD11 treated with Poly (I: C) were markedly increased compared to those of HD11 not treated with Poly (I: C). The above results suggested that Poly (I: C) treatment switches HD11 into M1-like polarization to secret more interferon-β and activate TLR-3 signaling, which contributes to block REV replication. Our findings provide a theoretical reference for further studying the underlying pathogenic mechanism of REV and Poly (I: C) as a potential therapeutic intervention against REV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.05.013DOI Listing
August 2021

Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease on Revascularization and Outcomes in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Am J Cardiol 2021 07 15;150:15-23. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee. Electronic address:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with worse outcomes. We assessed the impact of CKD on guideline directed coronary revascularization and outcomes among STEMI patients. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample dataset from 2012-2014 was used to identify patients with STEMI using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Patients were categorized as non-CKD, CKD without dialysis, and CKD with dialysis (CKD-HD). Outcomes were revascularization, death and acute renal failure requiring dialysis (ARFD). A total of 534,845 were included (88.9% non-CKD; 9.6% CKD without dialysis, and 1.5% CKD-HD). PCI was performed in 77.4% non-CKD, 56.2% CKD without dialysis, and 48% CKD-HD patients (p < 0.0001). In-hospital mortality and ARFD were significantly higher in CKD patients (16.5% and 40.6%) compared with non-CKD patients (7.12% and 7.17%) (p < 0.0001). In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients treated revascularization compared with patients treated medically (non-CKD: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.280, p < 0.0001; CKD without dialysis: aOR 0.39, p < 0.0001; CKD-HD: aOR 0.48, p < 0.0001). CKD was associated with higher length of hospital stay and cost (5.86 ± 13.97, 7.57 ± 26.06 and 3.99 ± 11.09 days; p < 0.0001; $25,696 ± $63,024, $35,666 ± $104,940 and $23,264 ± $49,712; p < 0.0001 in non-CKD, CKD without dialysis and CKD-HD patients respectively). In conclusion, CKD patients with STEMI receive significantly less PCI compared with patients without CKD. Coronary revascularization for STEMI in CKD patients was associated with lower mortality compared to medical management. The presence of CKD in patients with STEMI is associated with higher mortality and ARFD, prolonged hospital stay and higher hospital cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.03.057DOI Listing
July 2021

Accessibility of federally funded family planning services in South Carolina and Alabama.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Jun 7;22:101343. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Center for Applied Research and Evaluation in Women's Health, Department of Health Services Management & Policy, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, P.O. Box 70264, Johnson City, TN 37614, United States.

This study operationalized the five dimensions of health care access in the context of contraceptive service provision and used this framework to examine access to contraceptive care at health department (HD) (Title X funded) and federally qualified health center (FQHC) (primarily non-Title X funded) clinics in South Carolina and Alabama. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017/18 that assessed clinic-level characteristics, policies, and practices related to contraceptive provision. Provision of different contraceptive methods was examined between clinic types. Survey items were mapped to the dimensions of access and internal consistency for each scale was tested with Cronbach's alpha. Scores of access were developed and differences by clinic type were evaluated with an independent -test. The overall response rate was 68.3% and the sample included 235 clinics. HDs (96.9%) were significantly more likely to provide IUDs and/or Impants on-site than FQHCs (37.4%) ( < 0.0001). Scales with the highest consistency were Availability: Clinical Policy (24 items) (alpha = 0.892) and Acceptability (43 items) (alpha = 0.834). HDs had higher access scores than FQHCs for the Availability: Clinical Policy scale (0.58, 95% CL 0.55, 0.61) vs (0.29, 95% CL 0.25, 0.33) and Affordability: Administrative Policy scale (0.86, 95% CL 0.83, 0.90) vs (0.47, 95% CL 0.41, 0.53). FQHCs had higher access scores than HDs for Affordability: Insurance Policy (0.78, 95% CL 0.72, 0.84) vs (0.56, 95% CL 0.53, 0.59). These findings highlight strengths and gaps in contraceptive care access. Future studies must examine the impact of each dimension of access on clinic-level contraceptive utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7980054PMC
June 2021

Changes in oxidation-antioxidation function on the thymus of chickens infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Dec 11;16(1):483. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, 150030, Harbin, People's Republic of China.

Background: Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is a retrovirus that causes severe immunosuppression in poultry. Animals grow slowly under conditions of oxidative stress. In addition, long-term oxidative stress can impair immune function, as well as accelerate aging and death. This study aimed to elucidate the pathogenesis of REV from the perspective of changes in oxidative-antioxidative function following REV infection.

Methods: A total of 80 one-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were randomly divided into a control group (Group C) and an REV-infected group (Group I). The chickens in Group I received intraperitoneal injections of REV with 10/0.1 mL TCID. Thymus was collected on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 49 for histopathology and assessed the status of oxidative stress.

Results: In chickens infected with REV, the levels of HO and MDA in the thymus increased, the levels of TAC, SOD, CAT, and GPx1 decreased, and there was a reduction in CAT and Gpx1 mRNA expression compared with the control group. The thymus index was also significantly reduced. Morphological analysis showed that REV infection caused an increase in the thymic reticular endothelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration, mitochondrial swelling, and nuclear damage.

Conclusions: These results indicate that an increase in oxidative stress enhanced lipid peroxidation, markedly decreased antioxidant function, caused thymus atrophy, and immunosuppression in REV-infected chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02708-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7731740PMC
December 2020

Association between per and polyfluoroalkyl substances and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

Environ Res 2021 05 23;196:110361. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Baylor University, Robbins College of Health and Human Sciences, USA.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the association of Per and Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and markers of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress.

Methods: Using data (n = 6652) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2012, generalized linear models were used to examine the association between PFAS and inflammatory (ferritin, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and lymphocyte count) and oxidative stress (serum bilirubin, albumin and iron) per unit exposure to PFAS while adjusting for covariates. Study participants were those ≥20 years of age. Outcome variables were markers of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress and exposure variables were PFAS.

Resullts: Percentage change in Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were all significantly associated with percentage increases in lymphocyte counts, beta (95% confidence interval); 0.04(0.02,0.05), 0.04(0.02,0.05), 0.05(0.03, 0.07), 0.04(0.03,0.05), 0.03(0.13,1.23) and with percentage increases in serum iron 0.07(0.05,0.09), 0.04(0.02,0.07), 0.10(0.07,0.12), 0.05(0.03,0.07), 0.04(0.02,0.06) and increased serum albumin 0.02(0.02,0.02), 0.02(0.02,0.03), 0.03(0.03,0.04), 0.02(0.017, 0.025), 0.01 (0.01, 0.05). Only PFHxS, PFNA, PFOA and PFOS were associated with percentage increases in serum total bilirubin 0.04(0.03,0.05), 0.02(0.00,0.03), 0.06(0.04,0.08), 0.03(0.02,0.05). Similar results were obtained for categorical quintile analysis with PFOA showing a significant trend (P < 0.001) with lymphocyte count, serum iron, serum total bilirubin and serum albumin. Trend for neutrophil count was not significant (p = 0.183).

Conclusion: Per and Polyfluoroalkyl substances are associated with markers of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Increased exposure leads to increase in serum concentration of these markers meaning these chemicals are associated with both chronic inflammation and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110361DOI Listing
May 2021

Prevalence of HIV testing and factors influencing the attitude of high school students towards HIV testing uptake in U.S. using, Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2017 data.

AIDS Care 2021 04 18;33(4):553-557. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson, TN, USA.

This study examined associations between the prevalence of HIV testing and factors or behaviors that influence HIV testing in U.S.A. 9th to 12th graders using the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) data. Selection criteria was based on a positive report of sexual debut (Ever had sex? Yes/No). Outcome of interest was having ever tested for HIV. Independent risk factors included age, sex, grade, race, condom use, age at first sexual intercourse, number of lifetime sexual partners, use of contraceptives, use of drug or alcohol before last sexual activity and several other factors. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate factors associated with HIV screening participation. HIV testing prevalence was 20.34%. Females (53.97%) were more likely to participate in HIV screening test than males (67.37% females versus 32.63% males) and had higher odds of testing (OR: 2.229; <.0001). Those in 11th and 12th grade, aged greater than 16 and with multiple sexual partners had higher rates of HIV testing. Strongest associations with HIV testing were older age at 1st sexual intercourse, odds ratio (OR): 0.413; ( ≤ .0001), having three or more sexual partners (OR: 2.023;  ≤ .0001), being female (OR: 2.021;  ≤ .0001), use of contraceptives (OR: 1.828;  ≤ .0001) and describing grades in school as mostly A's or B's (OR: 0.696;  ≤ .001).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2020.1766663DOI Listing
April 2021

Proxy reliability of the 12-item world health organization disability assessment schedule II among adult patients with mental disorders.

Qual Life Res 2020 Aug 9;29(8):2219-2229. Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA.

Purpose: Despite the wide usage of World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS 2.0) in psychiatry research and clinical practice, there was limited knowledge on its proxy reliability among people with mental disorders. This paper aimed to compare the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 responses of adult patients with mental disorders to their family caregivers.

Methods: In this study, 205 pairs of patients with mental disorders and primary family caregivers were consecutively recruited from one inpatient mental health department in a large hospital in China. All participants completed the 12-item version WHODAS 2.0 to assess patients' functioning in the 30 days prior to the hospitalization. Measurement invariance, including configural, metric and scalar invariance, was tested across patient and proxy groups, using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. Agreement between patients and proxies was examined by paired Wilcoxon tests and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Subgroup analyses for proxy reliability were conducted within strata of proxy kinship and patient psychiatric diagnosis.

Results: The 12-item WHODAS 2.0 achieved configural, metric and partial scalar invariance across patient and proxy groups. Unsatisfactory consistency was found for most items (ICC < 0.75, P < 0.05), especially for items on Cognition, Getting along, Life activities, and Participation in society (ICC < 0.4, P < 0.05). Spouses agreed with patients more often than parents (ICC ≥ 0.4, P < 0.05). The paired Wilcoxon tests found that impairment of patients with psychotic disorders tended to be overestimated by proxies while proxies tended to underestimate impairment of patients with mood disorders.

Conclusion: Our study reveals inconsistency between self and proxy reports in the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 among adult patients with mental disorders. When proxy reports is needed, spouses are preferred than parents. We should be aware of proxies' impairment overestimation among patients with psychotic disorders and underestimation among patients with mood disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02474-wDOI Listing
August 2020

Neuroinflammatory Gene Expression Alterations in Anterior Cingulate Cortical White and Gray Matter of Males With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Autism Res 2020 06 4;13(6):870-884. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN.

Evidence for putative pathophysiological mechanisms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including peripheral inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, white matter alterations, and abnormal synaptic overgrowth, indicate a possible involvement of neuroinflammation in the disorder. Neuroinflammation plays a role in the development and maintenance of the dendritic spines involved in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and also influences blood-brain permeability. Cytokines released from microglia can impact the length, location or organization of dendritic spines on excitatory and inhibitory cells as well as recruit and impact glial cell function around the neurons. In this study, gene expression levels of anti- and pro-inflammatory signaling molecules, as well as oligodendrocyte and astrocyte marker proteins, were measured in both gray and white matter tissue in the anterior cingulate cortex from ASD and age-matched typically developing (TD) control brain donors, ranging from ages 4 to 37 years. Expression levels of the pro-inflammatory gene, HLA-DR, were significantly reduced in gray matter and expression levels of the anti-inflammatory gene MRC1 were significantly elevated in white matter from ASD donors as compared to TD donors, but neither retained statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Modest trends toward differences in expression levels were also observed for the pro-inflammatory (CD68, IL1β) and anti-inflammatory genes (IGF1, IGF1R) comparing ASD donors to TD donors. The direction of gene expression changes comparing ASD to TD donors did not reveal consistent findings implicating an elevated pro- or anti-inflammatory state in ASD. However, altered expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory gene expression indicates some involvement of neuroinflammation in ASD. Autism Res 2020, 13: 870-884. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: The anterior cingulate cortex is an integral brain region in modulating social behaviors including nonverbal communication. The study found that inflammatory gene expression levels were altered in this brain region. We hypothesize that the inflammatory changes in this area could impact neuronal function. The finding has future implications in using these molecular markers to identify potential environmental exposures and distinct cell differences in autism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540672PMC
June 2020

Regulatory mechanism of microRNA-155 in chicken embryo fibroblasts in response to reticuloendotheliosis virus infection.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Mar 10;242:108610. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Laboratory Animals and Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, NO. 59 Mucai Street, Harbin 150030, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection of multiple avian species can lead to a number of diseases such as runting syndrome, immunosuppression and oncogenesis, causing major economic losses. MicroRNAs play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation, effectively inhibiting protein synthesis, and participating in many biological processes in cells, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipometabolism, virus infection and replication, and tumorigenesis. Based on our previous high-throughput sequencing results, we explore the regulatory mechanisms of microRNA-155(miR-155) in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) in response to REV infection. Our results revealed expression of miR-155 in CEFs after REV infection upregulated in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating miR-155 plays a role in REV infection in CEFs indeed. After transfected with miR-155-mimic and miR-155-inhibitor, we found overexpression of miR-155 targeted caspase-6 and FOXO3a to inhibit apoptosis and accelerate cell cycle, thus improving viability of REV-infected CEFs. This result also verified the protective role of miR-155 in the viability of CEFs in the presence of REV. Knockdown of miR-155 also supported these above conclusions. Our findings uncover a new mechanism of REV pathogenesis in CEFs, and also provide a theoretical basis for uncovering new effective treatment and prevention methods for RE based on miR-155.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108610DOI Listing
March 2020

Association between stigma towards HIV and MSM and intimate partner violence among newly HIV-diagnosed Chinese men who have sex with men.

BMC Public Health 2020 Feb 10;20(1):204. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: HIV- and MSM-related stigma are well documented as common for Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV, yet there is sparse literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) and its relationship with stigma in this vulnerable population. To evaluate the association between HIV-stigma and stigma related to homosexuality and IPV among newly HIV-diagnosed MSM in China.

Methods: Data were collected in the baseline survey among newly HIV-diagnosed Chinese MSM in a randomized clinical trial via face-to-face interviews. Univariate logistic and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between IPV and HIV- and MSM-related stigma.

Results: Of 367 newly HIV-diagnosed Chinese MSM, 23.7% experienced any IPV, including 16.6% physical, 7.4% psychological and 5.2% sexual IPV. Positive associations were found between HIV- and MSM-related stigma and IPV. Men with high HIV-related stigma (score ≥ 27) were 1.67 times as likely to experience any IPV as those with low stigma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-2.76). Men with high MSM-related stigma (score ≥ 6) were 1.99 times as likely to experience any IPV as those with low stigma (AOR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.18-3.36).

Conclusions: HIV- and MSM-related stigmas was positively associated with IPV experiences among newly diagnosed MSM in China. The manner in which stigma may exacerbate IPV, and/or the influence of IPV on worsening stigma should be further evaluated. The high prevalence of IPV and stigma in this population suggests that interventions should be taken to reduce stigma and prevent this risky behavior among MSM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8259-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008577PMC
February 2020

Compromised Air Quality and Healthcare Safety from Smoking inside Hospitals in Shantou, China.

Sci Rep 2019 05 28;9(1):7955. Epub 2019 May 28.

Clinical Research Unit, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, P.R. China.

Achieving smoke-free healthcare facilities remains a great challenge in countries with a high smoking prevalence and weak regulation. Assessment of the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and its constituent PM on the air quality in Chinese hospitals has not been reported. In this study, we conducted air quality surveys by measuring real-time PM concentrations with Dylos Air Quality Monitors in five tertiary hospitals in Shantou, China during summer (July-August 2016) and winter (November-February 2017). Twenty-eight-day surveys inside the hospitals showed median PM concentrations above the China Air Quality Standard in elevator lobbies (51.0 μg/m, IQR 34.5-91.7), restrooms (40.2, 27.1-70.3), and corridors (36.5, 23.0-77.4). Evidence of tobacco smoking was significantly associated with PM spikes observed in all the survey locations, contributing to the air quality undesirable for health in 49.1% of total survey hours or 29.3% of summer and 75.4% of winter survey hours inside the buildings, and 33.5%, 25.7%, and 6.8% of survey hours in doctor offices, nurse stations, and patient rooms, respectively. In conclusion, smoking inside hospitals induces PM spikes that significantly compromise the air quality and impose significant health risk to the hospital inhabitants. Reinforcing comprehensive smoking ban with the vested interest of all stakeholders followed by creative disciplinary actions are suggested to ensure healthcare safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-44295-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6538634PMC
May 2019

Changes in apoptosis, proliferation and T lymphocyte subtype on thymic cells of SPF chickens infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus.

Mol Immunol 2019 07 29;111:87-94. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China; Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animals and Comparative Medicine, Harbin 150030, PR China. Electronic address:

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an avian retrovirus is able to infect a variety of birds and can cause immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of thymic lymphocytes apoptosis, proliferation and T cell subtype with immunosuppression. In this study, a hundred and twenty one-day old SPF chickens were randomly divided into control groups (group C) and a REV infection groups (group I). The chickens of group I received intraperitoneal injections of REV with 10/0.1 ml TCID. On day 14, 21, 28 and 35 post-inoculation, the chickens of C group and I group were sacrificed by cardiac puncture blood collection, and the thymic lymphocytes was sterile collected. The proliferation ability of lymphocytes was tested by Cell Counting Kit-8. Flow cytometry was performed to detect apoptosis, cell cycle stage and the change in T cell subtype. The RNA genome copy numbers of REV virus were detected using real-time PCR. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to analyze the expression of CyclinD1 and Bcl-2. Our results showed that REV genome copy number steadily declined, the proliferation potential of thymic lymphocytes was inhibited, lymphocytes apoptosed, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ decreased and the expression of CyclinD1 and Bcl-2 were firstly inhibited, then rapidly recovered. Thus, immunosuppression lead by REV is closely related to the change of T cell subtype, apoptosis, and proliferation of thymic lymphocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2019.04.003DOI Listing
July 2019

Comparison of immune responses induced by porcine parvovirus virus-like particles and inactivated vaccine.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Jan;32(1(Special)):377-382

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Laboratory Animals and Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, No.59 Mucai street, Harbin, People's Republic of China.

Laboratory-prepared inactivated porcine parvovirus (PPV) vaccines and VP2 virus-like particles (VLPs) were utilized to immunize gilts. PPV BQ strain and SP2/0 cells were used. Hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody titers were measured in the immunized gilts and the differences in cytokine production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4) were compared. CD4 and CD8 T cells proliferation were compared by flow cytometry. The variation between the immune response level induced by inactivated PPV vaccine and VP2 VLPs were determined. The results showed that all vaccinated gilts had HI antibody titers reaching 1:256 for at least one month post immunization and the peak level of antibody could be sustained for one month; further, PPV antibodies could be detected in the second week post immunization with VP2 VLPs. We also found that the level of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4) were all increased post immunization and continued to rise after the booster immunization; the level of increase in IFN-γ and IL-2 were significantly higher than IL-4. The flow cytometry results showed that the numbers of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells subsets were significantly higher in the groups immunized with inactivated PPV vaccine or VP2 VLPs than those of negative control group (p<0.01); additionally, the number of CD4 cells in the gilts that received VP2 VLP immunization was significantly higher than the inactivated vaccine group (p<0.01). In summary, the inactivated PPV vaccine and PPV VP2 VLPs were both able to induce humoral and cellular immunity, but the VP2 VLPs lead to better cellular immune responses in gilts compared to those of the inactivated vaccine..
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January 2019

Spider dragline silk as torsional actuator driven by humidity.

Sci Adv 2019 03 1;5(3):eaau9183. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Laboratory for Atomistic and Molecular Mechanics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Self-powered actuation driven by ambient humidity is of practical interest for applications such as hygroscopic artificial muscles. We demonstrate that spider dragline silk exhibits a humidity-induced torsional deformation of more than 300°/mm. When the relative humidity reaches a threshold of about 70%, the dragline silk starts to generate a large twist deformation independent of spider species. The torsional actuation can be precisely controlled by regulating the relative humidity. The behavior of humidity-induced twist is related to the supercontraction behavior of spider dragline silk. Specifically, molecular simulations of MaSp1 and MaSp2 proteins in dragline silk reveal that the unique torsional property originates from the presence of proline in MaSp2. The large proline rings also contribute to steric exclusion and disruption of hydrogen bonding in the molecule. This property of dragline silk and its structural origin can inspire novel design of torsional actuators or artificial muscles and enable the development of designer biomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau9183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397028PMC
March 2019

Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha and increased of interleukin 10 by : a molecular mechanism protection against TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in chicks.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2019 Feb 1;41(1):1-6. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

a Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine , College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University , Harbin , PR China.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects and mechanism of on ameliorating ulcerative colitis chicks induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). There are three groups in this study, control, and ulcerative colitis groups. 1-day-old chicks were fed with microcapsules containing LA-5 daily for Lactobacillus group and clustered with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) to make the model of ulcerative colitis at ten-day-old. Chicks in control and ulcerative colitis groups were fed with empty microcapsules daily at 1-day-old and then chicks in ulcerative colitis group were induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) for preparation of ulcerative colitis model at 10-day-old. We detected the changes of mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in the colon by Real-Time PCR and Western Blot. Histopathology evaluation on colon was conducted. Results showed that chicks pretreated with had striking injury improvement compared with ulcerative colitis group in histopathology. Compared with ulcerative colitis group, down-regulation of TNF-α and up-regulation of IL-10 were observed in group chicks. Therefore, could improve the injury of intestinal mucosa and reduce inflammatory response by regulating mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-α and IL-10, respectively. In conclusion, could ameliorate the effects on chicks of TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis by reducing the inflammation and regulating the expression of TNF-α and IL-10, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08923973.2019.1566360DOI Listing
February 2019

Negative associations between general self-efficacy and anxiety/depression among newly HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.

AIDS Care 2019 05 22;31(5):629-635. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

g Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health , East Tennessee State University , Johnson City , TN , USA.

To evaluate the association between general self-efficacy and depression/anxiety among newly HIV-diagnosed Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, our study evaluated the baseline survey data of MSM taking part in a clinical trial among Chinese MSM in Beijing. The baseline survey of the trial was conducted between March 2013 and March 2014. General self-efficacy and depression/anxiety were measured using standard scales. Logistic regression and cumulative logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations between general self-efficacy and depression/anxiety. A total of 367 newly HIV-diagnosed Chinese MSM in Beijing were recruited. There were negative associations between general self-efficacy and depression/anxiety among the study population. As general self-efficacy increased by one unit, the odds of "likely" or "borderline" depression versus normal, or "likely" depression versus "borderline" depression or normal decreased by 12% [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-0.92] after adjusting for potential confounders. Similarly, general self-efficacy was negatively associated with anxiety (AOR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.86-0.93). A higher level of general self-efficacy was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety among newly HIV-diagnosed Chinese MSM. Interventions promoting overall health and wellness should address self-efficacy, depression and anxiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2018.1549721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7942229PMC
May 2019

Integrative Analyses of Transcriptome Sequencing Identify Functional miRNAs in the Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts Cells Infected With Reticuloendotheliosis Virus.

Front Genet 2018 29;9:340. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Pathophysiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

In this study, we found a much higher proportion of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) were in active cell division phase than that of control cells which indicated that REV can affect the fate of CEF. So, we performed high-throughput sequencing and transcriptomic analysis to identify functional miRNAs, in order to figure out the possible mechanism in the interaction of REV with CEF. In total, 50 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were identified. Then target genes of DEmiRNAs were predicted and identified by transcriptome profile results. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment were conducted to analyze the identified target genes of miRNAs which showed that metabolism, cell cycle, and apoptosis were the most related pathways involved in infection of REV. We analyzed the genes related to cell cycle which indicated that CyclinD1-CDK6 complex played an important role in regulating the transition of the cell cycle from G1 phase to S phase during REV infection. Fluorescence microscope identification showed that REV inhibited the apoptosis of CEF which was in accordance with transcriptome results. A novel miRNA, named novel-72 was found, KEGG analysis was conducted to predict the biological function of its target genes which showed that those target genes were significantly enriched in mTOR signaling pathway and functioned to promote cell cycle and cell growth during the REV infection. In conclusion, REV could induce the up-regulation of cell metabolism, cell cycle and mTOR signaling pathway while inhibit apoptosis of the cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6128223PMC
August 2018

Analysis of alternative splicing in chicken embryo fibroblasts in response to reticuloendotheliosis virus infection.

Avian Pathol 2018 Dec 20;47(6):585-594. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

a Laboratory Pathological Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine , Northeast Agricultural University , Harbin , People's Republic of China.

Alternative splicing (AS) plays a significant role in regulation of genomic expression at the transcriptional level and is involved in many important biological functions of cells, thus a gene can be spliced into distinct transcript variants then translated to many different kinds of protein. Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is a kind of retrovirus that can infect multiple avian species, leading to runting syndrome, immunosuppression and oncogenesis. In this present study, we analyzed AS in REV-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) which were inoculated with the second generation of REV (group VB) and compared with normal CEFs (group C) by high-throughput RNA sequencing technology. A total of 6,939 genes which were alternatively spliced were detected, among them, skipped exon (SE) was the most common pattern. Moreover, 5,607 AS genes were detected as differentially expressed; compared with group C, group VB has 2,825 genes upregulated significantly and 2,782 genes downregulated significantly. These 5,607 differentially expressed AS genes are involved in many important biological processes. Many of them are involved in apoptosis and tumourigenesis. We also proved, by agarose gel electrophoresis, that AS events predicted by our study are authentic and AS is closely related with apoptosis and tumourigenesis in REV-infected CEFs. Our study provides the best analysis to date of the potential link between AS and CEFs in response to REV infection. Research highlights Transcriptomics analysis of REV-infected CEFs using high-throughput sequencing. Potential link between alternative splicing and CEFs in response to REV infection. Skipped exon is the most common spliced pattern in REV-infected CEFs. Differentially expressed genes mainly involved in apoptosis and tumourigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2018.1511047DOI Listing
December 2018

Assessing Heat-Related Mortality Risks among Rural Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Evidence.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 07 27;15(8). Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Department of Environmental Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA.

Most epidemiological studies of high temperature effects on mortality have focused on urban settings, while heat-related health risks in rural areas remain underexplored. To date there has been no meta-analysis of epidemiologic literature concerning heat-related mortality in rural settings. This study aims to systematically review the current literature for assessing heat-related mortality risk among rural populations. We conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar to identify articles published up to April 2018. Key selection criteria included study location, health endpoints, and study design. Fourteen studies conducted in rural areas in seven countries on four continents met the selection criteria, and eleven were included in the meta-analysis. Using the random effects model, the pooled estimates of relative risks (RRs) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 1.030 (95% CI: 1.013, 1.048) and 1.111 (95% CI: 1.045, 1.181) per 1 °C increase in daily mean temperature, respectively. We found excess risks in rural settings not to be smaller than risks in urban settings. Our results suggest that rural populations, like urban populations, are also vulnerable to heat-related mortality. Further evaluation of heat-related mortality among rural populations is warranted to develop public health interventions in rural communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6122068PMC
July 2018

Outcomes of Saphenous Vein Graft Intervention With and Without Embolic Protection Device: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2017 Dec;10(12)

From the Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine (T.K.P., H.B.P.) and Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health (S.Z.), East Tennessee State University, Johnson City; The Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (S.B., R.M.); VA North Texas Health Care System, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (S.B.); The Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (S.V.R.); Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (L.G.); Nirat Beohar, Columbia University Division of Cardiology at the Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL (N.B.); Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (D.Z.); and Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University, El Paso (D.M.).

Background: Current guidelines give a class I recommendation to use of embolic protection devices (EPD) for saphenous vein graft (SVG) intervention; however, studies have shown conflicting results. The objective of this meta-analysis is to compare all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction (MI), or target vessel revascularization in SVG intervention with and without EPD.

Methods And Results: Literature was searched through October 2016. Eight studies (n=52 893) comparing SVG intervention performed with EPD (n=11 506) and without EPD (n=41 387) were included. There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.79; confidence interval [CI], 0.55-1.12; =0.19), major adverse cardiovascular events (OR, 0.73, CI, 0.51-1.05; =0.09), target vessel revascularization (OR, 1.0; CI, 0.95-1.05; =0.94), periprocedural MI (OR, 1.12; CI, 0.65-1.90, =0.69), and late MI (OR, 0.80; CI, 0.52-1.23; =0.30) between the 2 groups. Sensitivity analysis excluding CathPCI Registry study showed no difference in periprocedural MI, late MI, and target vessel revascularization; however, it favored EPD use in all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events. Further sensitivity analysis including only observational studies revealed no difference in all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, target vessel revascularization, and late MI. Additional analysis after excluding CathPCI Registry study revealed no difference in outcomes.

Conclusions: This study including 52 893 patients suggests no apparent benefit in routine use of EPD during SVG intervention in the contemporary real-world practice. Further randomized clinical trials are needed in current era to evaluate long-term outcomes in routine use of EPD, and meanwhile, current guideline recommendations on EPD use should be revisited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.117.005538DOI Listing
December 2017

Prevalence of and Trends in Diabetes Among Veterans, United States, 2005-2014.

Prev Chronic Dis 2017 12 14;14:E135. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee.

Diabetes is a highly prevalent chronic disease among US adults, and its prevalence among US veterans is even higher. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of and trends in diabetes in US veterans by using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 through 2014. The overall prevalence of diabetes and undiagnosed diabetes was 20.5% and 3.4%, respectively, and increased from 15.5% in 2005-2006 to 20.5% in 2013-2014 (P = .04). Effective prevention and intervention approaches are needed to lower diabetes prevalence among US veterans and ultimately improve their health status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd14.170230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5737977PMC
December 2017

A recombinant avian antibody against VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus protects chicken from viral infection.

Res Vet Sci 2017 Oct 8;114:194-201. Epub 2017 Apr 8.

Biopharmaceutical Lab, College of Life Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, PR China. Electronic address:

A stable cell-line was established that expressed the recombinant avian antibody (rAb) against the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). rAb exhibited neutralization activity to IBDV-B87 strain in DF1 cells. The minimum rAb concentration required for inhibition of the cytopathic effect (CPE) was 1.563μg/mL. To test the efficacy of rAb, a 168-h cohabitation challenge experiment was performed to transmit the disease from the chickens challenged with vvIBDV (HLJ0504 strain) to three test groups of chickens, i.e. (1) chickens treated with rAb, (2) chickens treated with yolk antibody, and (3) non-treatment chickens. The survival rates of chickens treated with rAb, yolk antibody and without treatment were 73%, 67% and 20%, respectively. Another batch of chickens was challenged with IBDV (BC6/85 strain) and then injected with rAb (1.0mg/kg) 6, 24 and 36h post-challenge. Non-treatment chickens had 100% morbidity, whereas those administered with rAb exhibited only 20% morbidity. Morbidity was evaluated using clinical indicators and bursal histopathological section. This study provides a new approach to treating IBDV and the rAb represents a promising candidate for this IBDV therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.04.003DOI Listing
October 2017

Mechanistic understanding of -glycosylation in Ebola virus glycoprotein maturation and function.

J Biol Chem 2017 04 14;292(14):5860-5870. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

From the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, CAAS-Michigan State University Joint Laboratory of Innate Immunity, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150059, China,

The Ebola virus (EBOV) trimeric envelope glycoprotein (GP) precursors are cleaved into the receptor-binding GP and the fusion-mediating GP subunits and incorporated into virions to initiate infection. GP and GP form heterodimers that have 15 or two -glycosylation sites (NGSs), respectively. Here we investigated the mechanism of how -glycosylation contributes to GP expression, maturation, and function. As reported before, we found that, although GP NGSs are not critical, the two GP NGSs, Asn and Asn, are essential for GP function. Further analysis uncovered that Asn and Asn regulate GP processing, demannosylation, oligomerization, and conformation. Consequently, these two NGSs are required for GP incorporation into EBOV-like particles and HIV type 1 (HIV-1) pseudovirions and determine viral transduction efficiency. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we knocked out the two classical endoplasmic reticulum chaperones calnexin (CNX) and/or calreticulin (CRT) and found that both CNX and CRT increase GP expression. Nevertheless, NGSs are not required for the GP interaction with CNX or CRT. Together, we conclude that, although Asn and Asn are not required for EBOV GP expression, they synergistically regulate its maturation, which determines its functionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M116.768168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5392578PMC
April 2017

Analysis of microRNA expression profile in specific pathogen-free chickens in response to reticuloendotheliosis virus infection.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Apr 28;101(7):2767-2777. Epub 2016 Dec 28.

Laboratory Pathological Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, No.59 Mucai street, Harbin, 150030, People's Republic of China.

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an avian retrovirus that causes immunosuppression, growth retardation, and oncogenesis in a variety of birds. REV infection is epidemic in many countries. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with REV infection. A total of 88 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in samples collected on days 21 and 28 post-REV infection. Possible target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were analyzed. We observed that expression of proapoptotic, proto-oncogene, and carcinogenic cytokine mRNAs was highly upregulated, whereas expression of antiapoptotic cytokine mRNAs was significantly downregulated. Our findings provide a potential link between miRNA expression and the pathogenesis of REV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-8060-0DOI Listing
April 2017

Deletion of the vacJ gene affects the biology and virulence in Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5.

Gene 2017 Mar 14;603:42-53. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Haemophilus parasuis is an important pathogen causing severe infections in pigs. However, the specific bacterial factors that participate in pathogenic process are poorly understood. VacJ protein is a recently discovered outer membrane lipoprotein that relates to virulence in several pathogens. To characterize the function of the vacJ gene in H. parasuis virulent strain HS49, a vacJ gene-deletion mutant ΔvacJ and its complemented strain were constructed. Our findings supported that VacJ is essential for maintenance of cellular integrity and stress tolerance of H. parasuis, by the demonstrations that the ΔvacJ mutant showed morphological change, increased NPN fluorescence and, and decreased resistance to SDS-EDTA, osmotic and oxidation pressure. The increased susceptibility to several antibiotics in the ΔvacJ mutant further suggested that the stability of the outer membrane was impaired as a result of the mutation in the vacJ gene. Compared to the wild-type strain, the ΔvacJ mutant strain caused a decreased survival ratio from the serum and complement killing, and exhibited a significant decrease ability to adhere to and invade PK-15 cell. In addition, the ΔvacJ mutant showed reduced biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the ΔvacJ was attenuated in a murine (Balb/C) model of infection and its LD value was approximately fifteen-fold higher than that of the wild-type or complementation strain. The data obtained in this study indicate that vacJ plays an essential role in maintaining outer membrane integrity, stress tolerance, biofilm formation, serum resistance, and adherence to and invasion of host cells related to H. parasuis and further suggest a putative role of VacJ lipoprotein in virulence regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2016.12.009DOI Listing
March 2017

Associations of lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity) with type 2 diabetes among American adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2014.

J Diabetes 2017 Sep 1;9(9):846-854. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Over the long term, unhealthy lifestyles can lead to many health problems, especially type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the present study was to determine associations between lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet) and T2D in American adults (aged ≥20 years) in a nationally representative sample.

Methods: Data for 12 987 American adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2014 were evaluated. Weighted multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the four lifestyle factors and T2D after adjusting for demographics and socioeconomic status (SES). Prevalence trends for T2D were examined using Cochran-Armitage tests.

Results: There was a significant increasing prevalence trend for T2D among American adults. Smokers and individuals consuming >12 alcoholic drinks in the past year were less likely to report having T2D than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.48) and those consuming <12 alcoholic drinks (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.39-0.55). Participants with light physical activity have a greater likelihood of having T2D than those engaging in vigorous physical activity (OR 5.72; 95% CI 4.30-7.60). Individuals consuming a poor diet were more likely to report having T2D than those eating an excellent diet (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.02-1.41). All these relationships remained significant after adjustment for demographics and SES.

Conclusion: All four lifestyle factors were significantly associated with T2D among American adults. The findings of the present study provide useful information for healthcare providers that may help them promote specific lifestyle modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.12492DOI Listing
September 2017

Predictors of neonatal abstinence syndrome in buprenorphine exposed newborn: can cord blood buprenorphine metabolite levels help?

Springerplus 2016 23;5(1):854. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN USA.

Background: Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid used for the treatment of opioid dependence. Opioid use, including buprenorphine, has been increasing in recent years, in the general population and in pregnant women. Consequently, there has been a rise in frequency of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), associated with buprenorphine use during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate correlations between buprenorphine and buprenorphine-metabolite concentrations in cord blood and onset of NAS in buprenorphine exposed newborns.

Methods: Nineteen (19) newborns who met inclusion criteria were followed after birth until discharge in a double-blind non-intervention study, after maternal consent. Cord blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for buprenorphine and metabolites. Simple and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine relationships between buprenorphine and buprenorphine metabolite concentrations in cord blood and onset of NAS, need for morphine therapy, and length of stay.

Results: Each increase in 5 ng/ml level of norbuprenorphine in cord blood increases odds of requiring treatment by morphine 2.5 times. Each increase in 5 ng/ml of buprenorphine-glucuronide decreases odds of receiving morphine by 57.7 %. Along with concentration of buprenorphine metabolites, birth weight and gestational age also play important roles, but not maternal buprenorphine dose.

Conclusions: LC-MS analysis of cord blood concentrations of buprenorphine and metabolites is an effective way to examine drug and metabolite levels in the infant at birth. Cord blood concentrations of the active norbuprenorphine metabolite and the inactive buprenorphine-glucuronide metabolite show promise in predicting necessity of treatment of NAS. These finding have implications in improving patient care and reducing healthcare costs if confirmed in a larger sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2576-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4919189PMC
July 2016

Ultrasmall Biocompatible WO3- x Nanodots for Multi-Modality Imaging and Combined Therapy of Cancers.

Adv Mater 2016 Jul 2;28(25):5072-9. Epub 2016 May 2.

Center for Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, P. R. China.

Ultrasmall biocompatible WO3 - x nanodots with an outstanding X-ray radiation sensitization effect are prepared, and demonstrated to be applicable for multi-modality tumor imaging through computed tomography and photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and effective cancer treatment combining both photothermal therapy and radiation therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201506428DOI Listing
July 2016

Ultrasmall Biocompatible WO3- x Nanodots for Multi-Modality Imaging and Combined Therapy of Cancers.

Adv Mater 2016 Jul 2;28(25):5072-9. Epub 2016 May 2.

Center for Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, P. R. China.

Ultrasmall biocompatible WO3 - x nanodots with an outstanding X-ray radiation sensitization effect are prepared, and demonstrated to be applicable for multi-modality tumor imaging through computed tomography and photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and effective cancer treatment combining both photothermal therapy and radiation therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201506428DOI Listing
July 2016
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